Orchidaceae
Orchid Family
12 genera
36 species
14 subspecies and varieties
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Calypso bulbosa
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska to Labrador, south to California and New York.
Habitat: Mostly in cool, deep shade of moist forests in soil rich in humus, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
var. americana – calypso, fairy-slipper
var. occidentalis – calypso, fairy-slipper
Cephalanthera austiniaephantom orchid
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades and in the Blue Mountains of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Generally deep coniferous woods where somewhat moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Corallorhiza maculataspotted coral-root
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; British Columbia east to Newfoundland, south to California and North Carolina.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. maculata – spotted coralroot
var. occidentalis – western spotted coralroot
var. ozettensis – ozette coralroot
Corallorhiza mertensianaPacific coralroot, western coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Usually in moist coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Corallorhiza striatastriped coral-root
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist humus in shady coniferous and deciduous forests, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
var. striata – hooded coralroot, striped coralroot
var. vreelandii – vreeland's striped coralroot
Corallorhiza trifidaearly coralroot, northern coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast throughout the northern half of North America.
Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine in the Pacific Northswest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cypripedium ×columbianumColumbia lady's-slipper, hybrid lady's-slipper
Origin: Native
Cypripedium fasciculatumclustered lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Santa Cruz County, California, east to Idaho and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry and rocky, open coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Cypripedium montanummountain lady's-slipper
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry to moist open woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Cypripedium parviflorumfairy slipper, yellow lady's-slipper slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; throughout most of Canada and the central, southeastern, and northeastern regions of the U.S.
Habitat: Bogs and damp woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Dactylorhiza viridisfrog-orchis, Frog-orchis, long-bracted orchid
Distribution: Known only from Okanogan County in Washington; Alaska south to Washington, east across the southern half of Canada to the Atlantic Coast; south in the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico; east from the upper Midwest to the northeastern U.S., south in the Appalachian Mts.
Habitat: Moist to wet meadows at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Epipactis giganteagiant helleborine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Stream banks, lake margins, around springs and seeps, especially in thermal waters in otherwise desert regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Epipactis helleborinebroad-leaved helleborine, garden helleborine
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, in scattered locations across central Canada and the U.S.; the Upper Midwest and Northeast U.S.
Habitat: Moist to dry, shady woods, disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Goodyera oblongifoliagiant rattlesnake-plantain, western rattlesnake-plantain
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the mountainous and forested areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; Great Lakes Region and eastern Canada/New England.
Habitat: Dry to moist forests, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Liparis loeseliifen orchid, Loesel's twayblade
Distribution: Occasional, Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia, south to North Dakota and Iowa; Klickitat and Yakima Counties in Washington.
Habitat: Around springs and in bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Malaxis monophylloswhite adder's-mouth, one-leaved malaxis
Origin: Native
var. brachypoda – North American white adder's-mouth
Neottia banksiananorthwestern twayblade
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist forests and wet meadows, lowlands to subalpine elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Neottia borealisnorthern twayblade
Distribution: Known only from Okanogan County in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to northern Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist, rich coniferous forest understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Neottia convallarioidesbroad-lip twayblade
Distribution: Alaska to California and Arizona, east to Newfoundland to Maine across the northern tier of ststes
Habitat: Moist forests and wet meadows, lowlands to subalpine elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - Early August
Neottia cordataheart-leaf twayblade
Distribution: Alaska to Greenland, south to California to North Carolina
Habitat: Usually in damp places and along streams, but occasionally in drier areas
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Platanthera aquiloniseagle rein orchid, Sheviak's bog orchid
Distribution: Known only from Steven County in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast;
Habitat: Wet meadows from montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Platanthera chorisianachoriso bog orchid
Distribution: Known only from Snohomish County in Washington; Aleutian Islands south the Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and in Snohomish County, Washington.
Habitat: Moist areas, especially at the edges of streams and bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Platanthera dilatatascent bottle, bog candle, boreal bog orchid, white orchid, white rein orchid
Distribution: Widely distributed through the mountainous and forested areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in northeastern in North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, forest openings, and streambanks from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. albiflora – white bog orchid
var. dilatata – white bog orchid
var. leucostachys – white bog orchid
Platanthera eleganshillside rein orchid, elegant rein-orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Mostly in dry, open woods and hills where moist in spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
ssp. elegans – elegant rein orchid, hillside rein orchid
Platanthera elongatadense orchid, dense-flower rein orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open forest from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Platanthera ephemeranthawhite-lip rein orchid
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington and Columbia River Gorge; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forest at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Platanthera huronensisnorthern green bog orchid
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from north-central to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to boggy areas, often on limestone, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Platanthera obtusatasmall northern bog-orchid, blunt-leaf rein-orchid, one-leaf rein-orchid
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana and Colorado, across Canada to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Damp to wet forests at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
ssp. obtusata – blunt-leaf rein orchid, one-leaf rein orchid, small northern bog orchid
Platanthera orbiculatalarge round-leaf orchid
Distribution: Alaska to Newfoundland, south on both sides of the Cascades to Oregon, Idaho and northwest Montana; east to Minnisota, Indiana and Georgia.
Habitat: Moist, mossy forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Platanthera sparsifloracanyon bog orchid
Origin: Native
Platanthera strictacanyon bog orchid, needle-spur green orchid, slender bog orchid
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet meadows, swamps and coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Platanthera transversaroyal rein orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Forest understory from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Platanthera unalascensisAlaska rein orchid
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Quebec and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open woods and gravelly streambanks, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Spiranthes diluvialisdiluvial ladies'-tresses
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; scattered localities in Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to wet meadows, marshes, and riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Spiranthes porrifoliawestern ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Washington south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Moist to swampy areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Spiranthes romanzoffianahooded ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Seasonally moist to swampy areas, sometimes in disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September