Poaceae
Grass Family
99 genera
320 species
99 subspecies and varieties
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Achnatherum ×bloomeriIndian ricegrass
Origin: Native
Achnatherum hendersoniiHenderson's rice grass
Distribution: Yakima and Kittitas counties in Washington; south to Jefferson County, Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, rocky, shallow soil, in sagebrush or ponderosa pine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Achnatherum hymenoidesIndian rice grass
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Alberta and the Dakotas and Texas.
Habitat: Grasslands, desert plains, and foothills, especially on rocky or sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Achnatherum lemmonii
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; south-central British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Arizona.
Habitat: Valleys to mid-elevations in the mountains, often in ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
ssp. lemmonii – Lemmon's needlegrass
Achnatherum nelsonii
Origin: Native
ssp. dorei – Nelson's needlegrass
Achnatherum occidentale
Origin: Native
ssp. californicum – California needlegrass
ssp. pubescens – western needlegrass
Achnatherum richardsoniiRichardson's rice grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Achnatherum thurberianumThurber's rice grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - June
Aegilops cylindricajointed goat grass
Distribution: A weedy plant from Europe, introduced in much of western United States.
Habitat: Waste ground and roadsides; a troublesome weed in wheat.
Origin: Introduced from S. Europe
Flowers: June - July
Aegilops triuncialis
Distribution: Introduced occasionally in western North America; native from Mediterranean to central Asia.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, railroad beds
Origin: Introduced
var. triuncialis – barbed goatgrass
×Agropogon lutosusperennial beardgrass
Origin: Introduced
Agropyron cristatumcrested wheatgrass
Distribution: Introduced for forage purposes in many areas of western United States, becoming widely established.
Habitat: Dry, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Agrostis capillariscolonial bent
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely introduced throughout North America.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas often at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Agrostis castellanaHighland bent, dryland browntop
Origin: Introduced
Agrostis exarataspiked bent
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Alberta, Nebraska and Texas.
Habitat: Moist areas, from near sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Agrostis giganteablack bent
Distribution: Occurring throughout Washington; found in nearly all parts of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, edge of agricultural fields, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Agrostis idahoensisIdaho bent
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Agrostis mertensiinorthern bent
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Agrostis microphyllasmall-leaf bent
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Agrostis oregonensisOregon bent
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Agrostis pallensseashore bent
Distribution: Near the coast, Grays Harbor County, Washington south to San Francisco, California.
Habitat: Coastal sand dunes and immediately adjacent woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Agrostis scabrarough bent
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Agrostis stoloniferaspreading bent
Distribution: Widespread throughout Washington; Alaska south to California; also in Idaho, Utah and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet, disturbed areas that include streambanks, flooded fields, and ditches at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced?
Flowers: June-September
Agrostis variabilisalpine bent
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late July - September
Aira caryophyllea
Distribution: Introduced and common west of the Cascades, British Columbia to California
Habitat: A weed in moist to dry, gravelly soil
Flowers: May - August
var. capillaris – delicate hairgrass
var. caryophyllea – silver hairgrass
Aira praecoxearly silver-hair grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California; Nova Scotia south to Virginia in eastern North America.
Habitat: Gravelly prairies, sea bluffs and dunes near the coast, also in other disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Alopecurus aequalis
Distribution: Widespread throughout much of Washington; widespread throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Wet places, often submersed.
Flowers: May-July
var. aequalis – shortawn fescue
Alopecurus arundinaceuscreeping meadow-foxtail
Origin: Introduced
Alopecurus carolinianustufted meadow-foxtail
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Alopecurus geniculatuswater fescue
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast in Canada.
Habitat: Wet places, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Alopecurus myosuroidesslender meadow-foxtail
Distribution: Introduced in many parts of North America; occasional in Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Wet places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Alopecurus pratensisfield meadow-foxtail
Distribution: Alaska to Newfoundland, south to Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Missouri, and New Jersey. Found on both sides of the Cascades in WA.
Habitat: Swampy areas in meadows, in irrigated fields, and along roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - July
Alopecurus saccatusPacific meadow-foxtail
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Ammophila arenaria
Distribution: Introduced along the Pacific coast from southeast Washington the California.
Habitat: Sandy beaches and dunes.
Flowers: June-August
ssp. arenaria – European beach grass
Ammophila breviligulata
ssp. breviligulata – American beachgrass
Andropogon gerardiibig bluestem
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Anthoxanthum aristatum
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California; eastern half of North America.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, forest openings, and other disturbed, open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Flowers: May-July
ssp. aristatum – small sweet vernal grass
Anthoxanthum hirtumhairy sweetgrass, vanillagrass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; Alaska south to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Anthoxanthum occidentaleCalifornia sweet grass, California sweetgrass
Origin: Native
Anthoxanthum odoratumsweet vernalgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, widely distributed throughout the eastern half of North America.
Habitat: Lawns, pastures and wasteland, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Apera interruptadense silky-bent
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry wasteland and other disturbed areas in shrub-steppe and open coniferous forests.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Aristida purpurea
Distribution: British Columbia and eastern Washington, east to the Dakotas, south to Oregon and Arizona.
Habitat: Desert plains and grasslands, into the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
var. longiseta – red threeawn
Arrhenatherum elatius
Distribution: Introduced more commonly west of the Cascades, British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Meadows and pastures.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
var. bulbosum – bulbous oatgrass [Marsh]
var. elatius – bulbous oatgrass [Marsh]
Avena barbatabarbed oat
Distribution: Introduced and common in southwest United States; occasional in Washington and western Oregon.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste land.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Avena fatuawild oat
Distribution: Common introduction in most of western North America.
