Plantaginaceae
Mare's-Tail Family, Plantain Family, Water-Starwort Family
Synonyms:
Callitrichaceae [HC]
Hippuridaceae [HC]
19 genera
98 species
35 subspecies and varieties
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Antirrhinum majusgarden snapdragon, greater snapdragon
Distribution: Occasionally escaped from cultivation in western Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Bacopa rotundifoliadisk water hyssop
Origin: Introduced
Callitriche brutianarrow-leaf water-starwort
Origin: Native
Callitriche hermaphroditicaautumn water-starwort, northern water-starwort
Distribution: Across northern North America, south to central California, northern New Mexico, the Great Lakes, and northeast United States.
Habitat: Sloughs and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Callitriche heterophylladifferent-leaved water-starwort
Distribution: North and South America and Greenland.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving, fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
var. bolanderi – Bolander's different-leaved water-starwort
Callitriche marginatawinged water-starwort
Distribution: Reported from eastern counties in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Callitriche palustrisspring water-starwort, vernal water-starwort
Distribution: General in North America except Mexico and south and southeast United States.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Callitriche stagnalispond water-starwort
Distribution: Introduced in the Pacific Coast states, Montana, and some Eastern states
Habitat: Uncommon in streams, ponds and ditches
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May - August
Chaenorhinum minusdwarf-snapdragon
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon; occurring throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Roadside, disturbed open areas, waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Collinsia grandifloralarge-flowered blue-eyed Mary, blue-lips blue-eyed Mary
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east in the Columbia River Gorge.
Habitat: Open, moist to rather dry areas, low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Collinsia parviflorasmall-flower blue-eyed Mary
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California and Colorado, east to Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Lowlands to alpine meadows in vernally (springtime) moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Collinsia rattaniiRattan collinsia, rattan collinsia
Distribution: West of the Cascades in southern Washington, through the Columbia River Gorge to the John Day valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Open woods at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Collinsia sparsiflorafew-flowered blue-eyed Mary, few-flowered collinsia
Distribution: Chiefly along the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington south to northern Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Open slopes and swales.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
var. sparsiflora – few-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Cymbalaria muralisKenilworth-ivy, ivy-leaved toadflax
Distribution: Introduced west of the Cascades, British Columbia to Oregon
Habitat: Wasteland,disturbed soil
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April - October
Digitalis purpureapurple foxglove
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana in the west, and Wisconsin to Maine, south to west Virginia, in eastern United States.
Habitat: Widespread and common near roads, sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Gratiola ebracteatabractless hedge-hyssop
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Shallow water and muddy shores, and in other wet places in the valleys and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Gratiola neglectaAmerican hedge-hyssop, clammy hedge-hyssop
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America.
Habitat: In shallow water and on muddy shores, and in other wet places in the valleys and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Hippuris montanamountain mare's-tail
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Northwest Territories and Alberta.
Habitat: Wet meadows, streams and mossy banks in the moungtains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Hippuris vulgariscommon mare's-tail
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to south California and New Mexico, east through southern Canada and the northern states to Maine.
Habitat: Streams, ponds and shallow lakes, generally at least partially emerged.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Kickxia elatinesharpleaf cancerwort
Origin: Introduced
Linaria bipartita
Origin: Introduced
Linaria dalmaticadalmation toadflax
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington, but more prevalent east of the Cascades crest; widely distributed throughout most of North America except southeastern region.
Habitat: Open areas roadsides, fields, wastelots, forest openings, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
ssp. dalmatica – brown-leaved toadflax, Dalmatian toadflax, dalmatian toadflax
Linaria genistifoliabroomleaf toadflax
Origin: Introduced
Linaria grandifloralarge-flowered linaria
Origin: Introduced
Linaria maroccanaMoroccan toadflax
Origin: Introduced
Linaria purpureapurple toadflax
Distribution: Introduced as an ornamental, occasionally escaping west of the Cascades in Washington.
Habitat: Bare and disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: June - August
Linaria vulgarisgreater butter-and-eggs
Distribution: Widely distributed across Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Noxious weed of roadsides, wastelots, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Misopates orontiumlesser snapdragon, weasel's snout
Distribution: Occasionally escaped from cultivation in western Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Nothochelone nemorosawoodland-beardtongue
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades, British Columbia to California
Habitat: Fairly dense woods to moist, open slopes at mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Nuttallanthus texanusblue toadflax, Texas toadflax
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Sasketchewan and across much of the U.S. except the upper Midwest and Northeast.
Habitat: Prairies, grasslands, and balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Penstemon acuminatussand dune penstemon, sharp-leaved penstemon
Distribution: Douglas County south to Klickitat Count, east to Franklin County; Washington south to Wasco County, Oregon, also in southeastern Oregon and adjacent southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open, sandy places at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. acuminatus – sand dune penstemon, sharp-leaved penstemon
Penstemon attenuatussulphur penstemon, taper-leaved penstemon
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to western Montana and southern Idaho.
