Onagraceae
Evening-Primrose Family
13 genera
59 species
21 subspecies and varieties
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Camissonia contortacontorted pod suncup, twisted suncup
Distribution: Along the coast and along the Columbia and Snake Rivers in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sandy soil along the coast and along inland rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Camissonia parvulaLewis river suncup
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Open to disturbed grasslands, sandy areas, sagebrush, and scrub forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Camissonia pusilla
Origin: Native
Chamaenerion angustifoliumfireweed
Distribution: Widespread throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open areas, sea level to subalpine, especially in burned areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Chamaenerion latifoliumbroad-leaf fireweed, red willow-herb
Distribution: Occurring in most mountainous areas of Washington except the southeast corner; Alaska south to the Sierra Nevada of California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: River bars, along streams, and drier subalpine to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Chylismia scapoidea
Origin: Native
ssp. scapoidea – naked-stalked evening primrose
Circaea alpinaenchanter's nightshade
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Newfoundland, south (mostly in the mountains) to California and Georgia.
Habitat: Cool, damp woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Clarkia amoena
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. caurina – yellow clarkia, farewell to spring
var. lindleyi – yellow clarkia, farewell to spring
Clarkia gracilis
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Fairly dry, open areas at low elevations.
Flowers: June-July
ssp. gracilis – slender godetia
Clarkia pulchelladeer horn, pinkfairies, ragged robin
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to South Dakota.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Clarkia purpurea
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, open ground, often at the edge of vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
ssp. quadrivulnera – four-spot
Clarkia rhomboideacommon clarkia, diamond fairyfan
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California and Arizona, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy soil in forest openings at low to moderate elevtions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Epilobium anagallidifoliumalpine willowherb, pimpernel willowherb
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Greenland, throughout western and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Alpine meadows, streambanks, and riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Epilobium brachycarpumautumn willowherb, tall annual willowherb
Distribution: Throughout Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Wisconsin in the north and New Mexico in the south.
Habitat: Common in dry, open meadows and grasslands to lightly wooded areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Epilobium campestresmooth willowherb
Distribution: Central and eastern portion of Washington; British Columbia east to Saskatchewan, south to Arizona and California.
Habitat: Mud flats, vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Epilobium ciliatum
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout all of Washington; widespread throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Moist soil from lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. ciliatum – ciliate willowherb
ssp. glandulosum – ciliate willowherb
ssp. watsonii – Watson's willowherb
Epilobium clavatumtalus willowherb
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist meadows and talus slopes in the mountains, subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Epilobium densiflorumdense-flower willowherb
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to Baja California, east to Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Boggy areas with standing water in winter and spring; occasional streamside.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Epilobium foliosumCalifornia willowherb, small-flowered willowherb
Origin: Native
Epilobium glaberrimum
Distribution: Widely distributed throughtout much of the mountainous areas of Washington; British Ciolumbia south to California, east to Montana, Idaho and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet places at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. fastigiatum – smooth willowherb
ssp. glaberrimum – smooth willowherb
Epilobium hallianumglandular willowherb, Hall's willowherb
Distribution: Occurring in the mountains throughout Washington; occurring throughout western North America.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas from montane to alpine habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Epilobium hirsutumcodlins-and-cream, fiddle grass
Distribution: Introduced occasionally west of the Cascades and near Bingen in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon; upper central and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Garden escape in wet areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Epilobium hornemannii
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to South Dakota and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet rocky areas and streambanks, low to subalpine elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
ssp. hornemannii – alpine willowherb
Epilobium lactiflorumwhite-flower willowherb
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet meadows and seeps, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Epilobium leptocarpumslender-fruit willowherb
Origin: Native
Epilobium leptophyllumbog willowherb
Origin: Introduced
Epilobium luteumyellow willowherb
Distribution: In the Olympics and Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California.
Habitat: Stream banks and wet areas at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Epilobium minutumchaparral willowherb
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; common from British Columbia south to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Dry or gravelly soil, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Epilobium mirabileOlympic Mountain willowherb
Origin: Native
Epilobium oregonenseOregon willowherb
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Arizona, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Streambanks, bogs, and wet meadows from moderate elevations in mountains to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Epilobium palustremarsh willowherb
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska east to the Atlantic coast; south in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado.
