Dryopteridaceae
Wood Fern Family
6 genera
26 species
6 subspecies and varieties
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Athyrium distentifolium
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes and along streams at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
ssp. americanum – American alpine lady fern
Athyrium filix-femina
Distribution: Circumboreal; throughout the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Common in moist woods and meadows, low to mid-elevations
var. cyclosorum – lady fern, northwestern lady fern
Cystopteris fragilisbladder fern, brittle fern, fragile fern
Distribution: Widespread in North America and common in the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Moist to moderately dry, often rocky places, lowlands to above timberline
Origin: Native
Dryopteris argutacoastal fern, marginal wood fern
Distribution: Cheifly west of the Cascade summits, southern Washington to California and east to Arizona; also in the mountains of eastern Oregon.
Habitat: Mostly in the woods, but occasionally in more open areas.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris carthusianaspinulose fern, toothed wood fern
Distribution: Circumboreal, extending south in North America to Oregon and northern California from the Cascades to the coast; also in northern Idaho and northwest Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris cristatacrested wood fern fern, shield fern
Distribution: Circumboreal, extending south in North America to northern Idaho, northwest Montana, and Arkansas.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris expansanorthern fern, spreading wood fern
Distribution: Circumboreal; throughout the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Moist to wet woods and streambanks
Origin: Native
Dryopteris filix-masmale fern
Origin: Native
Gymnocarpium ×brittonianumhybrid oak fern
Origin: Native
Gymnocarpium disjunctumPacific oak fern, western fern
Distribution: Circumboreal, extending south in North America to Oregon, Arizona and Virginia.
Habitat: Moist woods, streambanks and wet cliffs.
Origin: Native
Gymnocarpium dryopteriscommon fern, northern oak fern
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska east across northern Canada, south to northern U.S., with disjunct populations scattered throughout western North America.
Habitat: Forest understory, often where moist
Origin: Native
Polystichum andersoniiAnderson's sword fern, Vancouver holly fern
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to northern Oregon, northern Idaho, and northwest Montana; also in the Olympic Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Deep woods and thickets in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Polystichum californicumCalifornia sword fern
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist forest understory at low elevations, typically in rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Polystichum californicum
Origin: Native
Polystichum imbricans
Distribution: Cascades of central Washington south to California, and in the Olympics; sometimes on serpentine
Habitat: Dry, rocky places, open areas and open woods, at mid-elevations
Origin: Native
ssp. imbricans – imbricate fern, narrow-leaved sword fern
Polystichum kruckebergiiholly fern, Kruckeberg's sword fern fern
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically among rocks; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Polystichum kruckebergiihybrid holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmoniiLemmon's holly fern, Shasta fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in the northern half of Washington, particularly common in the Wenatchee Mountains; southern British Columbia, northern Washington, disjunct in the Wallowa Mts., and in southwestern Oregon and northern California.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes near timberline in the mountains, chiefly on serpentine.
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmoniihidden sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmoniiserpentine holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lonchitismountain fern, northern holly fern
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Quebec and Wyoming
Habitat: Talus slopes and cliff crevices, occasionally in coniferous forests, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Polystichum munitumcommon sword fern, western fern
Distribution: In forested areas throughout Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods, in open to deep shade; from sea-level to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores year-round on fronds
Polystichum munitumhybrid sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum scopulinummountain holly fern, rock sword fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically associated with rock outcroppings and crevices; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Woodsia oregana
Distribution: Alaska to California, chiefly east of the Cascade summits in Washington and Oregon
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges and talus slopes in the mountains, and in less arid parts of the lowlands.
ssp. oregana – Oregon fern, western cliff fern
Woodsia scopulina
Distribution: Alaska to California, chiefly east of the Cascade summits in Washington and Oregon
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges and talus slopes in the mountains, and in less arid parts of the lowlands.
ssp. laurentiana – Laurentian cliff fern
ssp. scopulina – mountain fern, Rocky Mountain cliff fern