Ericaceae
Heath Family
Synonyms:
Empetraceae
Monotropaceae
Pyrolaceae
23 genera
56 species
9 subspecies and varieties
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Allotropa virgatacandystick, sugarstick
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Deep humus of coniferous forests at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Andromeda polifolia
Distribution: Likely in northern Washington; Alaska to Newfoundland, south in the U.S. to Idaho.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and other acidic wetlands.
Flowers: May-July
var. polifolia – bog rosemary
Arbutus menziesiiPacific madrona, Pacific madrone
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Chiefly in drier, often rocky, areas at low elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Arctostaphylos columbianabristly manzanita
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist, open woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Arctostaphylos ×mediamedium manzanita
Distribution: Chiefly on the east side of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington
Habitat: Low to moderate elevations
Origin: Native
Arctostaphylos nevadensis
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Chiefly in the mountains at mid-elevations.
Flowers: May-July
ssp. nevadensis – pinemat manzanita
Arctostaphylos patulagreen-leaf manzanita
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Low elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Arctostaphylos uva-ursired bearberry, kinnikinnik
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California and New Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and prairies, rocky balds, dry subalpine meadows, and dry coniferous forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Cassiope lycopodioidesground pine heather, clubmoss mountain heather; club-moss mountain-heather
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to Washington.
Habitat: Alpine rocky slopes and crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cassiope mertensiana
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas in the alpine and subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
ssp. mertensiana – Mertens' mountain heather, western moss heather
Cassiope tetragona
Distribution: Alaska to Washington, also in Montana
Habitat: Open, rocky areas in the alpine and subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. saximontana – four-angled mountain heather, white arctic mountain heather
Chimaphila menziesiilittle prince's-pine
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Coniferous forests at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Chimaphila umbellata
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and New Mexico, and Minnesota to Maine, south to North Carolina.
Habitat: Wooded areas, mostly coniferous, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. umbellata – Pipsissewa, common prince's-pine
Elliottia pyrolifloracopperbush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist forests and stream banks at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Empetrum nigrumcrowberry
Distribution: In the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California.
Habitat: Exposed rocky bluffs, but also in peat bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Gaultheria hispidulacreeping-snowberry
Distribution: Occurring in northeast Washsington; British Columbia east to Labrador, south into northern Idaho.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and deep coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Gaultheria humifusaalpine wintergreen
Distribution: In the Olympics and Cascades mountains of Washington; British Columbia south to northern California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine, usually where moist to wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Gaultheria ovatifoliawestern teaberry, slender wintergreen
Distribution: Chiefly in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington, but also in the northeastern part of the State; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Forested areas from fairly dry Ponderosa pine to subalpine bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Gaultheria shallonsalal
Distribution: Chiefly in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California.
Habitat: Woods, from sea level to moderate elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Harrimanella stellerianaAlaska bell-heather, alpine heather, Alaska bellheather; Alaskan moss-heather; Alaskan mountain-heather
Distribution: Alaska to the high Cascades of Washington
Habitat: Rocky slopes and seeps, alpine to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Hemitomes congestumconeplant, gnome-plant
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia south to Monterey County, California.
Habitat: Rich humus in damp coniferous forests at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Kalmia microphylla
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California; east in British Columbia to the Rockies, south to Colorado.
Habitat: In moist and wetland areas from the coast to higher elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. microphylla – alpine-laurel, bog laurel
var. occidentalis – Western swamp laurel
Kalmia procumbensalpine-azalea, alpine azalea, trailing azalea
Origin: Native
Menziesia ferrugineafalse azalea, fool's-huckleberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Forest understory and edges from montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Moneses uniflorasingle-delight
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods with high-humas soils, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Monotropa hypopitysmany-flower Indian-pipe
Distribution: On both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: In humus of coniferous forests at low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Monotropa unifloraone-flower Indian-pipe
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America except for Alaska, Yukon Territory, Nevada, and southern Rocky Mountain states.
