Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.


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Scientific names beginning with C:
135 genera
565 species, 123 subspecies and varieties
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Index to genera:
Cabomba, Cacaliopsis, Cakile, Calamagrostis, Calamovilfa, Calandrinia, Calendula, Callitriche, Callitropsis, Calluna, Calochortus, Caltha, Calypso, Calyptridium, Calystegia, Camassia, Camelina, Camissonia, Campanula, Canadanthus, Cannabis, Capsella, Caragana, Cardamine, Cardionema, Carduus, Carex, Carthamus, Carum, Cascadia, Cassiope, Castanea, Castilleja, Catalpa, Caulanthus, Ceanothus, Celtis, Cenchrus, Centaurea, Centaurium, Centranthus, Centromadia, Cephalanthera, Cerastium, Ceratocephala, Ceratophyllum, Cercocarpus, Chaenactis, Chaenomeles, Chaenorhinum, Chaerophyllum, Chamaenerion, Chelidonium, Chenopodiastrum, Chenopodium, Cherleria, Chimaphila, Chondrilla, Chorispora, Chorizanthe, Chrysolepis, Chrysosplenium, Chrysothamnus, Chylismia, Cicer, Cichorium, Cicuta, Cinna, Circaea, Cirsium, Citrullus, Clarkia, Claytonia, Clematis, Clinopodium, Clintonia, Cochlearia, Coix, Colchicum, Coleanthus, Collinsia, Collomia, Columbiadoria, Colutea, Comandra, Comarum, Comastoma, Commelina, Conioselinum, Conium, Conringia, Convallaria, Convolvulus, Conyza, Coptis, Corallorhiza, Cordylanthus, Coreopsis, Corispermum, Cornus, Corrigiola, Cortaderia, Corydalis, Corylus, Corynephorus, Cota, Cotoneaster, Cotula, Crassula, Crataegus, Crepis, Crocidium, Crocosmia, Crocus, Croton, Cruciata, Crupina, Crypsis, Cryptantha, Cryptogramma, Cucurbita, Cuscuta, Cusickiella, Cyclachaena, Cyclamen, Cycloloma, Cymbalaria, Cymopterus, Cynodon, Cynoglossum, Cynosurus, Cyperus, Cypripedium, Cystopteris, Cytisus
Cabomba carolinianafanwort
Origin: Introduced
Cacaliopsis nardosmiasilvercrown luina, tall silvercrown
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, forest edge, forest openings, and light forest understory from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cakile edentulaAmerican sea-rocket
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; Alaska to California along the coast, native to the Great Lakes region and coastal eastern North America.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-October
var. edentula – American sea-rocket
Cakile maritimaEuropean sea-rocket
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; British Columbia to California along the coast, also along the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
ssp. maritima – European sea-rocket
Calamagrostis canadensisbluejoint reedgrass
Distribution: Alaska to Quebec, south through the United States except for the Deep South
Habitat: Wet places, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
var. canadensis – bluejoint reedgrass
Calamagrostis howelliiHowell's reedgrass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - Early July
Calamagrostis nutkaensisNootka reedgrass
Habitat: In coastal areas in wetlands, forest openings, salt- and freshwater beaches and dunes, and cliffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Calamagrostis purpurascenspurple reedgrass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Calamagrostis rubescenspinegrass
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Colorado
Habitat: Dry to moist areas, open sagebrush flats to timbered slopes, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Calamagrostis strictaslimstem reedgrass
Origin: Native
ssp. inexpansa – narrow-spiked reedgrass
ssp. stricta – narrow-spiked reedgrass
Calamagrostis tacomensisRainier reedgrass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late July - September
Calamagrostis tweedyiCascade reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist meadows and subalpine slopes, usually in forest edge or understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Calamovilfa gigantea
Origin: Introduced
Calamovilfa longifoliaprairie sandreed
Origin: Introduced
var. longifolia – prairie sandgrass sandreed, prairie sandreed
Calandrinia ciliatafringed redmaids, redmainds
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: Gravelly to heavy soil, usually where vernally moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Calendula officinalispot marigold
Origin: Introduced
Callitriche brutianarrow-leaf water-starwort
Origin: Native
Callitriche hermaphroditicaautumn water-starwort, northern water-starwort
Distribution: Across northern North America, south to central California, northern New Mexico, the Great Lakes, and northeast United States.
Habitat: Sloughs and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Callitriche heterophylladifferent-leaved water-starwort
Distribution: North and South America and Greenland.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving, fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
var. bolanderi – Bolander's different-leaved water-starwort
Callitriche marginatawinged water-starwort
Distribution: Reported from eastern counties in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Callitriche palustrisspring water-starwort, vernal water-starwort
Distribution: General in North America except Mexico and south and southeast United States.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Callitriche stagnalispond water-starwort
Distribution: Introduced in the Pacific Coast states, Montana, and some Eastern states
Habitat: Uncommon in streams, ponds and ditches
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May - August
Callitropsis nootkatensisAlaskan yellow cedar
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Moist areas, generally from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-July
Calluna vulgaris
Origin: Introduced
Calochortus apiculatusBaker's mariposa-lily, pointed mariposa-lily, three-spot mariposa-lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northeast counties of Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to southeastern Alberta, northern Idaho, and western Montana.
Habitat: Dry meadows to sparse or deep woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Calochortus eleganselegant cats-ear, northwestern mariposa lily, elegant sego lily
Distribution: East of the Casades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and northern California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides and open coniferous forests, middle to high elvations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
var. elegans – elegant cat's ear, northwest mariposa lily
Calochortus eurycarpusbig-pod mariposa lily, wide-fruited mariposa lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to eastern Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Grasslands and open coniferous forests at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Calochortus longebarbatuslong-bearded sego-lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest inYakima and Klickitat counties in Washington; south-central Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Open meadows, low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Calochortus lyalliiLyall's mariposa-lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; British Columbia south along the east slope of the Cascades to south-central Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open coniferous forests at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Calochortus macrocarpussagebrush mariposa lily, green-banded star-tulip
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry open forests, hillsides, grasslands and sagebrush, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. macrocarpus – sagebrush mariposa lily
var. maculosus – sagebrush mariposa
Calochortus nitidusbroad-fruited mariposa lily
Distribution: Occurring in Whitman County in Washington; Washington east to adjacent areas of Idaho and in northeast Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Calochortus subalpinusmountain mariposa, subalpine mariposa-lily
Distribution: Chiefly in the Cascades of Washington near Mt. Adams and Mt St. Helens, Washington; south to the Three Sisters in Oregon.
Habitat: Open forests in loose volcanic soils, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Caltha biflorabroadleaved marsh-marigold, twinflowered marsh-marigold
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascade crest; Alaska south to California, east to western Nevada.
Habitat: Open wet area in subalpine and alpine marshes and seepages.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Caltha leptosepalaelkslip
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet places in subalpine and alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Caltha palustrisyellow marshmarigold
Distribution: Coastal Alaska, south along the coast to Oregon
Habitat: Mostly in coastal bogs
Origin: Both native and introduced populations
Flowers: July-August
Calypso bulbosa
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska to Labrador, south to California and New York.
Habitat: Mostly in cool, deep shade of moist forests in soil rich in humus, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
var. americana – calypso, fairy-slipper
var. occidentalis – calypso, fairy-slipper
Calyptridium roseumrosy pussypaws
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Benton County, Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; central Oregon to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah; disjunct in south-central Washington.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to montane forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Calyptridium umbellatumpussypaws
Distribution: In Washington occurring throughout the Cascades Mountains; British Columbia south to Baja California, east to Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Ponderosa pine woods, to subalpine sandy flats and knolls, to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Calystegia atriplicifolianight-blooming morning-glory
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in the Mount Adams area of Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, rocky, open slopes or in ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. atriplicifolia – night-blooming morning-glory
Calystegia ×lucanahybrid bindweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Thickets, fields, roadsides, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Calystegia sepiumhedge bindweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, forest edge, and other open areas generally at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
ssp. angulata – hedge bindweed, lady's nightcap
Calystegia silvaticalarge bindweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, thickets, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
ssp. disjuncta – large bindweed
Calystegia soldanellaseashore false bindweed, beach morning glory
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to San Diego County, California.
