Juncaceae
Rush Family
2 genera
65 species
20 subspecies and varieties
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Juncus acuminatusknotty leaf rush, sharp-fruited rush, tapered rush
Distribution: Mostly west of the Cascades, British Columbia south to California, east to southwest Idaho and Arizona.
Habitat: Ditches, lake margins, meadows and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - August
Juncus alpinoarticulatusalpine rush, northern rush
Distribution: In scattered location on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; scattered throughout North America from Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and central U.S. to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, pond and lake shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Juncus anthelatusgiant path rush
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Juncus articulatusjoint-leaved rush, jointed rush
Origin: Native
ssp. articulatus – jointed rush, jointleaf rush
Juncus balticusBaltic rush
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; widely distributed throughout much of western and central North America, less widely distributed in eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet places, often where saline or alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. ater – Baltic rush, valley rush
Juncus bolanderiBolander's rush
Distribution: West of the Cascades, southern British Columbia south to coastal California.
Habitat: Marshes and river bottoms from tidelands to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - August
Juncus brachycarpusshort-fruit rush
Origin: Introduced; native to southeastern and midwestern United States
Juncus brevicaudatusnarrow-panicled rush
Origin: Native
Juncus breweriBrewer's rush, salt rush
Origin: Native
Juncus bufonius
Origin: Native
var. bufonius – toad rush
var. congestus – clustered toad rush
var. occidentalis – western toad rush
Juncus bulbosusbulbous rush, spreading rush
Distribution: Introduced at several locations in wsestern Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast; Europe.
Habitat: Sandy or peaty shores of streams and pools.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: August
Juncus canadensisCanadian rush
Distribution: Introduced from eastern United States to a few locations in western Washington.
Habitat: Brackish swamps, acid bogs, tidal flats and beaches.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June - July
Juncus compressusround-fruit rush
Origin: Introduced
Juncus confususColorado rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Juncus conglomeratuscompact rush
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Juncus covilleiCoville's rush
Origin: Native
Juncus diffusissimusdiffuse rush, slimpod rush
Origin: Introduced from South America
Juncus drummondiiDrummond's rush, threeflower rush
Distribution: Alaska south to California, east to the Rockies, Alberta to New Mexico.
Habitat: Alpine to subalpine meadows, streambanks, talus slopes and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Juncus dudleyiDudley's rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Juncus effusus
Distribution: Alaska to Baja California, east to Newfoundland and most of central and eastern United States.
Habitat: Moist areas, from coastal tideflats to mountain meadows and ridges.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: June - August
ssp. effusus – soft rush
ssp. pacificus – common rush, Pacific rush
ssp. solutus – eastern soft rush
Juncus ensifoliusdagger rush, daggerleaf rush
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Great Plains; introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Shores of ponds and streams, wet meadows, fens, seeps, and ditches from low to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Juncus falcatussickle-leaved rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - July
ssp. sitchensis – Alaskan sickle leaved rush
Juncus filiformisthread rush
Distribution: Alaska to northern Oregon, east in Canada to Newfoundland and south to Pennsylvania and Montana.
Habitat: Lake shores and coastal bogs to montane marshes and meadows; in Washington, from near sea level to about 5000 feet elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Juncus gerardiblack rush, mud rush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in counties along the Puget Sound and outer coast; British Columbia south to Oregon, east sporadically across the U.S. to the northern Atlantic coast of the U.S. and Canada; circumboreal.
Habitat: Coastal salt marshes.
Origin: Both native and introduced - occurring in eastern North America, Eurasia.
Flowers: June-September
ssp. gerardi – black grass, Gerard's rush, mud rush
Juncus hemiendytus
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
var. hemiendytus – dwarf rush, Hermann's dwarf rush
Juncus hesperiusbog rush, coastal rush
Origin: Native
Juncus howelliiHowell's rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Juncus inflexusblue rush
Origin: Introduced
Juncus interiorinland rush
Distribution: Alberta south to Colorado, east to Quebec and Tennesee; occasional in eastern Washington.
