Vascular Plants

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Scientific names beginning with V:
18 genera
105 species, 27 subspecies and varieties
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Vaccaria hispanicacowcockle
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, railways and old fields.
Vaccinium caespitosumdwarf bilberry, dwarf huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Colorado; across southern Canada and the northern tier of states from Minnesota to Maine.
Habitat: Moist rocky ridges and meadows, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Vaccinium corymbosumhigh-bush blueberry
Distribution: Widespread and native in eastern United States; introduced in Washington.
Habitat: Open swamps, sandy margins of ponds and lakes.
Vaccinium deliciosumCascade blueberry, Rainier blueberry, blueleaf huckleberry
Distribution: Ocurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Forest openings and mountain meadows, mid- to high elevations.
Vaccinium macrocarponcultivated cranberry, large cranberry
Distribution: In scattered locations in lowlands west of the Cascades crest; introduced British Columbia south to California; native eastern North
Vaccinium membranaceumsquare-twig blueberry, tall huckleberry, thin-leaved huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout forested and mountainous areas of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east the Rocky Mountains; Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Common in dry to moist coniferous forests and open areas, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Vaccinium myrtilloidesvelvet-leaf blueberry
Distribution: British Columbia east to Labrador, and in the northern tier of states, Montana to West Virginia; Okanogan County in Washington.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, forest openings, bogs and barrens.
Vaccinium myrtillusdwarf blueberry, low blueberry
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades, British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, and south in the Rockies to Arizona and New Mexico
Habitat: Forest openings, mid-elevations in the mountains
Vaccinium ovalifoliumAlaska blueberry, oval-leaf blueberry
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas throughout Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Idaho, and then scattered areas to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Openings in coniferous forests, moderate to fairly high elevations.
Vaccinium ovatumevergreen huckelberry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Coniferous forests at low elevations.
Vaccinium oxycoccossmall cranberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, across Canada; from the upper Midwest to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Usually in sphagnum bogs.
Vaccinium parvifoliumred huckleberry
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California on both sides of the Cascades, but much more common on the west side
Habitat: Moist woods, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Vaccinium scopariumgrouseberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Open, dry forests, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Vaccinium uliginosumbog bilberry, bog blueberry
Distribution: Cascades and west in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Wet areas from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Vahlodea atropurpureaarctic-hair grass
Distribution: Alaska south to the high mountains of California, east to Newfoundland and New Hamshire.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, streambanks, and lake margins to alpine ridges.
Valeriana columbianaWenatchee valerian
Distribution: Wenatchee Mountains and Cle Elum Ridge, east slope of the Cascades, in Washington
Habitat: Rocky, open slopes, often on basalt, at mid-elevations in the mountains
Valeriana dioica
Distribution: British Columbia to Nova Scotia in Canada, south to northwest Washington, central Idaho and northwest Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist places in the mountains, often in wet meadows.
var. sylvatica – northern valerian
Valeriana edulis
Distribution: Occurring in the eastern region of Washington; Southern British Columbia south into Washington, Idaho, and Montana, east to Ontario and Ohio.
Habitat: A wide variety of open, somewhat moist habitats, from the foothills to rather high elevations in the mountains.
var. edulis – tobacco root
Valeriana occidentalissmall-flower valerian, western valerian
Valeriana officinalisallheal, garden heliotrope
Valeriana pubicarpadowny fruit valerian, downy-fruited valeriana
Valeriana scouleriScouler's valerian
Distribution: Mostly west of the Cascade summits, British Columbia to California
Habitat: Wet meadows and moist woods, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Valeriana sitchensisSitka valerian
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Common in moist areas at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Valerianella carinatakeel-fruit cornsalad
Valerianella locustalamb's-lettuce
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; eastern half of North America east of the Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist, open places, often in disturbed soil.
Vallisneria americanawild celery, American eelgrass, tapegrass
Distribution: Native from Quebec to Texas and Florida; introduced in Dry Falls Coulee, Grant County, and several lakes west of the Cascades in Washington; also in Oregon and Idaho
Habitat: Ponds, lakes and quiet streams
Vancouveria hexandrawhite inside-out-flower
Distribution: West of the Cascades, south Puget Trough, Washington, to northern California
Habitat: Moist, shady woods, low to moderate elevations
Ventenata dubiaVentenata
Distribution: Chiefly in the eastern portion of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, pastures, crop land, and other disturbed sites.
Veratrum californicum
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
var. californicum – skunk cabbage, California wild hellebore
var. caudatum – skunk cabbage, tailed wild hellebore
Veratrum insolitumsiskiyou wild hellebore
Distribution: Benton County, Oregon, south into northern California.
Habitat: Open prairies to thickets, and forested or open rocky slopes.