Habitat: Coastal beaches and sand dunes, often extending down to the high tide level.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Camassia cusickiiCusick's camas
Distribution: Disjunct in Klickitat County in Washington; Northeastern Oregon and adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Moist slopes and seeps, often montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Camassia leichtliniigreat camas
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, prairies, balds, and hillsides where moist, at least in spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
ssp. suksdorfii – Suksdorf's great camas
Camassia quamashcommon camas
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Open, moist areas, often where dry by late spring, from lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
ssp. azurea – blue camas, prairie camas
ssp. breviflora – eastern camas, small-flowered camas
ssp. maxima – dark camas
ssp. quamash – common camas
Camelina microcarpahairy false flax, littlepod false flax
Distribution: East of the Cascades and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; widely distributed throughout nearly all of North America.
Habitat: Weed of dry places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Camissonia contortacontorted pod suncup, twisted suncup
Distribution: Along the coast and along the Columbia and Snake Rivers in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sandy soil along the coast and along inland rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Camissonia parvulaLewis river suncup
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Open to disturbed grasslands, sandy areas, sagebrush, and scrub forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Camissonia pusillalittle sun cup
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington. north-central Washington to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, sandy slopes in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Campanula glomerataclustered bellflower
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia, central Washington, and western Montana.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-July
Campanula lasiocarpaAlaska bellflower, Alaska harebell
Distribution: Local in Washington to western Cascades of Puget Trough; Alaska south to Washington, east to Northwest Territories and Alberta.
Habitat: Uncommon in meadows at high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Campanula mediumCanterbury bells
Distribution: Scattered on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and in Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Campanula parryiParry's bellflower, Parry's harebell
Distribution: Local in Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; central and northern Idaho and adjacent Montana.
Habitat: High elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
var. idahoensis – Parry's harebell
Campanula persicifoliapeach-leaf bellflower
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Utah; eastern North America; introduced from Europe.
Habitat: Escaping from cultivation; occurring in moderately moist, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
Campanula piperiOlympic bellflower
Distribution: Olympic Mountains in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Campanula rapunculoidescreeping bellflower, rover harebell
Distribution: Introduced garden species, often escaping in scattered localities across Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist soil at low elevations
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Campanula rotundifoliabluebell-of-scotland
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas from low elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Campanula scabrellarough bellflower, rough harebell
Distribution: In the Cascades of Washington; Washington south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Campanula scouleripale bellflower
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but chiefly to the west; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Openings in moist woods, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Canadanthus modestusfew-flowered aster, great northern aster
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in the mountainous areas of Washington; Yukon Territory to Oregon, east to the northern Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Streambanks, pond and lake margins, and moist woods at middle-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Cannabis sativahemp, marihuana
Distribution: Introduced in much of the United States
Habitat: Illegal plantings in openings in the forests
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - September
Capsella bursa-pastorisshepherd's-purse
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Caragana arborescensSiberian peashrub
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout the western, central, and northeastern regions of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Cardamine angulataangled bittercress, seaside bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Wet ground, especially along stream banks, often in deep woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Cardamine bellidifoliaalpine bittercress
Distribution: Occurring In the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada to far northeastern North America
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cardamine breweriBrewer's bittercress, round bittercress
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Montana south to Colorado.
Habitat: Stream margins, wet meadows, pond shores, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Cardamine cordifoliaheart-leaved bittercress, large mountain bittercress, Lyall's bittercress
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades, but not the Olympic Mountains, in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Mountain stream banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Cardamine corymbosaNew Zealand bittercress
Origin: Introduced
Cardamine flexuosawavy bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, often where moist or shaded.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Cardamine hirsutahairy bittercress, shotweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, and throughout much of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Cardamine nuttalliibeautiful bittercres, Nuttall's toothwort, slender toothwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Seasonally moist soils of forest openings to forest understory, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Cardamine occidentaliswestern bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Muddy ground, lake margins, shallow streams, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Cardamine occultawood bittercress
Origin: Introduced
Cardamine oligospermafew-seeded bittercress, little western bittercress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Widespread, but mostly in seasonally wet, open or forested areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Cardamine pensylvanicaPennsylvania bittercress, quaker bittercress
Distribution: Widespread on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east through the Rockies to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist to wet soils, or on the margins of wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Cardamine pratensiscuckooflower
Distribution: Currently known only from King County in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon; more commonly found in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including lawns and forest edges of urban and suburban areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Cardamine umbellataSiberian bittercress, umbellate bittercress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine or alpine cliffs, talus slopes, and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cardionema ramosissimasandcarpet, sandmat
Distribution: Along the coast in Washington; south to Mexico.
Habitat: Sandy beaches along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Carduus acanthoidesplumeless thistle, spiny plumeless thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, also in California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Carduus nutansmusk thistle, nodding thistle
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Carduus pycnocephalusItalian plumeless thistle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Clallam County; Washington to California and Idaho, also in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
ssp. pycnocephalus – Italian plumeless thistle
Carduus tenuiflorusslender flowered thistle, winged plumeless thistle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; Washington to California, also in the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Carex abruptaabrupt-beaked sedge
Origin: Native
Carex agastachys
Origin: Introduced
Carex albonigrablack-and-white-scaled sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascade and Olympic mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine areas, high elevation talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Carex amplifoliabig-leaf sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, also in New Mexico.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and other wet places, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Carex angustatamany-fruit sedge, wide-fruited sedge
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet meadows in riparian zones from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Carex anthoxantheagrassy-slope arctic sedge, yellow-flowered sedge
Distribution: Known from along the coast in Washington; Alaska south to Washington.
Habitat: Bogs and wet meadows from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Carex apertaColumbia sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - August
Carex aquatilis
Distribution: Circumboreal at high latitudes; east of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon
Habitat: Standing water or saturated soil, foothills to near timberline in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
var. aquatilis – water sedge
var. dives – Sitka sedge
Carex arctanorthern clustered sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex atherodesawned sedge, wheat sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex athrostachyaslender-beak sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex atrosquamablack-scale sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Carex aureagolden sedge, pumpkin sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or wet places from the lowlands to near timberline in the mountains
Flowers: April-August
Carex backiiBack's sedge
Origin: Native
Carex bebbiiBebb's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex bolanderiBolander's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to Rocky Mountains, also in Mexico.
Habitat: Springs, moist slopes, riparian forests, shores, upper margins of salt marshes, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Carex breviorPlains oval sedge, short-beaked sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex breweriBrewer's sedge
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; Washington south to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Open slopes, ridges, and rocky areas of the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Carex brunnescensbrown sedge
Distribution: Circumboreal at high latitudes, south through the Cascades to the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon
Habitat: Wet places in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
ssp. brunnescens – brownish sedge
Carex buchananiisilver-spiked sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex buxbaumiibrown bog sedge, Buxbaum's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex californicaCalifornia sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex canescenssilvery sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. canescens – grey sedge, silvery sedge
Carex capillarishair sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex capitatacapitate sedge
Distribution: Occurring in northwestern and north-central Washington near the Canadian border; Alaska south to California and Nevada (but not in Oregon), east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Carex chordorrhizacordroot sedge, creeping sedge, rope-root sedge
Origin: Native
Carex circinatacoiled sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex comosabearded sedge, bristly sedge
Distribution: Widespread in eastern United States, occasional in Washington, Idaho and Montana
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex concinnoidesnorthwestern sedge, tetrastigmatic sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Carex cordilleranacordilleran sedge
Origin: Native
Carex craweiCrawe's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex crawfordiiCrawford's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex cusickiiCusick's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wetlands, lake and pond edges, and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Carex davyiConstance's sedge, Davy's sedge
Origin: Native
Carex deflexamountain mat sedge
Origin: Native
var. boottii – northern sedge
Carex densadense sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Carex deweyanadewey's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east to Northwest Territory and south through Montana to Colorado, further eastward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open or riparian forest, swamps, cliffs, damp thickets, and mesic meadow edges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. deweyana – Dewey's sedge
Carex diandralesser panicled sedge, lesser tussock sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Carex dispermashort-leaf sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex divulsaLeers's sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex douglasiiDouglas' sedge
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to central North America.