Habitat: Drier meadows and moist, open to wooded slopes in the mountains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. attenuatus – sulphur penstemon, taper-leaved penstemon
Penstemon barrettiaeBarrett's beardtongue
Distribution: Endemic to the Klickitat River canyon and the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Dry soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Penstemon cardwelliiCardwell's beardtongue
Distribution: Skamania County, Washington, south on the west slopes of the Cascades to the Klamath region of southwest Oregon, and north in the Coast Range to Tillamook County.
Habitat: Open or wooded summits or slopes at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - July
Penstemon confertuslesser yellow beardtongue
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open woods at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Penstemon davidsoniiDavidson's penstemon
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. davidsonii – Davidson's beardtongue
var. menziesii – Davidson's beardtongue
Penstemon deustushot-rock penstemon
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Dry sites at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. deustus – hot-rock penstemon
var. variabilis – hotrock penstemon, scabland penstemon, scorched penstemon
Penstemon diphyllustwo-leaf beardtongue
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - October
Penstemon ellipticusrockvine beardtongue
Distribution: Southwest Alberta, southeast British Columbia, northern Idaho and northwest Montana.
Habitat: Rocky places at high elevations in the mountains, often on cliffs, ledges, or in rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - September
Penstemon eriantheruscrested tongue penstemon, fuzzy penstemon
Distribution: Southeast British Columbia, central Washington and central Oregon, east to North Dakota and Nebraska.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the valleys, plains and foothills, sometimes ascending to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
var. eriantherus – fuzzy-tongue penstemon
var. whitedii – fuzzy-tongue penstemon
Penstemon euglaucusglaucous beardtongue
Distribution: In Washington from Mt. Adams south; Washington south to central Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, sandy, open or sparsely wooded slopes at moderate elevations to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Penstemon fruticosusbush penstemon, shrubby penstemon
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Common in rocky, open or wooded areas, foothills to rather high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. fruticosus – shrubby penstemon
var. scouleri – shrubby penstemon
var. serratus – shrubby penstemon
Penstemon gairdnerigairdner's penstemon
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open sagebrush desert and scablands, low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
var. gairdneri – Gairdner's penstemon
Penstemon glandulosusglandular penstemon
Distribution: Along the east base of the Cascades, Chelan to Klickitat Counties, Washington, and at scattered locations in Oregon and Idaho.
Habitat: Open, often rocky hillsides and banks in the foothills, valleys, and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. chelanensis – sticky-stem penstemon
var. glandulosus – sticky-stem penstemon
Penstemon hesperiustall beardtongue
Origin: Native
Penstemon humilislowly penstemon
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry, open, often rocky places, frequently with sagebrush, from the plains and foothills to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. humilis – lowly penstemon
Penstemon ovatusegg-leaf beardtongue, broad-leaved penstemon
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to northern Oregon.
Habitat: Open woods below 3000 feet in elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Penstemon palmeriPalmer's penstemon
Distribution: Reported from Spokane County in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Roadsides where seeded for soil stabilization.
Origin: Introduced from southwestern United States
Flowers: May-July
var. palmeri – Palmer's penstemon
Penstemon pennellianusBlue Mountain beardtongue
Distribution: In Washington occurring in the Blue Mountains in the southeast corner of the state; Washington south to east-central Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, rocky areas in coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Penstemon procerussmall-flowered penstemon
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to North Dakota, Wyoming and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist forest openings at moderate elevations to rocky slopes at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. procerus – small-flowered penstemon
var. tolmiei – small-flowered penstemon
Penstemon pruinosusChelan beardtongue
Distribution: Chiefly on the east slope of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Washington.
Habitat: Open, rocky places from the valleys and plains to moderate elevations in the mountains, and in the scablands in Washington.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Penstemon richardsoniiRichardson's penstemon
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Cliff crevices and other dry, rocky places at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. richardsonii – Richardson's penstemon
Penstemon rupicolacliff beardtongue, rock penstemon
Distribution: In the Cascades of Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Rock cliffs and rocky slopes at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Penstemon rydbergiiRydberg's beardtongue
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to the Sierras of California, east to northern Wyoming and northern New Mexico.
Habitat: Meadows and moist, open slopes, occasionally on drier slopes with sagebrush, chiefly in the foothills and at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Penstemon serrulatusCascade beardtongue, coast penstemon
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist places at mid- to high elevations in the Cascades, but at lower elevations to the west
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Penstemon speciosusroyal beardtongue, showy penstemon
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open or sparsely wooded areas, often with sagebrush, juniper or ponderosa pine, mostly in the lowlands and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Penstemon subserratusfine-tooth beardtongue
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Penstemon triphylluswhorled beardtongue
Distribution: Occurring chiefly in the southeastern area of Washington; Southeast Washington south to adjacent Oregon and east to adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Cliff crevices and dry, rocky banks and slopes at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Penstemon venustuselegant beardtongue, Blue Mountain penstemon
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington, especially in the Blue Mountains area; Washington south to California and Utah, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes, from the foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Penstemon washingtonensisWashington beardtongue
Distribution: Endemic to Chelan and Okanogan counties, Washington.