Veratrum viride
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the forest and mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains; eastern North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
var. eschscholzianum – American wild hellebore
Verbascum blattariamoth mullein
Distribution: Ocurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; introduced over most of the United States.
Habitat: Open areas in waste ground, tolerant of moist to dry.
Verbascum thapsusflannel mullein, great mullein
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Common on open, disturbed ground, roadsides and logged areas in the mountains.
Verbascum virgatum
Distribution: Lowland western Washington; Washington south to California, east across the southern U.S. and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Open disturbed areas at low elevations.
Verbena bracteatacarpet vervain
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas in natural and impacted settings including roadsides and waste lots.
Verbena hastatawild hyssop, blue verbena
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Marshes, wetlands, streamsides, and other riparian areas.
Verbena officinalisherb of the cross, European vervain
Verbena strictahoary vervain
Distribution: Occurring in the northeastern region of Washington; widely distributed throughout much of the U.S. and northeastern Canada.
Habitat: Roadsides and other dry, open places.
Veronica americanaAmerican-brooklime, American speedwell
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America except southeast corner of U.S.
Habitat: Wet places, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Veronica anagallis-aquaticablue water speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: In or along slow-moving streams in the lowlands.
Veronica arvensiscorn speedwell, wall speedwell
Distribution: Introduced in much of North America; uncommon in the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens and roadsides
Veronica bilobabilobed speedwell, two-lobe speedwell
Veronica catenatachain speedwell
Distribution: Widespread in the United States and Canada; occasional at lower elevations in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Veronica chamaedrysGermander speedwell
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades; more common in eastern United States
Habitat: Disturbed ground, lawns and gardens
Veronica cusickiiCusick's speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist, rocky slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Veronica filiformisthread-stalk speedwell
Distribution: Introduced west of the Cascades, British Columbia to California, and in Idaho; and Michigan to New York, south to West Virginia in the east
Habitat: Weed of lawns and gardens
Veronica hederifoliaivy-leaf speedwell
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon and Utah; other scattered locations in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Waste places, disturbed soil.
Veronica longifolialong-leaf speedwell
Veronica officinalisPaul's betony, common speedwell, herbal speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of the northern half of North America and the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Weed of wastelots, and other disturbed open and forested areas.
Veronica peregrina
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout most of Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, stream banks, and other moist places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
var. peregrina – purslane speedwell
var. xalapensis – purslane speedwell
Veronica persicabird-eye speedwell, persian speedwell
Distribution: Widely introduced in North America, occasional in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Lawns and waste ground.
Veronica scutellatagrass-leaf speedwell, marsh speedwell, skullcap speedwell
Distribution: The northern two-thirds of the temperate zone in North America; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Wet places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Veronica serpyllifolia
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America.
Habitat: Moist meadows and disturbed sites, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
var. humifusa – thyme-leaved speedwell
var. serpyllifolia – thyme-leaved speedwell
Veronica triphyllosfinger speedwell
Veronica wormskjoldiialpine speedwell, American alpine speedwell, hairy speedwell
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist ground and seeps, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Viburnum edulehigh-bush cranberry, squashberry
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Newfoundland, south to northern Oregon, Colorado and Pennsylvania.
Habitat: Moist woods and swamps.
Viburnum ellipticumwestern blackhaw, oval-leaved viburnum
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; southern Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Thickets, bottom lands and open woods.
Viburnum opulushighbush cranberry
Distribution: Scattered localities throughout Washington; British Columbia south to the Columbia River Gorge, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods at low to moderate elevations.
var. americanum – American bush cranberry, cranberry-tree
var. opulus – high-bush cranberry
Vicia americana
Distribution: Widely distributed througout much of Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America except the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Forest openings from low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
var. americana – American vetch
Vicia craccacat peas, tinegrass, bird vetch, tufted vetch
Distribution: Introduced and widely naturalized in eastern United States; occasional in the Rocky Mountains and westward.
Habitat: Waste land, roadsides.
Vicia hirsutahairy vetch, tiny vetch
Distribution: Introduced and fairly common in western Washington and Oregon
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens, low elevations
Vicia lathyroidesspring vetch
Distribution: Occurring in the Puget Sound lowlands in Washington; British Columbia south to California; also in southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Vicia luteayellow vetch
Vicia nigricans
Distribution: Along the coast in Washington; coastal from Alaska to California, inland to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Near streams or forest clearings at low elevations.
ssp. gigantea – giant vetch
Vicia pannonicaHungarian vetch
Vicia sativa
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common on the west side; widely distributed throughout most of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, yards and roadsides at low elevations.
var. angustifolia – tare, common vetch
var. sativa – common vetch
Vicia tetraspermaslender vetch
Distribution: Introduced and occasionally escaping west of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon, south to California.