Habitat: Dry to wet soils in sagebrush grasslands, riparian zones, and forest margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Carex eburneabristle-leaved sedge
Origin: Native
Carex echinata
Distribution: Circumboreal, south to North Carolina and, in the mountains, to California
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and other wet places, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
ssp. echinata – star sedge
ssp. phyllomanica – coastal star sedge
Carex engelmanniiMt. Adams sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Carex exsiccatabig inflated sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex fetagreen-sheath sedge
Distribution: West of the Cascades, British Columbia to California
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex filifoliathread-leaved sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
var. filifolia – thread-leaf sedge
Carex flavayellow sedge, yellow-green sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex fractafragile-sheath sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex geyerielk sedge, Geyer's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, meadows, and forest openings from the sagebrush foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Carex gynocratesnorthern bog sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex hallianaHall's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex hasseifalse golden sedge
Origin: Native
Carex haydenianacloud sedge, Hayden's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex hendersoniiHenderson's sedge
Distribution: West of the Cascades, British Columbia to California
Habitat: Boggy areas and wet woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Carex heteroneuradifferent-veined sedge, smooth-fruited sedge
Distribution: Occurring along the Canadian border in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Sasketchewan and Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to wet sites in the subalpine and alpine zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Carex hoodiiHood's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Carex hystericinaporcupine sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Carex illotasmall-head sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex infirminerviaweak-veined sedge
Origin: Native
Carex inopslong-stolon sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, south in Rocky Mountains from Alberta to New Mexico, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and near streams in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
ssp. inops – long-stolon sedge
Carex integrasmooth-beaked sedge
Origin: Native
Carex interiorinland sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex interruptagreen-fruited sedge, interrupted sedge
Distribution: Along the Columbia River from Douglas County through Klickitat County, south in Oregon west of the Cascades
Habitat: Rocky banks and streambeds, and other low, wet places
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - May
Carex jonesiiJones' sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex kelloggii
Distribution: Across Canada, south to California (in the mountains) and Massachusetts
Habitat: Wet meadows and streambanks, sea level to near timberline
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
var. impressa – few-ribbed sedge
var. kelloggii – Kellogg's sedge, lakeshore sedge
var. limnophila – lakeshore sedge
Carex kobomugiJapanese sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex lacustrislake sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the northeastern corner of Washington; Alberta south to Idaho, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetland, swamps, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Carex laeviculmissmooth-stemmed sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex lasiocarpawiregrass
Origin: Native
Carex leporinahare sedge, oval broom sedge, oval sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Carex leporinellaSierra hare sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Carex leptaleadelicate sedge, jelly bean sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, both open and forested, from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Carex leptopodashort-scaled sedge, slenderfoot sedge
Origin: Native
Carex limosamud sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex lividapale sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Colorado, and eastern North America; also in South America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Peatlands, stream banks, and wet open forests from lowlands to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Carex longiiLong's sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex luzulinaspring sedge, woodrush sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex lyngbyeiLyngbye's sedge
Distribution: Circumboreal along the seacoasts; south to northern California in our area
Habitat: Coastal marches and tidal flats
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Carex maclovianaFalkland Island sedge
Origin: Native
Carex macrocephalabighead sedge
Distribution: Occurring in counties along the Puget Sound and outer coast in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon; northern Pacific Rim.
Habitat: Sandy saltwater beaches and dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Carex macrochaetaAlaska long-awn sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex magellanicaboreal bog sedge, poor sedge
Origin: Native
ssp. irrigua – poor sedge
Carex mediaMontana sedge, Scandinavian sedge
Origin: Native
Carex mertensiiMertens' sedge
Distribution: Alaska south in the mountains and the coast ranges of Oregon to northwest California
Habitat: Wet, open or shaded areas from the lowlands to near timberline
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex micropodatimberline sedge
Origin: Native
Carex micropterasmall-winged sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory south to Mexico, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Carex nardinaspikenard sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across northern Canada to eastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Alpine rocky outcroppings, slopes, and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Carex nebrascensisNebraska sedge
Distribution: East of the Cascades, Washington to California, east to Kansas
Habitat: Wet meadows and other wet areas, often in alkaline areas, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex neurophoraalpine nerve sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Carex nigricansblack alpine sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex nudatatorrent sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Carex obnuptaslough sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sloughs, shores, wet meadows, riparian forest and ditches, in either sun or shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Carex obtusatablunt sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex pachycarpafurrowed broomsedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex pachystachyathick-head sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex pallescenspale green sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex pansasand sedge
Distribution: Along the coast in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Dunes, meadows, and other open areas along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Carex pauciflorafew-flowered sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada to northeastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and acidic peatlands, generally at low to moderate elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Carex pellitawoolly sedge
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America except southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Wet to dry meadows from low elevations to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Carex pendulapendulous sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex petasataLiddon's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex phaeocephalamountain hare sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex pluriflorablack bog sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Carex praeceptorumteacher's sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Carex praegracilisclustered field sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex praticolanorthern meadow sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex presliiPresl's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Open, dry to seasonally dry areas from montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Carex propositaSmoky Mountain sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Carex raynoldsiiRaynolds' sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Carex retrorsaretrorse sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - September
Carex rossiiRoss' sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex rostratanorthern beaked sedge
Distribution: Alaska to Washington, east to Montana, and in the Great Lakes region
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex saxatilislimestone sedge, russet sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex scirpoideasingle-spike sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. pseudoscirpoidea – western single-spiked sedge
ssp. scirpoidea – northern single-spike sedge
ssp. stenochlaena – Alaska singlespike sedge
Carex scopariapointed broomsedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Carex scopulorum
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
var. bracteosa – Sierra alpine sedge
var. prionophyllum – firethread sedge
Carex sheldoniiSheldon's sedge
Origin: Native
Carex siccatadry-spike sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex simulataanalogue sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex spectabilisshowy sedge
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Montana
Habitat: Damp meadows and other wet places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex stenoptilariverbank sedge
Origin: Native
Carex stipata
Distribution: Alaska, Canada and most of the United states
Habitat: Wet ground, lowlands (especially west of the Cascades) to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
var. stipata – awl-fruited sedge, sawbeak sedge
Carex straminiformisMt. Shasta sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Carex stylosalong-style sedge
Distribution: Alaska to Clallam County, Washington, east across Canada to Labrador
Habitat: Usually near the coast
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex subbracteatasmall-bracted sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex subfuscarusty sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex sychnocephalamany-headed sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex sylvaticaEuropean woodland sedge
Origin: Introduced
Carex tahoensisLake Tahoe sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Generally subalpine and alpine rocky slopes, ridges, talus and scree, and dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Carex teneraquill sedge, slender sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex tenuiflorasparse-flower sedge
Origin: Native
Carex tribuloidestribulation sedge
Distribution: In Washington known only from King and Pierce counties; central Great Plains of the U.S. north and east to Atlantic Coast
Habitat: Lowland riparian areas, likely associated with disturbance.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-August
var. tribuloides – blunt broom sedge
Carex tumulicolafoothill sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Carex unilateralisone-sided sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Carex utriculatabeaked sedge, inflated sedge, Northwest Territory sedge
Origin: Native
Carex vallicolavalley sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Carex vernaculafoetid sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex vesicariainflated sedge, oxbow sedge
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Carex viridulagreen sedge
Origin: Native
ssp. viridula – greenish sedge, little green sedge
Carex vulpinoideafox sedge
Distribution: Much of the United States and southern Canada; chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Marshes and standing water, lowlands and foothills
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Carex zikaeshort-stemmed sedge, Zika's sedge
Origin: Native
Cascadia nuttalliiNuttall's saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula and south in Washington; Washington south along the coast to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Wet banks and near waterfalls, usually growing in moss, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Cassiope lycopodioidesclubmoss mountain-heather
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Alpine rocky slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cassiope mertensianaMertens's moss-heather
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas from the subalpine to alpine, often where dry in summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
ssp. mertensiana – Mertens' mountain heather, western moss heather
Cassiope tetragonafour-angled moss-heather
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the crest in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, also in Montana
Habitat: Open, rocky areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. saximontana – four-angled mountain heather, white arctic mountain heather
Castanea sativaEuropean chestnut, Spanish chestnut, sweet chestnut
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; also occurring in scattered states in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest, thickets, and forest openings at low elevations, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Castilleja ambiguapaint-brush owl-clover
Distribution: Coastal areas, Washington to California
Habitat: Salt marshes and borders of brackish ponds
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. ambigua – salt-marsh paintbrush
Castilleja attenuataattenuate paintbrush, valley-tassels
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Arizona.
Habitat: Drier areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Castilleja cervinadeer paintbrush
Distribution: Northeast Washington; British Columbia east to northern Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grasslands and woodlands at moderate to mid-elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Castilleja chambersiiChambers's Indian paintbrush
Distribution: Known only from Pacific County in Washington; Pacific County, WA south to Clatsop County, OR.
