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UPDATES AND CORRECTIONS TO "MANUAL OF THE LIVING CONIDAE"

This section comprises corrections to the Manual of the Living Conidae, Vol. 1. Indo-Pacific Region, by Röckel, Korn and Kohn (1995), as well as additional systematic information on Indo-West Pacific Conus subsequent to that publication.

Updates and Corrections to Röckel, Korn and Kohn (1995)

Conus ammiralis Linné, 1758. The holotype of C. vicarius Lamarck, 1810 is in MNHN, not MHNG. The holotype of C. hereditarius da Motta is 43.4x22 mm, not 34.5x23 mm. (p. 180).
Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguière. Add to synonymy:
1822 Conus arenatus var. punctisminutissimus Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim. s. Vert., 7: 452, no. 18[b].
1822 Conus arenatus var. granulosa Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim. s. Vert., 7: 452, no. 18[c]. (N.B. The indication given by Lamarck, "Encyclop. pl. 520. f. 4," should read "pl. 320. f. 4.")
Conus augur [Lightfoot], 1786. The lectotype is 51 x 27 mm, not 65.5 x 35 mm. The lectotype of C. magus (Röding) and C. pulverulentus (Röding) is estimated at 41 x 22 mm.
Conus aulicus Linné, 1758. In the Types section, the correct dimensions of the lectotype of C. aulicus are 91x36 mm, not 96x40 mm. (p. 287).
Conus auricomus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. In the synonymy under Conus debilis Fenaux, for "835" read "834." (p. 307).
Conus australis Holten, 1802. In the Types section, the estimated size of the holotype of C. gracilis is 72x25 mm, not 77x27 mm.
Conus baeri Röckel & Korn, 1992. In the Types section, For "Holotype in MHNG," read "Holotype in SMNS." (p. 286).
Conus balteatus Sowerby I, 1833. Type of C. pigmentatus is 25x14 mm, not 28 x 14 mm.
Conus bandanus Hwass in Bruguière. Delete:
"1980 Conus vidua mozoii Melvin & Melvin, 1000 World Sea Shells: 27, pl. 9, fig. 2." (p. 42). An unavailable name, described as a form after 1960.
Conus bengalensis (Okutani, 1968). p. 313. Under Habitat and Habits, add: A female C. bengalensis with egg mass was collected in December, 2001, near the Prachuap Khiri Khan Coastal Aquaculture Development Centre, Thailand. Each egg capsule contained about 800 eggs 375-425µm in diameter, and the entire mass contained about 58,000 eggs. After a pre-hatching period of 13 days, the larvae hatched as veligers measuring about 540µm in maximum shell length. They survived in the laboratory up to 24 days, but none metamorphosed (J. Nugranad, personal communication).
Conus betulinus Linné, 1758. Add to Types section:
C. b. var. paucimaculata: Lectotype (Walls, [1979]) figured in Martini (1773: pl. 61, fig. 673) (size). (p. 92).
Conus biliosus (Röding, 1798). In the Types section under C. concinnus, for "Original figure 25 x 19 mm," read Original figure 25 x 14 mm." (p. 56).
Conus caillaudi Kiener, 1845. For "caillaudii" read "caillaudi."
Conus capitaneus Linnaeus, 1758. Delete:
"1972 Conus capitaneus var. forma virgineus Wils, Fam. Conidae: 91." (p. 133). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
Conus capitaneus Linné, 1758. Original description is on p. 713, not p. 71. (p. 133).
Conus caracteristicus Fischer von Waldheim, 1807. The holotype of C. masoni Nevill & Nevill is in the BMNH, not ZSI. (p. 87).
Conus catus Hwass in Bruguière. Delete:
"1971 Conus catus var. granulata nov. var. Wils et al., Fam. Conidae: 60, no. 94." (p. 103). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
"1971 Conus nigropunctatus var. elatensis Wils, et al., Fam. Conidae: 61 no. 97." (p. 103). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
"1971 Conus nigropunctatus var. peledi Wils, et al., Fam. Conidae: 61 no. 98." (p. 103). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
Conus clarus E.A. Smith, 1881. In the Types section under C. segravei, for "Holotype in NMV (33 x 17 mm)" read "Lectotype (Coomans and Filmer, 1985) in NMV (33 x 17 mm). (p. 279).
Conus cumingii Reeve, 1848. p. 245. Under Discussion, for "...pattern C. fumigatus in its..." read "...pattern. C. fumigatus differs in its..."
Conus darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993. Holotype is 56x24 mm, not 68x23 mm. (p. 153).
Conus eburneus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. The species number of the original description is 39, not 89. (p. 81).
Conus erythraeensis Reeve, 1843. In the Types section following C. quadratomaculatus: for "Holotype" read "Lectotype." (p. 190).
Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810. In the Types section under C. cabritii, for "Holotype in MHNG (20 x 12 mm)" read "Holotype in MNHN (20 x 12 mm)."
Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810. Delete:
"1985 Conus bougei var. poumeensis Prigent, Rossiniana, 29: 22-23, figs. 5,6." (p. 58). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
Conus floridulus Adams & Reeve, 1848. Holotype of C. tenuis is 22.5 x 12 mm, not 32 x 12 mm. (p. 74).
Conus fragilissimus Petuch, 1979. Map 82. Delete the light gray outline containing "1,2" in the South China Sea. (p. 208).
Conus fumigatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. C. excavatus holotype is 41x24 mm, not 41x29 mm. (p. 130).
Conus hyaena Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. In the synonymy, the correct number of C. mutabilis Reeve is 249, not "249-250." (p. 98).
Conus inscriptus Reeve, 1843. Delete:
"1989 C. inscriptus forma meridionalis G. Raybaudi, Argonauta, 5 (5-6): 62-66, figs. 61-64." (p. 194). An unavailable name, described as a form after 1960.
Conus iodostoma Reeve, 1843. C. mariei Jousseaume was described in 1877, not 1876. (p. 186).
Conus jickelii Weinkauff, 1873. The correct page number for the description of Cucullus quadratus Röding is 41, not 42, and the correct shell length of its lectotype is 34 mm, not 33.5 mm (p. 189).
Conus kashiwajimensis Shikama, 1971. p. 321. Listed as a nominal species of uncertain validity, this taxon is considered a subspecies of C. suturatus Reeve, 1844 by Callomon (Venus, 60: 303-306, 2002).
Conus kinoshitai (Kuroda, 1956). Delete:
"1979 Conus (Chelyconus) kinoshitai Shikama forma calliginosus nom. nov. Shikama, Sci. Rep. Yokosuka City Mus., 26: 5, pl. 1, figs.15, 16." (p. 106). An unavailable name, described as a form after 1960.
"1979 Conus (Chelyconus) kinoshitai Shikama forma tamikoana Shikama, Sci. Rep. Yokosuka City Mus., 26: 5-6, pl. 1, fig. 17." (p. 106). An unavailable name, described as a form after 1960.
Conus legatus Lamarck, 1810. In the Types section, the correct dimensions of the representation of the lectotype of C. musivum are 37x17 mm, not 31.5x17 mm. (p. 307).
Conus magus Linné, 1758. Type of C. tasmaniae is 42.5x18.5 mm, not 40.5x20 mm. (p. 121, not p. 120).
Conus memiae (Habe & Kosuge, 1970. In the Types section under C. adonis, for "2 syntypes in KPM (34 x 18 mm; 26 x 15 mm)" read "Lectotype (Walls, ([1979]) in KPM (26 x 15 mm). (p. 254).
Conus miliaris Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. Lectotype of C. pigmentatus is 25x14 mm, not 22 x 14 mm. (p. 63).
Conus milneedwardsi Jousseaume, 1894. In the citation of the original description, for "6 (8): 99" read "8 (6): 99." (p. 314).
Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838. In the Types section, the size of the holotype of C. marielae is 40.3x19 mm, not 40.5x25 mm. (p. 231).
Conus musicus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. Original figure of C. mighelsi is 23x14 mm, not 32 x 14 mm. (p. 69).
Conus neptunus Reeve, 1843. p. 72. The shell morphometry table for this species indicates RSH values of 0.11-0.21. However, in the juvenile specimen (22 mm long) shown on Pl. 17, fig. 15, RSH = 0.31.
Conus nielsenae Marsh, 1962. In the Types section under C. nielsenae reductaspiralis, the holotype is 33.4 x 18.3 mm, not 33.5 x 16.5 mm. Coomans and Filmer (Beaufortia 35: 5, 1985, and Kohn (in: The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, F.E. Wells, ed.: 116) considered C. reductaspiralis a valid species. (p. 282).
Conus nocturnus [Lightfoot], 1786. Estimated lectotype size is 63 x 32 mm, not 49 x 24 mm. Size of C. nocturnus Hwass lectotype is 56 x 29 mm, not 63 x 32 mm. (p. 44)
Conus nodulosus Sowerby II, 1864. Röckel, Korn and Kohn (1995) considered this nominal species a geographic form or subspecies of C. victoriae Reeve, 1843 (p. 303). Subsequently Kohn (In Wells, F.E., ed., The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, pp. 113-131, 1997) and Nishi and Kohn (Journal of Molluscan Studies, 65: 483-497) concluded on the bases of geographic separation, non-overlap of shell morphological characters, and radular tooth morphometric differences that the two should be considered distinct species.
Conus obscurus Sowerby i, 1833. Map 82. Delete the light gray outline containing "1,2" in the South China Sea. (p. 208).
Conus pennaceus Born, 1778. In the Type localities section, add: C. episcopus: Mauritius (Coomans, Moolenbeek & Wils, 1986); C. elisae: Zanzibar (Coomans, Moolenbeek & Wils, 1986) (p. 296).
Conus pergrandis (Iredale, 1937). Type locality: For "Thali Bay" read "Tahli Bay," but this is an erroneous original spelling of Tahili Bay.