Habitat: In humus in deep, shady woods at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Orthilia secundaone-sided pyrola, sidebells
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to New Mexico in the west, and across the northern half of the United States to the Atlantic
Habitat: Common in coniferous woods at moderate to mid-elevationn in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Phyllodoce empetriformispink mountain-heath
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming; in the Olympics and Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Rocky sites in high coniferous forests to alpine meadows
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Phyllodoce glanduliflorayellow mountain-heath
Distribution: Occurring in mountainous areas across Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky sites in high coniferous forests to alpine meadows and seeps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Phyllodoce ×intermedia
Distribution: Occasional where Phylodoce empetriformis and P. glandulosum are found growing in the same area, in the Cascades and Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: High elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Pityopus californicusCalifornia pinefoot
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Pleuricospora fimbriolatafringed pinesap
Distribution: Western slope of the Cascades and the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Uncommon in coniferous forests at mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pterospora andromedeawoodland pinedrops
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to South Dakota and Texas.
Habitat: Common in humas in coniferous forests, especially ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pyrola asarifolia
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of forested Washington except for the southeast corner; Alaska south to California, east to Colorado in the west, and across the northern half of the United States to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Moist ground in woodlands and forests, lowlands to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
ssp. asarifolia – pink pyrola
ssp. bracteata – pink pyrola
Pyrola chloranthagreen-flower wintergreen
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Chiefly in coniferous forests at moderate to mid-elevations, usually where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pyrola dentata
Origin: Native
Pyrola minorlesser wintergreen, snowline wintergreen
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada and northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Uncommon, mostly in moist areas in coniferous woods, moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pyrola pictawhite-vein wintergreen
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades, British Columbia to California, east to South Dakota and New Mexico
Habitat: Coniferous woods, especially ponderosa pine, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Rhododendron albiflorumwhite rhododendron
Distribution: British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana
Habitat: Moist, usually forested, slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Rhododendron columbianummt. Labrador tea, smooth Labrador tea, western Labrador tea
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Swamps and bogs, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Rhododendron groenlandicumrusty Labrador-tea, bog Labrador tea
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon and Idaho, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Swamps and bogs along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Rhododendron macrophyllumCalifornia rhododendron, Pacific rhododendron
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium caespitosumdwarf bilberry, dwarf huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Colorado; across southern Canada and the northern tier of states from Minnesota to Maine.
Habitat: Moist rocky ridges and meadows, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium corymbosumhigh-bush blueberry
Distribution: Widespread and native in eastern United States; introduced in Washington.
Habitat: Open swamps, sandy margins of ponds and lakes.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Vaccinium deliciosumCascade blueberry, Rainier blueberry, blueleaf huckleberry
Distribution: Ocurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Forest openings and mountain meadows, mid- to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium macrocarponcultivated cranberry, large cranberry
Distribution: In scattered locations in lowlands west of the Cascades crest; introduced British Columbia south to California; native eastern North
Origin: Introduced from NE US
Flowers: May - June
Vaccinium membranaceumsquare-twig blueberry, tall huckleberry, thin-leaved huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout forested and mountainous areas of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east the Rocky Mountains; Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Common in dry to moist coniferous forests and open areas, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium myrtilloidesvelvet-leaf blueberry
Distribution: British Columbia east to Labrador, and in the northern tier of states, Montana to West Virginia; Okanogan County in Washington.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, forest openings, bogs and barrens.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Vaccinium myrtillusdwarf blueberry, low blueberry
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades, British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, and south in the Rockies to Arizona and New Mexico
Habitat: Forest openings, mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Vaccinium ovalifoliumAlaska blueberry, oval-leaf blueberry
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas throughout Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Idaho, and then scattered areas to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Openings in coniferous forests, moderate to fairly high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium ovatumevergreen huckelberry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Coniferous forests at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Vaccinium oxycoccossmall cranberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, across Canada; from the upper Midwest to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Usually in sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium parvifoliumred huckleberry
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California on both sides of the Cascades, but much more common on the west side
Habitat: Moist woods, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Vaccinium scopariumgrouseberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Open, dry forests, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Vaccinium uliginosumbog bilberry, bog blueberry
Distribution: Cascades and west in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Wet areas from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July