Habitat: Forest openings, embankments, and rock outcroppings typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Castilleja cryptanthaobscure paintbrush
Distribution: Endemic to Mt. Rainier National Park and immediate vicinity, Washington.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Castilleja cusickiiCusick's paintbrush
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Alberta south to Montana and Wyoming, west through Idaho to northeast Oregon.
Habitat: Open areas, lower valleys to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Castilleja elmeriElmer's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington from the Wenatchee Mountains and northward; south-central British Columbia to Kittitas County in Washington.
Habitat: Moist, open slopes at middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Castilleja exserta
Origin: Introduced
var. exserta – purple owl-clover
Castilleja hispidaharsh paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to southwestern Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy slopes and forest openings, from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
var. acuta – acute paintbrush, harsh paintbrush
var. hispida – harsh paintbrush
Castilleja levisectagolden paintbrush
Distribution: Puget Sound of Washington; Vancouver Island south to the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and prairies at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Castilleja litoraliscoast paintbrush, Pacific paintbrush
Origin: Native
Castilleja lutescensyellow paintbrush
Distribution: Eastern Washington; east to northwestern Montana and south through Idaho to northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Low, dry grasslands and woodlands, occasionally to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Castilleja miniatacommon paintbrush, scarlet paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring throughout much of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S., east to Ontario in Canada.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and slopes; also on coastal bluffs; widespread and common.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
var. dixonii – Dixon's paintbrush
var. miniata – scarlet paintbrush
Castilleja minorannual paintbrush
Distribution: Central Washington and eastern Oregon to southern Montana, south to Arizona.
Habitat: Alkaline marshes and meadows, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - September
var. exilis – seep paintbrush
Castilleja parviflorasmall-flowered paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forest openings at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. albida – mountain Indian paintbrush
var. olympica – Olympic paintbrush
var. oreopola – magenta paintbrush
Castilleja rupicolacliff paintbrush
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; from southern British Columbia to central Oregon.
Habitat: Rock crevices and rocky slopes, usually above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Castilleja suksdorfiiSuksdorf's paintbrush
Distribution: In Washington chiefly in the Cascades from Mt. Adams south, occasionally north to Whatcom County; south to Crater Lake, Oregon.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forests along streams and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Castilleja tenuisthin paintbrush
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington but more common eastward; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows and other moist sites, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Castilleja thompsoniiThompson's paintbrush
Distribution: East of the Cascade summits in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry sagebrush deserts to high mountain ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Castilleja victoriaeVictoria's paintbrush
Distribution: San Juan Islands in WA; Victoria, B.C.
Habitat: Seasonally moist balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Catalpa bignonioides
Origin: Introduced
Catalpa speciosa
Origin: Introduced
Caulanthus lasiophylluswild cabbage, California mustard
Distribution: Reported from Washington; Washington to Baja California, Mexico, east to Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sandy banks, gravelly or rocky areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Ceanothus cuneatuscommon buckbrush, narrow-leaf buckthorn, sedge-leaf buckthorn
Origin: Native
Ceanothus integerrimusdeerbrush
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington along and near the Columbia; Washington south to Baja California.
Habitat: Dry, open forests and open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Ceanothus prostratusprostrate ceanothus, Mahala mat
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Idaho and western Nevada.
Habitat: Drier open woods, moderate to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Ceanothus sanguineusredstem ceanothus, Oregon teatree
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forest, slopes, and thickets, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Ceanothus velutinusmountain balm, greasewood, sticky-laurel, tobacco-brush
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. laevigatus – mountain balm, greasewood, sticky-laurel
var. velutinus – mountain balm, greasewood
Celtis reticulatanetleaf hackberry
Distribution: Primarily along the Columbia River and Snake River in Washington; Washington south to California, east through Southern Rockies to Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
Habitat: Open slopes and rocky bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Cenchrus longispinuslongspine sandbur, mat sandbur
Distribution: Eastern Washington, south to Mexico, east to much of the United States.
Habitat: Sandy river banks.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July - September
Centaurea benedictablessed thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Centaurea calcitrapapurple starthistle, red starthistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to New Mexico, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Centaurea cyanusbachelor's button, garden cornflower
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-October
Centaurea diffusadiffuse knapweed, tumble knapweed, white knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across much of the U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas; noxious.
Origin: Introduced from the eastern Mediterranean region
Flowers: July-September
Centaurea ×gerstlauerihybrid knapweed, meadow knapweed, protean knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Centaurea ibericaIberian knapweed, Iberian starthistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in Wyoming and Kansas.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, dry meadows, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Centaurea jaceabrown knapweed, brownray knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Centaurea macrocephalaglobe knapweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to Montana, also in Colorado, and Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and meadows.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Centaurea melitensisMaltese starthistle, tocalote
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California and Mexico, east to Texas and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, meadows, balds, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: June-September
Centaurea montanamountain bluet, mountain cornflower, montane starthistle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah, also from Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Centaurea nigrablack knapweed, lesser knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also Great Lakes region east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Centaurea nigrescensshort fringed knapweed, Tyrol knapweed
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming, also from Great Lakes region east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Centaurea solstitialisyellow star-thistle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, grassy slopes, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Centaurea stoebespotted knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, meadows, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
ssp. australis – spotted knapweed
Centaurea trichocephalafeatherhead knapweed
Origin: Introduced
Centaurea ×varnensishybrid diffuse knapweed, sand knapweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Centaurium erythraeacommon centaury, European centaury
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California east to Idaho; eastern North America.
Habitat: Escaped to meadows, prairies and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Centaurium pulchellumbranching centaury, lesser centaury
Origin: Introduced
Centranthus ruberJupiter's-beard
Distribution: Introduced in Oregon, California, Utah and Arizona
Habitat: Garden ornamental, occasionally escapes
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Centromadia pungenscommon spikeweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and south-central Washington; central Washington to California, where native east to Idaho, Nevada, and Arizona.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open places at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: July-Sept.
ssp. pungens – common spikeweed, western spikeweed
Cephalanthera austiniaephantom orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Blue Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Generally deep coniferous woods where somewhat moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Cerastium arvensestarry cerastium, field chickweed, field mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except for the south-central and southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open slopes and meadows, from coastal cliffs and balds to inland valleys, rocky hillsides, forest openings, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
ssp. strictum – field chickweed
Cerastium beeringianumalpine chickweed
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascade Mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S.; east across Canada to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Alpine zone, mostly in cirques or on talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Cerastium brachypetalumgray chickweed, gray mouse ear
Origin: Introduced
Cerastium brachypodumshort-stalk mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington, where disjunct; southeastern Oregon to southern Idaho and southwestern Montana; disjunct in central Washington.
Habitat: Grassy or disturbed areas, often where seasonally wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Cerastium dichotomumdry chickweed
Distribution: Washington to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, especially along roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Flowers: April-June
Cerastium fontanumcommon mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Introduced and common in most of Canada and the United States; more common east of the Cascades
Habitat: Disturbed ground, lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March - September
ssp. vulgare – common chickweed, mouse-ear chickweed
Cerastium glomeratumsticky mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington, but more common west of the Cascades crest; occurring throughout western and eastern North America.
Habitat: Low elevations in disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Cerastium nutansnodding mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America except for California, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry to moist banks and woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. nutans – nodding chickweed
Cerastium pumilumdwarf chickweed, dwarf mouse ear
Distribution: Introduced at scattered locations in Washngton.
Habitat: Dry, sandy or gravelly places, roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April - May
Cerastium semidecandrumlittle chickweed, little mouse ear
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Cerastium tomentosumsnow-in-summer
Distribution: Occasionally escaping cultivation in lowland northwestern Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across northern U.S. and southern Canada to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, waste sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Ceratocephala testiculatahornseed buttercup
Distribution: Introduced in all of western United States, and east in the northern half of the United States to Ohio; chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon
Habitat: Disturbed soil in sagebrush deserts and plains
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Ceratophyllum demersumcoon's-tail
Distribution: Throughout much of temperate North America
Habitat: Standing to slow-moving water, from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Ceratophyllum echinatumspineless hornwort
Origin: Native
Cercocarpus ledifoliusmountain mahogany
Distribution: Southeast Washington; Washington south Oregon to Arizona, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry areas, foothills to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. intermontanus – birchleaf mountain-mahogany
var. ledifolius – mountain mahogany
Chaenactis douglasiihoary chaenactis, hoary false-yarrow
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert flats and slopes, ponderosa pine forest openings, and meadows near the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
var. douglasii – dustymaidens, hoary false yarrow
Chaenactis thompsoniiThompson's pincushion
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains.
