Pinaceae
Pine Family
6 genera
17 species
8 subspecies and varieties
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Abies amabilisPacific silver fir
Distribution: On both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Siskiyou County, California, mostly west of the Cascade Crest.
Habitat: Mostly at 1000-4000 feet elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Abies grandisgrand fir
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to California on both sides of the Cascades; scattered areas in the mountains east to Montana.
Habitat: Coniferous forests, from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Abies lasiocarpaalpine fir, subalpine fir
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; Alaska south to southern Oregon, east in the higher mountains to Alberta, Canada, and Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine slopes, where commonly in krumholtz form.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July
Abies proceranoble fir
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; from northern Washington to the Siskiyou Mountains in California, and in the Coast Range in Oregon.
Habitat: Deep forests where there is sufficient moisture, moderate to fairly high elevations.
Origin: Native
Larix lyalliisubalpine larch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to the central Cascades and Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, east to Montana and Alberta.
Habitat: Generally near timberline, preferring north-facing slopes.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July (cone production)
Larix occidentaliswestern larch
Distribution: East of the Cascades, British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana and Alberta
Habitat: Mountain valleys and lower slopes, often in swampy areas
Origin: Native
Cones: May - June
Picea engelmanniiEngelmann's spruce
Distribution: British Columbia south through the Cascades of Washington and Oregon to Shasta County, California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moderate to high elevations in the mountains, mostly where somewhat moist.
Cones: New cones from June-August
var. engelmannii – Engelmann spruce, Engelmann's spruce
Picea glaucaBlack Hills spruce, Porsild spruce, western white spruce
Origin: Native
Picea sitchensisSitka spruce
Distribution: West of the Cascades, Alaska to California
Habitat: Along the coast, from sea level up to about 2,000 feet in moist valleys
Origin: Native
Cones: May
Pinus albicauliswhite-bark pine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Wyoming and Montana.
Habitat: Generally near timberline, preferring south-facing slopes.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July
Pinus contorta
Distribution: Alaska south into Oregon, east to Alberta and South Dakota, and in the Rocky Mountain states
Habitat: Dry montane forests, rocky balds, coastal bluffs and sand dunes, and sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Cones: April - June
var. contorta – shore pine
var. latifolia – lodgepole pine
var. murrayana – Sierra lodgepole pine
Pinus monticolawestern white pine
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to Utah and Montana; in the Washington Olympics
Habitat: Moist valleys and drier slopes, near sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Cones: May - June
Pinus ponderosa
Distribution: Mostly east of the Cascades, British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Dakotas and Texas; in a few localities in the Puget Trough, Washington, and the Willamette Valley Oregon
Habitat: Mostly dry areas in open forests at low to moderate elevations
Cones: May - June
var. scopulorum – Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Colorado
Habitat: Moist to dry areas from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains, occasionally to timberline
Origin: Native
Cones: April - May
var. glauca – pino real colorado, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir
var. menziesii – Douglas-fir
Tsuga heterophyllawestern hemlock
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Montana, but much more common west of the Cascades
Habitat: Moist, deep forests from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Cones: May - June
Tsuga ×jeffreyi
Origin: Native
Tsuga mertensianamountain hemlock
Distribution: Alaska to california, east to Montana; in both Olympics and Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Cones: June - July