Conus pertusus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. In the Types section, the estimated size of the lectotype of C. festivus is 23x13 mm, not 23x16 mm. (p. 246).
Conus quercinus [Lightfoot], 1786. Delete:
"1858 Conus ponderosus "Beck" Sowerby II, Thes. Conch. 54 (index): pl. 11, figs. 239-240 (cited as a synonym of C. quercinus). (p. 96). An unavailable name, presumably cited as a junior synonym.
Conus radiatus Gmelin, 1791. Add to Types section:
C. martinianus: Two syntypes in the BMNH (55 x 27 mm, 53 x 28 mm) (p. 112).
Conus quercinus [Lightfoot], 1786. In the synonymy, the correct date of C. buxeus Link is 1817, not 1807. (p. 96).
Conus rolani Röckel, 1986. In the Types section, the size of the holotype is 49x25.2 mm, not 49x30 mm. (p. 229).
Conus sculpturatus Röckel & da Motta, 1986. In the Types section, the size of the holotype is 42.6x17.9 mm, not 42.5x20 mm. (p. 227).
Conus spectrum Linné, 1758. In the Types section following C. carota: for "No type exists" read Lectotype (Coomans, Moolenbeek & Wils, 1983) figured in Martini (1773: pl. 52, fig. 581) (estimated size 48x23 mm). (p. 204).
Conus splendidulus Sowerby I, 1833. In the synonymy, the correct date of the text of C. fasciatus Kiener is 1849-1850, not 1848-1849. (p. 182).
Conus striatellus Link, 1807. In the synonymy, the correct author of C. lictor is Boivin, not Crosse. (p. 126).
Conus sugimotonis Kuroda, 1928. p. 144. In the Range section, for "Coral See" read "Coral Sea."
Conus thalassiarchus Sowerby I, 1834. Delete:
"1972 Conus thalassiarchus var. azona Wils et al., Fam. Conidae: 73, no. 123, pl. 13 fig. 2." (p. 184). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
"1972 Conus thalassiarchus var. depriesteri Wils et al., Fam. Conidae: 73, no. 121. (p. 184). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
"1972 Conus thalassiarchus var. elevata Wils et al., Fam. Conidae: 73, no. 123, pl. 13, fig. 3." (p. 184). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
"1979 Conus (Leptoconus) thalassiarchus forma ikatt Shikama, Sci. Rep. Yokosuka City Mus., 26: 4, pl. 1, figs.12, 16." p. 184. An unvailable name, described as a forma after 1960.
Conus telatus Reeve, 1848. Delete:
"1988 Conus telatus f. rugosus Lauer, Rossiniana (38): 13-14, text-fig. 39." (p. 303). An unavailable name, described as a form after 1960.
Conus terebra Born, 1778. The correct page number of the original description is 145, not 146. The correct page number in Born (1780) is 162, not 146. (p. 171).
Conus textile Linné, 1758. Delete:
"1987 Conus cholmondeleyi f. fascifer Lauer, Rossiniana, 36: 13, text figs." (p. 309). An unavailable name, described as a form after 1960.
"1987 Conus textile f. euetrios var. cyanosus Lauer, Rossiniana, 36: 12, fig. 13c." (p. 309). An unavailable name, described as a variety after 1960.
Conus tulipa Linné, 1758. In the Types section following C. nebulosa: The correct figure number for the lectotype is fig. 11, not fig. 12.
Conus tulipa Linné, 1758. Map 82. Delete the light gray outline containing "1,2" in the South China Sea. (p. 208).
Conus tuticorinensis Röckel & Korn, 1990. In the citation of the original description. for "pl. 2, fig. 2" read "pl. 2, fig. 1." (p. 91).
Conus victoriae Reeve, 1843. In addition to removing C. nodulosus Sowerby, 1864 from the synonymy of C. victoriae (see above), under Habitat and Habits (p. 303), add the following: Examination of gut contents and feces of C. victoriae from Dampier, Western Australia, revealed only remains of gastropod prey, in 6 of the 17 specimens. These included species of Turbo, Pisania, and a muricid. In addition, the complete process of one individual feeding on Cantharus erythrostomus was observed and videotaped in the laboratory (Kohn, A.J., in Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., and Jones, D.S., eds., The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia. Western Australian Museum, pp. 89-100, 101-107, 2003).
Conus vitulinus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. C. vitulinus lectotype is 50x29mm, not 50x39 mm. (p. 124).
Conus voluminalis Reeve, 1983. p. 164. Under Type Localities, for "Madera-bay," read "Madura-bay."
Conus zeylanicus Gmelin. The correct date for the figure of the lectotype in Martini is 1777, not 1766. (p. 86). The correct estimated size of the representation of the lectotypes of C. theobroma (Röding) and C. meningeus (Röding) is 42x23 mm, not 68x35 mm.
Conus zonatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. Page number of C. lapideus Holten is 37, not 35. (p. 49).