Habitat: Wet soil, often in bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Epilobium ×pulchrum
Origin: Native
Epilobium saximontanumRocky Mountain willowherb
Origin: Native
Epilobium torreyibrook willowherb
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington from Kittitas County south; both sides of the Cascades in Oregon, south to central California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Places that are soggy with standing water in winter and spring, drying in summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Eremothera boothii
Origin: Native
ssp. boothii – Booth's sun cup, Booth's evening primrose, Booth's suncup
Eremothera minorsmall-flowered evening primrose, green river suncup
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, often where vernally moist
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Eremothera pygmaeadwarf suncup
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington in central part of the state; Washington south to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Vernally moist areas in open, sagebrush desert
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Gaura coccineascarlet beeblossom
Distribution: Reported from Bingen, Washington - unclear as to whether truly native or a garden escape; chiefly east of the Rockies, but crossing into western Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes, chiefly in the sagebrush area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Gayophytum decipiensdeceptive groundsmoke
Origin: Native
Gayophytum diffusum
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to South Dakota and New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry meadows and open slopes, from lowlands to near timberline.
Flowers: June-August
ssp. diffusum – spreading groundsmoke
ssp. parviflorum – spreading groundsmoke
Gayophytum heterozygumzigzag groundsmoke
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Gayophytum humiledwarf groundsmoke
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widespread in western North America; also known from South America.
Habitat: Open areas at low to middle elevations where soil is seasonally wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Gayophytum racemosumblack-foot groundsmoke, racemose groundsmoke
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascade in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Open slopes, often where moist early, from the foothills to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Gayophytum ramosissimumpinyon groundsmoke
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California and Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry foothills and valleys to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Ludwigia hexapetalafalse loosestrife, water primrose, large-flower primrose-willow
Distribution: Scattered locations throughout Washington; along Columbia River near Portland, OR, introduced in much of North America.
Habitat: Swamps, lakes, and streams.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Ludwigia palustrismarsh primrose-willow
Distribution: West side of the Cascades and along the Columbia River in Washington; widespread in North America, Africa and Eurasia.
Habitat: Marshes and bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Ludwigia peploides
Origin: Introduced
ssp. montevidensis – floating primrose-willow
Neoholmgrenia andinablackfoot river suncup, obscure suncup
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and sagebrush scablands to the ponderosa pine forests of the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Neoholmgrenia hilgardiiHilgard's suncup
Distribution: East of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Klickitat County, Washington, and in Multanomah County, Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Oenothera biennisking's-cureall
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Meadows and stream banks, from the plains to the lower mountains, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Oenothera cespitosa
Distribution: Occuring sporadically throughout central and eastern Washington; widespread throughout much of western U.S. and central Canada.
Habitat: Talus slopes, road cuts, and dry hills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. cespitosa – butte primrose, fragrant evening primrose, rock rose
Oenothera curtiflorasmall-flowered gaura, velvetweed, velvet weed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Open, sandy, rocky, often disturbed places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Oenothera elata
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and southern Great Plains in the U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills to mid elevations in the mountains, generally where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
ssp. hirsutissima – Hooker's evening primrose
Oenothera flava
Distribution: Known historically in Washington from south-central part of the state; Saskatchewan to Mexico, west to Idaho and California.
Habitat: Hard-packed soil in swales or around vernal pools in the plains and lower foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
ssp. flava – long-tubed evening primrose
Oenothera glaziovianared-sepal evening-primrose
Distribution: Occasional garden escape west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Oenothera pallida
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, sandy or gravelly soil, commonly on dunes at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. pallida – pale evening primrose
Oenothera villosa
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Forest openings, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. strigosa – common evening primrose
Taraxia subacaulislong-leaf evening primrose
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Meadows, benchland, and stream banks, from sagbrush plains to moderate elevations in the mountains, usually where dry by late summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Taraxia tanacetifoliatansy-leaf evening primrose
Distribution: East of the Cascades, Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada
Habitat: Dry, often sandy or gravelly ground, low to moderate elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August