Habitat: Waste ground and disgturbed soil.
Vicia villosa
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; distributed widely throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed meadows, grasslands, prairies, roadsides and other open areas.
ssp. varia – hairy vetch, winter vetch, woolly vetch
ssp. villosa – smoooth tare, lentil vetch, slender vetch
Vinca majorgreater periwinkle
Distribution: Occasionally escapes from gardens, west side of the Cascades.
Habitat: Moderately moist soil.
Vinca minorlesser periwinkle
Distribution: Introduced in scattered locations across Washington, moreso in western lowlands; occurring in much of eastern North America, where it is considered invasive.
Habitat: Somewhat moist disturbed areas.
Viola adunca
Distribution: Occurring throughout Washington; ranging across North America.
Habitat: Dry to moist meadows and open woods, moderate to high elevations in the mountains
ssp. adunca – early blue violet
Viola arvensisEuropean field pansy
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; introduced throughout the United States and Canada.
Habitat: Frequently escapes from cultivation.
Viola bakeriBaker violet, Baker's violet
Distribution: Mt. Adams south in Washington; south to California.
Habitat: Moist, open areas at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Viola canadensis
Distribution: British Columbia south through Washington and Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Usually on loamy soils, moist woodlands and forests at moderate elevations.
var. rugulosa – Canada violet
Viola epipsila
ssp. repens – creeping violet
Viola flettiiFlett's violet, Olympic violet
Distribution: Endemic to the northern Olympic Mountains, Washington.
Habitat: Alpine rock crevices and talus slopes at high elevations.
Viola glabellapioneer violet
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington, Alaska to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Viola howelliiHowell's violet
Distribution: West of the Cascade crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to northern California.
Habitat: Moist woods and prairies at low to moderate elevations.
Viola lanceolatalance-leaved violet
Viola langsdorfiiAleutian violet
Viola macloskeyismall white violet
Distribution: British Columbia to Alberta, south in the mountains to California.
Habitat: Boggy and wet ground from low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Viola nephrophyllaLeConte violet, northern bog violet
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Newfoundland, south on the east side of the Cascades to California, east to Arizona.
Habitat: Moist places, especially in meadows and along streams.
Viola odoratasweet blue violet
Distribution: In scattered locations throughout Washington; introduced and escaping at various location in the United States.
Habitat: Sheltered, disturbed areas in somewhat moist soil.
Viola orbiculatadarkwoods violet, evergreen yellow violet, round-leaved violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open woods, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Viola palustrismarsh violet
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and near the Canadian border to Maine and Labrador
Habitat: Moist meadows and streambanks, low to mid-elevations in the mountains
Viola praemorsa
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado.
Habitat: Drier areas, valleys and prairies at low elevations.
ssp. flavovirens – upland yellow violet
ssp. linguifolia – upland yellow violet
ssp. praemorsa – canary violet, yellow montane violet
Viola purpurea
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades, Okanogan County, Washington, to California, east to Montana, Wyoming and Arizona
Habitat: Open, rocky, fairly dry slopes, moderate to high elevations in the mountains
var. venosa – goosfoot violet, purplish violet
Viola renifoliakidney-leaf white violet
Viola rivinianadog violet, wood violet
Viola selkirkiigreat spurred violet, Selkirk`s violet
Viola sempervirensevergreen violet, redwood violet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Brithish Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Viola septentrionalisnorthern woodland violet
Viola sheltoniifan violet, shelton's violet
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades, from near Cle Elum, Kittitas County, Washington, south to Baja California, east to Idaho
Habitat: Chaparral or open forest, often under ponderosa pine
Viola tricolorJohnny jump-up
Distribution: Garden escape in scattered locations throughout Washington; similarly escaped throughout most of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas near cultivated setting in towns and cities.
Viola trinervata3-nerved violet, Rainier violet, sagebrush violet
Distribution: Okanogan County, Washington, to Malheur County, Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush flats and rocky hillsides, often on lithosol, where vernally moist.
Viola vallicola
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to central North America.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from sagebrush plains to ponderosa pine forests.
var. major – valley violet, yellow sagebrush violet
Vitis ripariariver-bank grape
Vitis viniferaEuropean grape
Vulpia bromoidesbrome fescue
Distribution: Introduced from southern British Columbia to southern California and Arizona, occasional farther east.
Habitat: From ocean beaches and salt marshes to sagebrush deserts.
Vulpia microstachysNuttall's fescue, small fescue
Vulpia myurosrat-tail six-weeks grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; occurring throughout most of North America except for the Great Plains and eastern Canada.
Habitat: A weedy species of waste places and dry, overgrazed areas.
Vulpia octoflora
var. hirtella – six-weeks fescue
var. octoflora – six-weeks fescue