Habitat: Open, usually rocky areas, at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Chaenomeles speciosa
Origin: Introduced
Chaenorhinum minusdwarf-snapdragon
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon; occurring throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Roadside, disturbed open areas, waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Chaerophyllum temulumrough chervil
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the lowlands in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge and understory, shady roadsides, and other disturbed areas where shady and seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Chamaenerion angustifoliumfireweed
Distribution: Widespread on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open areas, sea level to subalpine, especially in burned and other naturally disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Chamaenerion latifoliumalpine fireweed, broad-leaf fireweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly in the Olympic Mountains and on both sides of the crest in the Cascade Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine river bars, gravelly stream banks, snowmelt areas, and seasonally drier slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Chelidonium majusdevil's milk, swallow wort
Distribution: Weedy introduction across southern Canada and the northern tier of states in the United States.
Habitat: Moist to dry woods, roadsides, fields, waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May - July
Chenopodiastrum muralenettleleaf goosefoot, wall goosefoot, sowbane
Distribution: Introduced throughout most of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - August
Chenopodiastrum simplexgiant goosefoot, maple leaf goosefoot
Distribution: Introduced in much of North America; British Columbia to California in the West.
Habitat: Weed of roadsides and waste areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Chenopodium albumlambsquarters, pigweed
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout much of temperate North America.
Habitat: Widespread weed of disturbed areas, including gardens, roadsides, and waste lots.
Origin: Introduced from Europe, but some populations in the mid-west may be native to North America, according to FNA
Flowers: June-September
Chenopodium atrovirenspinyon goosefoot
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Chenopodium berlandieriBerlandieri's goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, riparian zones, wastelots, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
var. zschackei – pitseed goosefoot
Chenopodium fremontiiFremont's goosefoot
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Chenopodium incognitum
Origin: Introduced
Chenopodium leptophyllumnarrowleaf goosefoot
Distribution: East side of the Cascades, British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Mississippi Valley.
Habitat: Deserts and dry grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Chenopodium opulifolium
Origin: Introduced
Chenopodium pratericoladesert goosefoot, narrowleaf goosefoot
Origin: Native
Chenopodium ×schulzeanumhybrid goosefoot
Origin: Native
Chenopodium strictumwhite goosefoot
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Chenopodium subglabrumsmooth goosefoot
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Cherleria bifloratwo-flowered sandwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, and in Rocky Mountains to Colorado and Arizona; circumboreal
Habitat: Moist subalpine to alpine slopes, often near snowbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cherleria obtusilobaalpine sandwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to central Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains as far south as New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry, subalpine to alpine slopes and tundra.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Chimaphila menziesiilittle pipsissewa, little prince's-pine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Coniferous forests from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Chimaphila umbellatacommon Pipsissewa, prince's-pine
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wooded areas, mostly coniferous forest, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. umbellata – Pipsissewa, common prince's-pine
Chondrilla junceahogbite, rush skeletonweed, gum succory
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, sagebrush desert, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Chorispora tenellacrossflower, blue mustard
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of western and central North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe habitat, both degraded and intact; disturbed areas, roadsides, and pastures.
Origin: Introduced from sw Asia
Flowers: March-June
Chorizanthe watsoniifive-tooth spineflower, Watson's spineflower
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, or Arizona.
Habitat: Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, mixed grassland, saltbush and sagebrush communities, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Chrysolepis chrysophyllagiant chinquapin, golden chinquapin
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Mason County, Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. chrysophylla – giant chinquapin, golden chinquapin
Chrysosplenium glechomifoliumPacific golden-saxifrage, Pacific watercarpet
Distribution: West of the Cascades and mostly along the coast, British Columbia south to northwest California.
Habitat: Moist, usually swampy places, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late March - May
Chrysosplenium tetrandrumnorthern golden-saxifrage
Distribution: In Washington known only from the north-central part of the state: Alaska south to Washington, east to Montana and Colorado in the U.S., east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumpolar.
Habitat: Rock crevices and wet banks and slopes, high elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorusgreen rabbit-brush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
ssp. lanceolatus – sticky-leaf rabbitbrush, yellow rabbitbrush
ssp. viscidiflorus – sticky flowered rabbitbrush, sticky-leaf rabbitbrush, yellow rabbitbrush
Chylismia scapoideanaked-stemmed beeblossom
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; central Oregon to Nevada, east to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, disjunct in central Washington.
Habitat: Dry slopes and flats in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
ssp. brachycarpa – short-fruited beeblossom
Cicer arietinumchick-pea
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in eastern Washington; scattered localities in other parts of western North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas on the edge of or near agricultural fields.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Cichorium intybuschicory, wild succory
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Cicuta bulbiferabulblet-bearing water-hemlock, bulbous water-hemlock
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to southern Oregon, east to Newfoundland and Virginia,
Habitat: Marshes, bogs, wet meadows and standing water, lowlands to mountain valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Cicuta douglasiiDouglas' water-hemlock, western water-hemlock
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Marshes, ditches, and wet low places, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cicuta maculataspotted water-hemlock
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Marshes, ditches, and shorelines, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. angustifolia – spotted water-hemlock
Cinna latifoliaslender wood-reed
Distribution: Alaska to Newfoundland, south on both sides of the Cascades, Washington to California, east to Colorado; also Minnesota to Maine, south to Tennessee
Habitat: Moist woods and meadows, sea level to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Circaea alpinaenchanter's nightshade
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Newfoundland, south (mostly in the mountains) to California and Georgia.
Habitat: Cool, damp woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. alpina – dwarf enchanter's nightshade
ssp. pacifica – Pacific enchanter's nightshade
Cirsium arvenseCanadian thistle, creepiing thistle
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, pastures, prairies, grasslands, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-October
Cirsium brevifoliumPalouse thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern and southeastern Washington; eastern Washington to northeast Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Palouse grassland remnants, dry rocky slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Cirsium brevistylumclustered thistle, short-styled thistle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northern California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Slopes, open forest, and moist meadows from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cirsium eduleedible thistle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Forest openings and edge, meadows, roadsides, and other open areas at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
var. edule – edible thistle, Indian thistle, Macoun's thistle
var. wenatchense – Wenatchee thistle
Cirsium flodmaniiFlodman's thistle
Distribution: British Columbia to north-central Washington,south in the Rocky Mountains from Alberta, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Grasslands, stream banks, and roadsides at low to middle elevations.
Flowers: June-August
Cirsium hookerianumHooker's thistle, white thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist lowlands, open slopes and fields.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Cirsium inamoenumGreene's thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Grassland, sagebrush desert, and dry rocky slopes from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. inamoenum – Greene's thistle
Cirsium remotifoliumfew-leaf thistle, Pacific fringed thistle, remote-leaved thistle, weak thistle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Meadows, stream banks, open for, brushy slopes, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Cirsium scariosumelk thistle, meadow thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, moist, sometimes alkaline ground, and forest openings from the foothills to fairly high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cirsium undulatumwavy leaf thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Michigan and Texas.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and plains at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Cirsium vulgarebull thistle, common thistle
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, forest edge, ditches, balds, prairies, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Citrullus lanatuswatermelon
Origin: Introduced
Clarkia amoenayellow clarkia, farewell to spring
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Clarkia gracilisslender godetia
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Fairly dry, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
ssp. gracilis – slender godetia
Clarkia pulchelladeer horn, pinkfairies, ragged robin
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to South Dakota.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Clarkia quadrivulnerafour-spot
Distribution: Mostly along Columbia River Gorge and east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south along coast to California, east to Arizona.
Habitat: Grasslands and meadows at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Clarkia rhomboideacommon clarkia, diamond fairyfan
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California and Arizona, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy soil in forest openings at low to moderate elevtions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Clarkia vimineatwiggy clarkia
Distribution: Known historically (1893) from west of the Cascades crest in Clark County of southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to California.
Habitat: Grassy or rocky slopes and flats.
Origin: Native
Claytonia arenicolasand claytonia, sand springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the eastern border of Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Mossy and rocky places, from sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Claytonia cordifoliabroadleaf springbeauty, heart-leaf springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington;
Habitat: On wet soil, usually along streams, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Claytonia exiguapale claytonia
Distribution: Southern B.C. to California, east to eastern Washington and Oregon, part of Nevada.