Habitat: Dry, upland sites in prairies, exposed sites in disturbed areas, ditches in sandy or clayey soil
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Juncus kelloggiiKellogg's dwarf rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Juncus laccatusshiny rush
Origin: Native
Juncus longistylislong-styled rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Juncus mertensianusMertens' rush
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Alberta, South Dakota and New Mexico
Habitat: Wet places along streams and lakes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Juncus nevadensisNevada rush
Distribution: Southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rockies, Montana to New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet plasces, margins of streams and lakes, from near sea level to lower elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
var. inventus – dune rush
var. nevadensis – Sierra rush
Juncus nodosusknotted rish, tuberous rush
Distribution: East of the Cascades, British Columbia to California, east to Nova Scotia and Maine.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds and wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Juncus occidentaliswestern rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Juncus orthophyllusstraight-leaved rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Juncus oxymerispointed rush
Distribution: Southwest British Columbia to Caslifornia; in Washington, in the lowlands west of the Cascades.
Habitat: Wet meadows and lake shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Juncus parryiParry's rush
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Colorado; in the Olympics and Cascades of Washington
Habitat: Moist places, moderate to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Juncus patensspreading rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Juncus pelocarpusbrown-fruited rush
Origin: Introduced from northeastern North America
Juncus pylaeicommon rush
Origin: Introduced
Juncus regeliiRegel's rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Juncus saximontanusRocky Mountain rush
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Juncus supiniformishair-leaved rush, spreading rush
Distribution: Alaska south along the coast west of the Cascades to Mendocino County, California.
Habitat: Marshes, ponds, ditches and rivers, often where submerged early in the season.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Juncus tenuispath rush, poverty rush, slender rush
Distribution: Alaska south to Mexico, east across southern Canada and most of the United States.
Habitat: Moist places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Juncus tiehmiiTiehm's dwarf rush
Origin: Native
Juncus torreyiTorrey's rush
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascades, to California, east to Ontario and New York.
Habitat: Wet places, especially around lakes and along streams, form the lowlands to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Juncus trilocularisfoothill rush
Origin: Native
Juncus uncialisinch-high rush
Distribution: Oregon and California, occasional in estern Washington
Habitat: Margins of vernal pools and ponds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Juncus vaseyiVasey's rush
Origin: Native
Luzula arcuatacurved woodrush
Distribution: Alaska, British Columbia, and Mt. Rainier, Washington.
Habitat: Rocky or gravelly soil, usually on moraines or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
ssp. unalaschcensis – curved woodrush
Luzula campestrisfield woodrush
Origin: Introduced
ssp. campestris – field woodrush
Luzula cascadensisCascades woodrush
Origin: Native
Luzula comosa
Distribution: Uncommon west of the Cascades, British Columbia to California
Habitat: Gravelly prairies to moist, shaded areas in the lowlands
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
var. comosa – pale woodrush
var. laxa – Pacific woodrush
Luzula forsterisouthern woodrush
Origin: Introduced
ssp. forsteri – southern woodrush
Luzula hitchcockiiHitchcock's woodrush, smooth woodrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to Crater Lake and the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon, east to Alberta, Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Montane forests to alpine slopes, ridges and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Luzula macranthalarge-anthered woodrush, prairie woodrush
Origin: Native
Luzula multifloracommon woodrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Alberta and western Montana; also in northeastern United States.
Habitat: Fields, meadows, open woods and clearings, at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Luzula niveasnowy woodrush
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Luzula parviflorasmall flowered woodrush
Distribution: Alaska to Newfoundland, south to southern California and New York.
Habitat: Moist to fairly dry areas, coastal rain forest to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Luzula piperiPiper's woodrush
Origin: Native
Luzula spicataspiked woodrush
Origin: Native
ssp. spicata – spiked woodrush
Luzula subsessilisshort-stalked wood-rush
Origin: Native
Luzula sylvaticagreat woodrush
Origin: Introduced