Corrections to Index.

grisea Dautzenberg, 1937.
seurati Fenaux, 19

Range Extensions

Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810. J.F. Singleton (Australasian Shell News 106: 4, June, 2000) reported finding a freshly dead shell of C. anemone at a depth of 20 m. at Lord Howe Island (31.3ºS, 159.7ºE), 600 km east of the east coast of Australia. If a living population occurs at Lord Howe Is., it would extend the range of the species from mainland Australia and Tasmania.
Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. Tröndlé and Cosel (Atoll Research Bulletin No. 542: 311, Nov., 2005) state that C. arenatus is not known to occur in the Marquesas, although the distribution map in Röckel, Korn & Kohn (1995: p. 83) includes this archipelago.
Conus auricomus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792. Tröndlé and Cosel (Atoll Research Bulletin No. 542: 311, Nov., 2005) state that C. auricomus is not known to occur in the Marquesas, although the distribution map in Röckel, Korn & Kohn (1995: p. 306) includes this archipelago.
Conus aurisiacus Linnaeus, 1758. Specimens of this species have recently been collected in the Timor Sea off Cartier Island (12°20´S, 123°57´E) at a depth of 30m (Singleton, J.F. Australasian Shell News, No. 101, p. 3, 1998). This extends the southern limit of the species from the Moluccas and Sulawesi.
Conus betulinus Linnaeus, 1758. Tröndlé and Cosel (Atoll Research Bulletin No. 542: 312, Nov., 2005) state that C. betulinus is known to occur as a disjunct population in the Marquesas, as also reported and illustrated by Salvat & Rives (Coquillages de Polynésie, 1975: p. 356).
Conus broderipii Reeve, 1843. A. Delsaerdt (Gloria Maris 39(1): 7-8, 2000) confirmed the occurrence of this species in Solomon Islands and the identification of Figs. 29-32 on Pl. 39 of Röckel, Korn & Kohn, 1995, listed questionably, as correctly identified as C. broderipii.
Conus darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993. An empty shell of this species was collected from off Tanegashima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (30°40´N, 131°0´E) at a depth of 250-300m (Ikeda, H., & Ohsato, T., Chiribotan, 30: 68-69, 1999). This extends the northern limit of the species from the Kita-Koho area of the northern Philippine Sea (26°45´N, 135°22´E).
Conus pergrandis (Iredale, 1937). Specimens have been recently reported from off Nha Trang, Vietnam, in 180 m (Alf, Kreipl and Thach, La Conchiglia, 32, No. 294-295, p. 58-66, 2000; see also Hylleberg and Kilburn, Phuket Mar. Biol. Center Spec. Pub. No. 28, p. 110, 2003). If confirmed, this would extend the range of the species westward from the Philippines.
Conus profundorum (Kuroda, 1956). A specimen of this species was collected by the Japanese manned submersible Hakuyo at a depth of about 200 m between Kayangel Island and Kossol Reef, Palau Islands (8°01´N, 134°42´E) (Okutani, T., and Kurata, Y. Venus 57: 11-16, 1998). This extends the range of this species eastward from Japan and the Philippines and northward from New Caledonia.

Literature Cited

p. 503. Omitted: Nybakken, J.W. & Perron, F.E. 1988: Ontogenetic change in the radula of Conus magus (Gastropoda). Mar. Biol., 98: 239-242.
p. 505. For "Shaw, H.O.N. 1915:" read "Shaw, H.O.N. 1914:"