Orobanchaceae
Broom-Rape Family
13 genera
48 species
26 subspecies and varieties
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Aphyllon californicumCalifornia broomrape
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Baja California, also east of the Cascades crest in Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal and sub-coastal, or in meadows inland, parasitic on Asteraceae but not on Artemisia tridentata.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
ssp. californicum – California broomrape
ssp. grayanum – Gray's California broomrape
Aphyllon corymbosumflat-topped broomrape
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and the Canadian Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert areas, parasitic mainly on Artemisia tridentata.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. corymbosum – flat-topped broomrape
ssp. mutabile – flat-topped broomrape
Aphyllon fasciculatumclustered broomrape
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Dry, open places, valleys to montane, parasitic mainly on Artemisia, Eriogonum, Eriophyllum, Galium, and Phacelia.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Aphyllon ludovicianumLouisiana broomrape, Suksdorf's broomrape
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy areas, parasitic on Artemisia, Chrysopsis, and other woody Asteraceae.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Aphyllon pinorumpine broomrape, pinewoods broomrape
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to northern Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico.
Habitat: Montane coniferous forest, parasitic on Holodiscus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Aphyllon purpureumpurple broomrape
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: From lowland to montange, often where open and seasonally moist, parasitic mainly on Asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Sedum.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Bellardia viscosayellow glandweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in south-central U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia.
Flowers: June-August
Castilleja ambiguapaint-brush owl-clover
Distribution: Coastal areas, Washington to California
Habitat: Salt marshes and borders of brackish ponds
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. ambigua – salt-marsh paintbrush
Castilleja attenuataattenuate paintbrush, valley-tassels
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Arizona.
Habitat: Drier areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Castilleja cervinadeer paintbrush
Distribution: Northeast Washington; British Columbia east to northern Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grasslands and woodlands at moderate to mid-elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Castilleja chambersiiChambers's Indian paintbrush
Distribution: Known only from Pacific County in Washington; Pacific County, WA south to Clatsop County, OR.
Habitat: Forest openings, embankments, and rock outcroppings typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Castilleja cryptanthaobscure paintbrush
Distribution: Endemic to Mt. Rainier National Park and immediate vicinity, Washington.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Castilleja cusickiiCusick's paintbrush
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Alberta south to Montana and Wyoming, west through Idaho to northeast Oregon.
Habitat: Open areas, lower valleys to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Castilleja elmeriElmer's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington from the Wenatchee Mountains and northward; south-central British Columbia to Kittitas County in Washington.
Habitat: Moist, open slopes at middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Castilleja exserta
Origin: Introduced
var. exserta – purple owl-clover
Castilleja hispidaharsh paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to southwestern Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy slopes and forest openings, from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
var. acuta – acute paintbrush, harsh paintbrush
var. hispida – harsh paintbrush
Castilleja levisectagolden paintbrush
Distribution: Puget Sound of Washington; Vancouver Island south to the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and prairies at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Castilleja litoraliscoast paintbrush, Pacific paintbrush
Origin: Native
Castilleja lutescensyellow paintbrush
Distribution: Eastern Washington; east to northwestern Montana and south through Idaho to northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Low, dry grasslands and woodlands, occasionally to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Castilleja miniatacommon paintbrush, scarlet paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring throughout much of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S., east to Ontario in Canada.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and slopes; also on coastal bluffs; widespread and common.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
var. dixonii – Dixon's paintbrush
var. miniata – scarlet paintbrush
Castilleja minorannual paintbrush
Distribution: Central Washington and eastern Oregon to southern Montana, south to Arizona.
Habitat: Alkaline marshes and meadows, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - September
var. exilis – seep paintbrush
Castilleja parviflorasmall-flowered paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forest openings at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. albida – mountain Indian paintbrush
var. olympica – Olympic paintbrush
var. oreopola – magenta paintbrush
Castilleja rupicolacliff paintbrush
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; from southern British Columbia to central Oregon.
