Betulaceae
Birch Family
3 genera
12 species
5 subspecies and varieties
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Alnus incana
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to New Mexico, also in the north-central and northeastern region of North America.
Habitat: Moist places, streamside, low to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
ssp. tenuifolia – mountain alder
Alnus rhombifoliaCalifornia alder, white alder
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California and Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Near streams at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-April
Alnus rubraOregon alder, red alder
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, disjunct to the east in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Alnus viridis
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist areas, low to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. fruticosa – Siberian alder
ssp. sinuata – mountain alder, Sitka alder
Betula glandulosadwarf birch, resin birch, swamp birch
Distribution: Alaska south to the Sierra of California, east to Nevada and Colorado, and also to Newfoundland and New York.
Habitat: Stream banks, margins of marshes, lakes and bogs, and on alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late April - early July
Betula occidentalisred birch, river birch, water birch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east in Canada to Ontario, east in the U.S. to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist areas, streambanks at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-June
Betula papyriferacanoe birch, paper birch, western paper birch, white birch
Distribution: Alaska to Oregon, east of the Cascades except in northwest Washington, east to the Atlantic coast
Habitat: Moist, open to dense woods, low to moderate elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: March - May
Betula pendulaEuropean weeping birch
Distribution: Occurring in Washington on both sides of the Cascades; Introduced as an ornamental in Washington; occurring in isolated locations in south-central Canada and the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas associated with urban and suburban development where the trees escape from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Betula pumilabog birch, dwarf birch, swamp birch
Origin: Native
Betula ×utahensis
Origin: Native
Flowers: March - May
Corylus avellanacommon filbert, European hazelnut
Distribution: Widely planted as an ornamental and occasionally naturalizing in western Washington lowlands; British Columbia south to Oregon.
Habitat: Abandoned plantings, roadsides, waste sites, forest edge.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: January-April
Corylus cornuta
Distribution: Widespread in North America from British Columbia to Newfoundland, south to California, Colorado, Missouri, Ohio, and Georgia. In WA on both sides of the Cascades, and in the eastern portion of the state.
Habitat: Forest edge and openings, thickets, and rocky slopes at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January - March
var. californica – California hazel
var. cornuta – beaked hazel