Habitat: Open areas on rock, clayey soils, or sand.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March - July
ssp. exigua – Claytonia, pale springbeauty Claytonia
ssp. glauca – pallid Claytonia
Claytonia lanceolatalanceleaf springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Sasketchewan.
Habitat: Sagebrush foothills to alpine slopes, usually where vernally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Claytonia megarhizafell-fields Claytonia
Distribution: Occurring in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington; in scattered locations from Northwest Territories south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Gravelly soil and talus slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Claytonia multiscapaRydberg's springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; in scattered locations from British Columbia south to Washington; east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky subalpine to alpine slopes and outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. pacifica – Pacific lanceleaf springbeauty
Claytonia parviflorasmall-flowered miner's lettuce, small-flowered springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open rocky areas, open forest, forest edge, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Claytonia perfoliataminer's-lettuce
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Forest openings and margins, shaded rock crevices, and open areas where seasonally moist from the coast to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Claytonia rubracushion miner's lettuce, erubescent lettuce, red miners lettuce
Distribution: Throughout much of Western U.S., north to southern B.C.
Habitat: Sandy areas, shrublands, dry coniferous woods
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Claytonia sibiricacandyflower, Siberian springbeauty, western springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and northeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, usually shady places, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Claytonia umbellataGreat Basin springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; Wasco and Wallowa counties, Oregon to California and western Nevada, disjunct in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Claytonia washingtonianaLake Washington claytonia, Lake Washington miner's lettuce, Lake Washington springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and coniferous forests at low elevations, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-June
Clematis hirsutissimaDouglas's clematis, leatherflower, sugarbowls, vaseflower
Distribution: Occurring in only a few counties in central and eastern Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Montana, south to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
var. hirsutissima – Douglas' clematis
Clematis ligusticifoliawestern clematis
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Oklahoma and the Dakotas.
Habitat: River valleys and sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Clematis occidentalisColumbia clematis, rock clematis, Columbia virgins-bower
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Often in deep, fine soils in shady forest, also in cliffs and other rocky sites in open woods and thickets, at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. dissecta – Columbia clematis
var. grosseserrata – Columbia clematis
Clematis orientalisOriental clematis, Oriental virginsbower
Distribution: Known from Yakima County in Washington; also known from the Columbia River Gorge area in Oregon, and other scattered locations in southwestern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Clematis vitalbaevergreen clematis, old-man's beard, traveler's-joy
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge, hillsides, parks, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced; native to Europe and Africa
Flowers: June-September
Clinopodium douglasiiOregon-tea, yerba buena
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Coniferous woods, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Clinopodium vulgarewild basil
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across North America in scattered states and provinces.
Habitat: Roadsides, grassy areas, forest edges, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Clintonia uniflorabride's-bonnet, queen's cup
Distribution: Occurring in forested areas throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forests, from the foothills to fairly high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cochlearia groenlandicascurvy-grass, Danish scurvygrass, spoonwort
Origin: Native
Coix lacryma-jobiJob's-tears
Origin: Introduced from tropical Asia
Colchicum autumnaleautumn crocus
Distribution: Known from Pierce County in Washington; not reported for elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Lowland grassy meadows, escaping or persisting from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Coleanthus subtilismoss grass
Origin: Native?
Flowers: July - October
Collinsia grandifloralarge-flowered blue-eyed Mary, blue-lips blue-eyed Mary
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east in the Columbia River Gorge.
Habitat: Open, moist to rather dry areas, low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Collinsia parviflorasmall-flowered blue-eyed Mary, collinsia
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California and Colorado, east to Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Lowlands to alpine meadows in vernally (springtime) moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Collinsia rattaniiRattan collinsia, rattan collinsia
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington along the Columbia River Gorge; Washington south to the John Day valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Open woods at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Collinsia sparsiflorafew-flowered blue-eyed Mary, few-flowered collinsia
Distribution: Chiefly along the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington south to northern Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Open slopes and swales.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
var. sparsiflora – few-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Collomia debilisalpine collomia
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Shifting talus slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. debilis – alpine collomia
Collomia grandifloralarge-flowered collomia, large-flower mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open to lightly wooded areas, lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Collomia heterophyllavaried-leaf collomia, variable-leaf mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring mostly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Woods, forest openings and stream banks, low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Collomia larseniiLarsen's alpine collomia, talus collomia
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Rocky, often moist slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Collomia linearisnarrow-leaf collomia, narrow-leaf mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Ontario and New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to somewhat moist, open or lightly shaded areas in the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Collomia macrocalyxbristle-flowered collomia, bristle-flower mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Kittitas and Yakima counties in Washington; central Washington and also in north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Collomia tenelladiffuse collomia, diffuse mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Mostly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Nevada, east to Idaho, Utah and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Collomia tinctoriayellow-staining collomia, yellow-staining mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to central Idaho and southeast Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills to moderate or mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Columbiadoria halliiColumbia River daisy, Hall's goldenweed
Distribution: Occurring in the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open or sparsely wooded slopes at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Colutea arborescensbladder senna
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across the southwest to the Great Plains; northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas ncluding wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Comandra umbellata
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Dry to moist-but-sandy soil, sea level to subalpine; common in the shrub-steppe.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
ssp. californica – bastard toad flax
ssp. pallida – bastard toad flax
Comarum palustremarsh cinquefoil, purple marshlocks
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern portion of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bogs, wet meadows and lake margins, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Comastoma tenellumLapland gentian, Samiland gentian, slender gentian
Distribution: Known only from Okanogan County in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains; circumpolar.
Habitat: Alpine areas, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Commelina communisAsiatic dayflower
Distribution: Widely introduced in eastern United States; occasional in Washington.
Habitat: Weed of waste places, field edges and marshes.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July - September
Conioselinum pacificumPacific hemlock-parsley
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the marine coast in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Bluffs and rocky or sandy beaches along the seashore.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Conium maculatumpoison hemlock
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas, often where soil is moist.
Origin: Introduced; native to Europe
Flowers: April-August
Conringia orientalishare's-ear mustard, treacle mustard
Distribution: In scattered locations across Washington; distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Convolvulus arvensisfield bindweed
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Cultivated fields, roadsides, open areas, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-October
Conyza bonariensisSouth American conyza
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to California, eastward in the southern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Conyza canadensisCanadian fleabane, horseweed
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, balds, prairies, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Coptis aspleniifoliafern-leaf goldthread
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south along the coast to Washington.
Habitat: Moist woods and bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Coptis laciniataOregon goldthread
Distribution: Occurring in the southwestern region of Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Moist woods at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Coptis occidentalisIdaho goldthread, western goldthread
Distribution: Occurring in the northeastern corner of Washington; Adjacent British Columbia east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Coptis trifoliathreeleaf goldthread
Distribution: Known from extreme northeastern region of Washington; Alaska to Washington, Idaho and Montana, east across northern North America to the Atlantic; also in Greenland and eastern Eurasia.
Habitat: Deep woodland, often where swampy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Corallorhiza maculataspotted coralroot
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; British Columbia east to Newfoundland, south to California and North Carolina.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. maculata – spotted coralroot
var. occidentalis – western spotted coralroot
var. ozettensis – ozette coralroot
Corallorhiza mertensianaPacific coralroot, western coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Usually in moist coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Corallorhiza striatastriped coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist humus in shady coniferous and deciduous forests, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
var. striata – hooded coralroot, striped coralroot
var. vreelandii – vreeland's striped coralroot
Corallorhiza trifidaearly coralroot, northern coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast throughout the northern half of North America.
Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine in the Pacific Northswest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cordylanthus capitatusYakima bird's-beak
Distribution: East of the Cascade crest in Washington; Idaho and Montana south to California and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open woods and hillsides, often with sagebrush, moderate to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Coreopsis grandiflorabigleaf tickseed
Origin: Introduced
Coreopsis lanceolatalance-leaved tickseed
Origin: Introduced
Coreopsis tinctoriacalliopsis, Columbia coreopsis
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and along the lower Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open and disturbed areas at low to mid elevations where seasonally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Corispermum americanumAmerican bugseed
Origin: Native
var. americanum – American bugseed
Corispermum hookeriHooker's bugseed
Origin: Native
var. pseudodeclinatum – Hooker's bugseed
Corispermum pacificumPacific bugseed
Distribution: Occurring along the Lower Columbia River and east of the Cascades in Washington; central Washington south to northern Oregon, e to western Idaho.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Corispermum pallasiiPallas' bugseed
Origin: Introduced
Corispermum pallidumpale bugseed
Origin: Native
Corispermum villosumhairy bugseed
Origin: Native
Cornus canadensisbunchberry, puddingberry
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; northeastern Washington to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; Greenland.