Habitat: Rock crevices and rocky slopes, usually above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Castilleja suksdorfiiSuksdorf's paintbrush
Distribution: In Washington chiefly in the Cascades from Mt. Adams south, occasionally north to Whatcom County; south to Crater Lake, Oregon.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forests along streams and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Castilleja tenuisthin paintbrush
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington but more common eastward; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows and other moist sites, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Castilleja thompsoniiThompson's paintbrush
Distribution: East of the Cascade summits in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry sagebrush deserts to high mountain ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Castilleja victoriaeVictoria's paintbrush
Distribution: San Juan Islands in WA; Victoria, B.C.
Habitat: Seasonally moist balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Cordylanthus capitatusYakima bird's-beak
Distribution: East of the Cascade crest in Washington; Idaho and Montana south to California and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open woods and hillsides, often with sagebrush, moderate to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Euphrasia nemorosacommon eyebright, hairy eyebright
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - October
Kopsiopsis hookerismall groundcone, Vancouver groundcone, poque
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the Puget Sound and outer coast in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Myco-heterotrophic on Gaultheria shallon, which occurs primarily in forest understories, along forest edges, and in forest and meadow openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Melampyrum linearenarrow-leaved cow wheat
Distribution: Occurring in the northeastern corner of Washington; British Columbia south to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, rocky outcroppings, and wet areas from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Odontites vulgarisred bartsia
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Orobanche minorhellroot
Distribution: Occurring only sparingly, west of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to Oregon; along the Atlantic Coast of the U.S.
Habitat: Lowland areas, parasitic, especially on clover.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Orthocarpus barbatusGrand Coulee owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington. Southern British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open ground in sagebrush-steppe.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Orthocarpus bracteosusrosy owl-clover
Distribution: In Washington from the east base of the Cascades westward; southern British Columbia south to northern California.
Habitat: Meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Orthocarpus imbricatusmountain owl-clover
Distribution: Olympic Mountains and Cascades of Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon and California.
Habitat: Fairly dry meadows and rocky slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Orthocarpus luteusgolden-tongue owl-clover
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Manitoba and Nebraska.
Habitat: Low ground, from the plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Orthocarpus tenuifoliusnarrow-leaved owl-clover, thin-leaved owl-clover
Distribution: East of the Cascade crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to central Oregon east to western Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist or rather dry places, from the valleys and plains to moderate elevtions in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Pedicularis bracteosabracted lousewort
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the mountainous areas of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Common in open forests at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. atrosanguinea – bracted lousewort
var. bracteosa – bracted lousewort
var. flavida – bracted lousewort
var. latifolia – bracted lousewort
var. pachyrhiza – bracted lousewort
var. siifolia – bracted lousewort
Pedicularis contortawhite coiled-beak lousewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and south to Wyoming.
Habitat: Open wooded slopes and drier meadows at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. contorta – white-coiled beak lousewort
Pedicularis groenlandicabull elephant's-head, elephant's head
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico
Habitat: Seeps, lake shores and other wet areas at mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Pedicularis ornithorhynchosduck's-bill, bird's beak lousewort
Distribution: In the Cascades of Washington; Alaska south to Washington.
Habitat: High mountain meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Pedicularis pulchellapretty dwarf lousewort
Origin: Native
Pedicularis racemosaleafy lousewort, sickletop lousewort
Distribution: Widely distributed across Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Coniferous forests at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. alba – sickletop lousewort
var. racemosa – sickletop lousewort
Pedicularis rainierensisMt. Rainier lousewort
Distribution: Endemic to Mount Rainier National Park area in Washington.
Habitat: Moist alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Rhinanthus minorlittle yellow rattle
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Newfoundland, south to upper Midwest and New England; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist meadows, forest openings, and roadsides at low to middle elevations, sometimes in subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Triphysaria erianthabutter-and-eggs, Johnny-tuck owl-clover
Origin: Introduced as waif and/or cultivar from CA; occurrence based on records from late 1800s; no recent records or evidence of establishment in WA
ssp. eriantha – butter and eggs, johnny turk
Triphysaria pusilladwarf owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Vernally moist, open ground at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June