Habitat: From open slopes and flats at moderate elevations to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Penstemon wilcoxiiWilcox's beardtongue
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Montana.
Habitat: Open or often wooded, sometimes in rocky places, from the foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Plantago arenariasand plantain
Distribution: Scattered locations west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California; upper central and eastern North America.
Habitat: A weed of waste places, sandy areas, roadsides, and along railroad tracks.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-October
Plantago coronopusbuck-horn plantain
Distribution: West of the Cascades along the coast in Washington; British Columbia south to California; scattered locations in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Occasional at low elevations along the coast in sandy or disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-October
Plantago elongataslender plantain
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington, often along the coast; British Columbia south to California, east to Minnesota and Texas.
Habitat: Moist, somewhat saline areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Plantago lanceolataEnglish plantain
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; a cosmopolitan weed distributed widely throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Plantago macrocarpaAlaska plantain
Distribution: Occurring along the outer coast in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal wetlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Plantago majornippleseed, common plantain, great plantain
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; a cosmopolitan weed widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Plantago maritimasea plantain, seaside plantain
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington along the coast; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Salt marshes, bluffs and cliffs along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Plantago patagonicawoolly plantain
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Texas.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Plantago pusilladwarf plantain
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Plantago subnudaMexican plantain, tall coastal plantain
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington in the southwestern portion of the state; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Tidal flats and coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Synthyris lanuginosacut-leaf kittentails
Distribution: Endemic to the Olympic Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Synthyris missuricamountain kittentails
Distribution: Columbia River Gorge, southeast Washington and northeast Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana and south to California
Habitat: Moist ground, foothills to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Synthyris reniformisround-leaved kittentails, snow queen
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Coniferous woods, less commonly in open areas, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Synthyris rubrared coraldrops
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open slopes and dry meadows in the foothills and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Synthyris schizanthafringe-petal kitten's-tail
Distribution: In the Olympics and Cascades foothills of western Washington; Washington south to northwest Oregon.
Habitat: Uncommon on moist ground at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Tonella floribundagreater baby-innocence, large-flowered tonella
Distribution: Occurring along the southern border of Washington; Canyon of the Snake River and tributaries; Washington south to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open, often rocky places, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Tonella tenellalesser baby-innocence, small-flowered tonella
Distribution: Along the Columbia River from the east end of the gorge to the coast, south in the Puget Trough to central California.
Habitat: Fairly moist in open to partly shaded places at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Veronica americanaAmerican brooklime, American speedwell
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America except southeast corner of U.S.
Habitat: Wet places, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Veronica anagallis-aquaticablue water speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: In or along slow-moving streams in the lowlands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Veronica argute-serratabilobed speedwell
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - June
Veronica arvensiscorn speedwell, wall speedwell
Distribution: Introduced in much of North America; uncommon in the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens and roadsides
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April - September
Veronica catenatachain speedwell
Distribution: Widespread in the United States and Canada; occasional at lower elevations in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - July
Veronica chamaedrysGermander speedwell
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades; more common in eastern United States
Habitat: Disturbed ground, lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May - June
Veronica cusickiiCusick's speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist, rocky slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Veronica filiformisthread-stalk speedwell
Distribution: Introduced west of the Cascades, British Columbia to California, and in Idaho; and Michigan to New York, south to West Virginia in the east
Habitat: Weed of lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - June
Veronica hederifoliaivy-leaf speedwell
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon and Utah; other scattered locations in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Waste places, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Veronica ×lackschewitzii
Origin: Introduced
Veronica longifolialong-leaf speedwell
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Veronica officinalisPaul's betony, common speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of the northern half of North America and the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Weed of wastelots, and other disturbed open and forested areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Veronica peregrinapurslane speedwell
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout most of Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, stream banks, and other moist places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native (var. xalapensis) and introduced (var. peregrina) varieties
Flowers: April-September
var. peregrina – purslane speedwell
var. xalapensis – purslane speedwell
Veronica persicabird-eye speedwell, Persian speedwell
Distribution: Widely introduced in North America, occasional in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Lawns and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March - May
Veronica politagray speedwell
Origin: Introduced
Veronica scutellatagrass-leaf speedwell, marsh speedwell, skullcap speedwell
Distribution: The northern two-thirds of the temperate zone in North America; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Wet places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - September
Veronica serpyllifoliathyme-leaved speedwell
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America.
Habitat: Moist meadows and disturbed sites, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-August
var. humifusa – thyme-leaved speedwell
var. serpyllifolia – thyme-leaved speedwell
Veronica triphyllosfinger speedwell
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Veronica vernaspring speedwell
Origin: Introduced
Veronica wormskjoldiiAmerican alpine speedwell
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist ground and seeps, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September