Habitat: Moist forest understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cornus nuttalliimountain dogwood, Nuttall's dogwood, Pacific dogwood, western flowering dogwood
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open to rather dense damp forests, often along streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Cornus occidentaliscreek dogwood, western red osier
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, through more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, western Montana, and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist soil, especially along streams, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cornus stoloniferared-osier dogwood
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common east of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist soil, especially along streams, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cornus unalaschkensiswestern bunchberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods, low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Corrigiola litoralis
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south to Oregon; also in Maryland.
Habitat: Lake and pond margins, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
ssp. litoralis – strapwort
Cortaderia jubatapurple pampas grass
Distribution: Occurring in lowland western Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation
Origin: Introduced from northern South America
Flowers: June-September
Cortaderia selloanapampas grass
Distribution: Occurring in several counties west of the Cascades crest; Washington to California, in scattered states eastward to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed, open soil of wastelots, abandoned fields, and roadsides at low elevations, often near coast.
Origin: Introduced from central South America
Flowers: May-July
Corydalis aquae-gelidaemarsh corydalis
Distribution: In the Cascades in Clackamas and Multnomah Counties, Oregon
Habitat: Wet places of shaded forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Corydalis aureagolden corydalis, scrambled eggs
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America except southeastern U.S.
Habitat: In varied habitats, from moist to dry and well-drained soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
ssp. aurea – golden corydalis, scrambled eggs
Corydalis luteayellow corydalis
Origin: Introduced
Corydalis scouleriScouler's fumewort
Distribution: West of the Cascades, British Columbia to northern Oregon
Habitat: Moist soil in shade, low elevations, from the coast to the foothills
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Corylus avellanacommon filbert, European hazelnut
Distribution: Widely planted as an ornamental and occasionally naturalizing in western Washington lowlands; British Columbia south to Oregon.
Habitat: Abandoned plantings, roadsides, waste sites, forest edge.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: January-April
Corylus cornutabeaked hazelnut
Distribution: Widespread in North America from British Columbia to Newfoundland, south to California, Colorado, Missouri, Ohio, and Georgia. In WA on both sides of the Cascades, and in the eastern portion of the state.
Habitat: Forest edge and openings, thickets, and rocky slopes at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January - March
ssp. californica – California hazel
ssp. cornuta – beaked hazel
Corynephorus canescensgray club-awn grass
Origin: Introduced
Cota austriacaAustrian chamomile
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from the Pullman area; not known from elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-August
Cota tinctoriagolden chamomile, yellow chamomile
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the central and northern regions of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Cotoneaster atropurpureuspurple-flowering cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster conspicuus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster dammeribearberry cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Cotoneaster dielsianusDiel's cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Cotoneaster divaricatusspreading cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Cotoneaster franchetiifranchet's cotoneaster, orange cotoneaster
Distribution: Distributed west of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California
Habitat: Lowland forest edges, grassy balds, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Cotoneaster gambleiGamble's cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster horizontalisrock cotoneaster, rockspray cotoneaster, wall cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon; also in Ontario, Canada.
Habitat: Fields, forest openings, and disturbed areas typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Cotoneaster lacteuslate cotoneaster, milk-flower cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, thickets, and forest margins.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-July
Cotoneaster lucidusshiny cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from Siberia and Mongolia
Cotoneaster magnificus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster maireiMaire's cotoneaster, truncate-leaved cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster miniatus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster monopyrenus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster nan-shan
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster nitensfew-flowered cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Cotoneaster pannosus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster rehderibullate cotoneaster, puckered-leaf cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Thickets, open clearings, forests, and shores typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-Jun; fruiting Sep-Dec.
Cotoneaster salicifoliuswillow-leaved cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Cotoneaster simonsiiHimalayan cotoneaster, Simon's cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from the Himalayas
Cotoneaster sternianusStern's cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster ×suecicus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster tengyuehensisTengyueh cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Cotoneaster transens
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster vestitus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster villosulusTaiping cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced
Cotula coronopifoliabrass buttons, common brass buttons
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the Puget Sound, outer coast, and lower Columbia River shorelines. Alaska to California, east to Nevada and Arizona, also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Tidal flats.
Origin: Introduced from South Africa
Flowers: June-September
Crassula aquaticawrinkle-seed pygmyweed, water pygmy weed
Distribution: Occurring in scattered localities across Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and in the southeastern and northeastern regions of North America.
Habitat: Mud flats and vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Crassula connatapygmy weed
Distribution: Known in Washington only from San Juan County; British Columbia south to California, east to Arizona and Texas.
Habitat: Sandy areas, paths and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Crassula tillaeamossy stonecrop
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, rock crevices, and sandy areas, often where seasonally wet or moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-April
Crataegus castlegarensisCastlegar hawthorn
Origin: Native
Crataegus chrysocarpafireberry hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Thickets, dry slopes, shrub-steppe, riparian zones, open forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Crataegus ×cogswelliiOregon hybrid hawthorn
Origin: Introduced
Crataegus douglasiiblack hawthorn, Douglas's hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Saskatchewan, Idaho and Montana, also in the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Thickets, open forests, forest edges, and riparian zones, from lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Crataegus gaylussaciahuckleberry hawthorn, Suksdorf's hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; disjunct in southeast Alaska, otherwise southern British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Thickets, grasslands, riparian zones, shores, and meadows, from lowl to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Crataegus laevigatamidland hawthorn, woodland hawthorn
Origin: Introduced from northern Europe
Crataegus macracanthalarge-thorned hawthorn, western large-thorned hawthorn
Origin: Native
Crataegus monogynaEnglish hawthorn, one-seed hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also in the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, meadows, thickets, and forest edge and understory at low elevations, often associated with disturbance. Seeds readily dispersed by birds.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
var. monogyna – common hawthorn, English hawthorn, one-seeded hawthorn
Crataegus okanaganensisOkanagan hawthorn
Origin: Native
Crataegus okennoniiO'Kennon's hawthorn
Origin: Native
Crataegus phaenopyrumWashington thorn
Origin: Introduced
Crataegus phippsiiPhipps\\\' hawthorn
Origin: Native
Crataegus sanguinea
Origin: Introduced
Crataegus tenuior
Origin: Native
Crepis acuminatalong-leaved hawksbeard, tapertip hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry slopes and forest openings from the foothiils to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Crepis atribarbaslender hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry slopes, sagebrush, and forest openings from foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Crepis bakeriBaker's hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry slopes, sagebrush, and forest openings from the foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Crepis barbigerabearded hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Crepis capillarissmooth hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-November
Crepis intermediagray hawksbeard, intermediate hawksbeard, limestone hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open forest, grassland, meadows, rocky or sandy slopes, and ridges from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Crepis modocensislow hawksbeard, Modoc hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Common in shrub-steppe, sagebrush, and conifer forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Crepis nicaeensisFrench hawksbeard, Turkish hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon, also in western Montana, the Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, forest openings, and other disturbed areas, often where at least seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Crepis occidentaliswestern hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Dry, open places, mostly in the foothills and plains, but also found in the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Crepis runcinatadandelion hawksbeard, meadow hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows, marshes, seeps, shores, riverbanks, often where alkaline, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. runcinata – dandelion hawksbeard, meadow hawksbeard
Crepis setosabristly hawksbeard, rough hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, also in Montana and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Crepis tectorumannual hawksbeard, narrow leaf hawksbeard, rooftop hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern regions of the U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Crocidium multicaulegold-star, spring-gold
Distribution: Occurring on both sides the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from low to middle elevations, especially common in sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Crocosmia ×crocosmiifloramontbretia
Origin: Introduced from South Africa
Crocus ×stellarisyellow crocus
Origin: Introduced (garden origin)
Crocus tommasinianusearly crocus
Origin: Introduced from southeast Europe
Crocus vernus
Origin: Introduced
ssp. vernus – spring crocus
Croton setigerusdoveweed, turkey mullein, fish poison
Origin: Native
Cruciata pedemontanapiedmont bedstraw
Distribution: Occurring in Washington at scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades; Washington south to Oregon, east to Montana; in central and southeastern regions of the U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, waste areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Crupina vulgarisbearded creeper, crupina
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central and southeastern Washington to California, east to adjacent Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Crypsis alopecuroidesfoxtail pricklegrass
Distribution: Occurring in the south-central areas of Washington;
Habitat: Sandy soils around drying lake margins and other seasonally moist, disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from n. Africa and Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Crypsis vaginifloramodest pricklegrass
Origin: Introduced from the western Mediterranean
Cryptantha affinisquill cat's-eye, common cryptantha, slender cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and South Dakota.
