Melanthiaceae
False-Hellebore Family
5 genera
11 species
7 subspecies and varieties
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Anticlea elegansglaucous death camas
Distribution: In the Olympic Mountains of Washington and across the northern border east of the Cascacdes crest; Alaska to Oregon, south in the Rockies to New Mexico, east across Canada and the northern United States to Virginia.
Habitat: Meadow, open forests and rocky slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Anticlea occidentalisbronze bells, mission bells, western featherbells
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Wet cliffs, moist meadows and scree, mostly at mid- to high elevations, but down to near sea level in the Olympic Peninsula and the Columbia River Gorge.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Toxicoscordion paniculatumpanicled death camas, sand corn
Distribution: East of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Montana and Arizona.
Habitat: Common in sagebrush desert to ponderosa or lodgepole pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Toxicoscordion venenosummeadow death-camas, deadly zygadene
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands, balds, prairies, and open pine woods from the coast to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. gramineum – common death camas, grassy death camas
var. venenosum – coastal death camas
Trillium albidumgiant trillium, sessile trillium
Origin: Native
ssp. parviflorum – small-flowered trillium
Trillium ovatumtrillium, white trillium, western wake-robin
Distribution: Widely distributed in the forested areas of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Idaho; also in Colorado and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open to dense moist forests at low to mid-elevations, often where boggy in the spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
var. ovatum – wakerobin
Trillium petiolatumpurple trillium, purple wakerobin
Distribution: East of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to northeastern Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Streambanks and moist meadows and thickets at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Veratrum californicumCalifornia false hellebore
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. californicum – skunk cabbage, California wild hellebore
var. caudatum – skunk cabbage, tailed wild hellebore
Veratrum insolitumsiskiyou wild hellebore
Distribution: Benton County, Oregon, south into northern California.
Habitat: Open prairies to thickets, and forested or open rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Veratrum virideAmerican false hellebore, green false hellebore, Indian-poke
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the forest and mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains; eastern North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. eschscholzianum – American wild hellebore
Xerophyllum tenaxbeargrass, western turkeybeard
Distribution: Occurring in the mountainous areas of Washington except in the southeastern region of the State; British Columbia south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open woods and clearings, from near sea level on the Olympic Peninsula to high elevations in the Rockies.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August