Distribution: West Cascades from British Columbia to California, also disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Common on roadcuts, old road beds, rock outcrops, and talus at low to mid elevations.
Substrate: On soil or rock, rarely on bark.
Distribution: Widespread in western North America. Most common in and east of the Cascades; occasionally found west of the Cascades in the Puget Sound Trough and Olympic Mtns.
Habitat: Common in dry conifer forest, occasional in moist or shaded forests; from low elevations up to timberline.
Substrate: On bark or wood, most abundant on dead branches and snags; rare on rock.
Distribution: From Alaska south to northern California, east to western Montana
Habitat: Moist riparian forest.
Substrate: On bark of conifers and hardwoods, especially Populus balsamifera.