Habitat: Open areas from sagebrush to coniferous forest openings at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Cryptantha ambiguabasin cat's-eye, obscure cryptantha, wilke's cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to western Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Cryptantha fendlerisand dune cat's eye, Fendler's cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand dunes and very sandy soil at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cryptantha flaccidaweakstem cat's-eye, flaccid cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; central Washington to southern California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats at lower elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Cryptantha gracilisnarrow-stem cryptantha, slender cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California east to Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grassy slopes at low elevations to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cryptantha grandifloralarge-flowered cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Salmon River area in western Idaho.
Habitat: Grasslands, open conifer forest, scree slopes, and volcanic-based substrates.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cryptantha intermediaClearwater cat's-eye, common cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to western Idaho and northwestern Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and remnant balds at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
var. hendersonii – Henderson's common cryptantha
Cryptantha pterocaryawingnut cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Colorado and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy areas of sagebrush and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. pterocarya – wingnut cryptantha
Cryptantha rostellatabeaked cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, open slopes and hillsides, typically where dry, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Cryptantha scopariadesert cryptantha, pinyon desert cat's eye
Distribution: Common on the Snake River plains of Idaho, extending into adjacent Oregon, northeast Nevda and southwest Wyoming; adjunct to Yakima County, Washington, and adjacent counties.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes in the valleys, plains and foothills, common among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Cryptantha simulanspine woods cat's eye, pine woods cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest openings, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cryptantha torreyanaTorrey's cryptantha, Torrey's cat's eye
Distribution: Widely distributed east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana.
Habitat: Open areas, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cryptantha watsoniiWatson's cryptantha, Watson's cat's eye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open hillsides, sagebrush-steppe plains, and forest openings at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Cryptogramma acrostichoidesAmerican parsley fern, American rockbrake
Distribution: Alaska to California, east in cool, moist areas to Ontario and Michigan
Habitat: Cliff crevices and talus slopes at mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Cryptogramma cascadensisCascade parsley fern, Cascade rockbrake
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana
Habitat: Cliff crevices and talus slopes at mid- to high elevations in the mountains, occasionally descending to sea level in humid areas.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-September
Cryptogramma stellerifragile rockbrake, slender rockbrake, Steller's rockbrake
Origin: Native
Cucurbita pepo
Origin: Introduced
Cuscuta approximataalfalfa dodder
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Agricultural fields, often on alfalfa, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Cuscuta californicaCalifornia dodder, chaparral dodder
Origin: Native
var. californica – California dodder
Cuscuta campestrisfield dodder
Origin: Native
Cuscuta cephalanthibuttonbush dodder
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Cuscuta denticulatadesert dodder
Distribution: Central Washington; south to Baja California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Parasitic on shrubs in arid shrub-steppe communities.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Cuscuta epithymumclover dodder, common dodder, thyme dodder
Origin: Introduced from Europe
var. epithymum – clover dodder, thyme dodder
Cuscuta indecorainelegant dodder, large-seeded dodder
Origin: Native
Cuscuta occidentaliswestern dodder
Distribution: In most Western states, Washington to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Found on many different hoasts.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cuscuta pacificasalt marsh dodder
Distribution: British Columbia to Baja California.
Habitat: Coastal marshes and saltwater tideflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Cuscuta pentagonafield dodder, five-angled dodder
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Parasitic on a variety of hosts.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Cuscuta suksdorfiimountain dodder
Distribution: Southern Washington to the southern Sierra Nevada, California, at medium to high elevations.
Habitat: On Aster, Spraguea, and other hosts.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Cusickiella douglasiialkali false whitlow-grass, Douglas' whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring in the south-central area of Washington along the Oregon border; Washington south to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky ridges of the sagebrush desert, up into the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Cyclachaena xanthiifoliacarelessweed, burweed marsh-elder, tall marsh-elder
Distribution: Ocurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bottomlands and other moist, open, often disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from south-central Canada and the central U.S.
Flowers: August-October
Cyclamen hederifoliumivy-leaf cyclamen
Origin: Introduced
Cycloloma atriplicifoliumwinged pigweed
Origin: Introduced
Cymbalaria muralisKenilworth-ivy, ivy-leaved toadflax
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, scattered eastward across North America to the Atlantic Coast where more broadly distributed.
Habitat: Roadsides, retaining walls, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-October
Cymopterus foeniculaceusmontane spring parsley
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings, meadows, and other open, dry areas from montane to alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cymopterus terebinthinusturpentine spring parsley
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to northeast Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Sand dunes and other dry, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Cynodon dactylonbermuda grass
Distribution: Common in the warmer portion of the United States, California to Florida; occasional in the Pacific Northwet.
Habitat: A weed of lawns, partures and railroad tracks.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - September
Cynoglossum officinalegypsy flower, common hound's tongue
Distribution: Widely distributed east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, forest edge, ditches, and other disturbed open areas; noxious weed.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Cynosurus cristatuscrested dogtail
Distribution: Introduced in scattered locations west of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon, and in California and Idaho.
Habitat: Waste places, old meadows, roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - July
Cynosurus echinatusbristly dog's-tail grass
Distribution: Introduced in southwest British Columba and Oregon's Wilamette Valley, south into California; more common in central and eastern United States.
Habitat: Weed of waste places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Cyperus acuminatussharp-pointed flatsedge, taper-tip flatsedge
Origin: Native
Cyperus bipartitusshining flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widespread in North America.
Habitat: Streambanks and other wet places in the valleys and lowlands; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cyperus diandrusumbrella flatsedge
Origin: Introduced
Cyperus eragrostistall flatsedge
Distribution: British Columbia south to California, east to New Jersey and South Carolina.
Habitat: Damp grasslands and roadside ditches at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Cyperus erythrorhizosredroot flatsedge
Distribution: Widespresd in the United Stated and adjacent Canada.
Habitat: Streambanks and other wet places in the valleys and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Cyperus esculentusyellow nut-grass
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widespread throughout North America.
Habitat: Moist, low ground along streams and ditches, but sometimes in drier ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. leptostachyus – yellow nutgrass
Cyperus fuscusbrown galingale
Origin: Introduced
Cyperus lupulinusGreat Plains flatsedge
Distribution: Great Plains to northeastern United States; occasional in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. lupulinus – Great Plains flatsedge
Cyperus odoratusscented flatsedge
Origin: Introduced
Cyperus schweinitziisand flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; Washington to Utah and Alberta, east across much of North America.
Habitat: Sandy lakeshores and riverbanks.
Origin: Native east Cascades, introduced in Seattle, WA
Flowers: July-September
Cyperus squarrosusawned flatsedge
Distribution: Widespread in the United States and Europe.
Habitat: Wet places in the valleys and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Cyperus strigosusfalse flatsedge, straw-colored flatsedge
Distribution: Widespread in the United States and adjacent Canada.
Habitat: Wet places, along the banks of large streams, in the valleys and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Cypripedium ×columbianumColumbia lady's-slipper, hybrid lady's-slipper
Origin: Native
Cypripedium fasciculatumclustered lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Santa Cruz County, California, east to Idaho and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry and rocky, open coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Cypripedium montanummountain lady's-slipper
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry to moist open woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cypripedium parviflorumfairy slipper, yellow lady's-slipper slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; throughout most of Canada and the central, southeastern, and northeastern regions of the U.S.
Habitat: Bogs and damp woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Cystopteris fragilisbladder fern, brittle fern, fragile fern
Distribution: Widespread on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist to moderately dry, often rocky places, lowlands to above timberline
Origin: Native
Spores: April-September
Cytisus multiflorusportuguese broom, white Spanish broom
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Cytisus scopariusScot's broom
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout much of Washington, especially in lowlands west of the Cascades crest; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Widespread noxious weed, usually where somewhat moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Cytisus striatusFrench broom
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas including roadsides and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June