Habitat: A weed in grain fields, roadsides and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - September
Avena sativaoat
Distribution: Commonly cultivated throught the United States and Canada, occasionally escaping but usually not persisting.
Habitat: Roadsides and field margins.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Beckmannia syzigachneAmerican slough grass
Distribution: Alaska to California, east from the coast to Manitoba and the Great Lakes region
Habitat: Pond margins, marshes and ditches at low elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Bouteloua curtipendula
Distribution: Montana east to Maine, south to most of the United States, barely reaching the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Plains to lower mountains, often on scablands or rocky slopes.
Flowers: July - August
Brachypodium sylvaticumfalse brome
Distribution: Currently known from Cowlitz county in Washington; British Columbia south to California; also in Virginia.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Briza maximabig quakinggrass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Briza minorlittle quaking grass
Distribution: Well established in Eastern North America; occasional on the West coast.
Habitat: Dry waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May - June
Bromus aleutensisAleut brome
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Bromus arenariusAustralian brome
Origin: Introduced
Bromus briziformisrattlesnake brome
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana; occasional in eastern United States.
Habitat: Waste ground, roadsides, and overgrazed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: Late May - July
Bromus carinatus
Distribution: British Columbia south to Mexico, east to Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grasslands, meadows, and forest openings from sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. carinatus – California brome
var. marginatus – large mountain brome
Bromus catharticus
Origin: Introduced
var. elatus – rescue grass
Bromus ciliatusfringed brome
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Bromus commutatusmeadow brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Waste ground, meadows, roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Bromus diandrusgreat brome, ripgut brome, ripgut grass
Distribution: Introduced from British Columbia to Baja California, mostly west of the Cascades in Washington, but east to Idaho and Colorado.
Habitat: A weed of waste ground and along highways and railroads.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - June
Bromus erectusupright brome
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - July
Bromus hordeaceus
Distribution: Common introduction from Alaska south to Baja California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Waste ground, roadsides, dry hillsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
ssp. hordeaceus – soft chess
Bromus inermissmooth brome
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Labrador and Vermont.
Habitat: Commonly used in hayfields and pastures; disturbed areas, old fields, meadows and streambanks from the lowlands to subalpine slopes.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Bromus japonicusJapanese brome
Distribution: East of the Cascades, southern British Columbia to California, east across Canada and most of eastern United States.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands to lower mountain forests; often a weed of roadsides and waste land.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Bromus madritensiscompact brome
Origin: Introduced
Bromus orcuttianuschinook brome
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Bromus pacificusPacific brome
Distribution: West of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openingsat low elevations, often near or along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Bromus pumpellianus
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Stream banks, lake shores, sand dunes, meadows, grassy slopes, and roadsides
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. pumpellianus – Arctic brome, pumpelly brome
Bromus racemosusbald brome
Origin: Introduced
Bromus rubensfox-tail brome
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; central Washington south to California, east to Idaho, Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Common weed on overgrazed land, waste areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Bromus secalinusrye brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Bromus sitchensisAlaska brome
Distribution: Along or near the coast from Alaska south to northwest Oregon.
Habitat: Meadowland to subalpine streambanks and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Bromus squarrosus
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas including fields, meadows, and forest openings.
Flowers: June-July
var. squarrosus – corn brome
Bromus sterilispoverty brome
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south to California, and in the Rocky Mountains and eastern United States.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Bromus suksdorfiiSuksdorf's brome
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Bromus tectorumcheat grass
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades,Alaska south to Baja California, east to Maine and Texas.
Habitat: Waste or disturbed areas, especially common on overgrazed land.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - June
Bromus vulgarisColumbian brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south along the coast to northern California, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Shaded to open woods or moist to dry banks, from near sea level to mountain meadows and dry, rocky slopes at 6000' elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Calamagrostis canadensis
Distribution: Alaska to Quebec, south through the United States except for the Deep South
Habitat: Wet places, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
var. canadensis – ?, bluejoint reedgrass
var. langsdorfii – ?
Calamagrostis howelliiHowell's reed grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - Early July
Calamagrostis koelerioidespineland reed grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Calamagrostis nutkaensisNootka reed grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Calamagrostis purpurascenspurple reedgrass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Calamagrostis rubescenspinegrass
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Colorado
Habitat: Dry to moist areas, open sagebrush flats to timbered slopes, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Calamagrostis sesquifloraone-and-a-half-flower reed grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late July - September
Calamagrostis stricta
Origin: Native
ssp. inexpansa – narrow-spiked reedgrass
ssp. stricta – narrow-spiked reedgrass
Calamagrostis tacomensisRainier reedgrass
Origin: Native
Calamagrostis tweedyiCascade reed grass
Distribution: Wenatchee Mountains, Chelan and Kittitas County, Washington, and Idaho County, Idaho
Habitat: Moist meadows and subalpine slopes, usually in timber
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - Early August
Calamovilfa longifolia
var. longifolia – prairie sandgrass sandreed, prairie sandreed
Cenchrus longispinuslongspine sandbur, mat sandbur
Distribution: Eastern Washington, south to Mexico, east to much of the United States.
Habitat: Sandy river banks.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July - September
Cenchrus spinifexcoastal sandbur, common sandbur
Origin: Probably introduced from southern North America
Cinna latifoliaslender wood-reed
Distribution: Alaska to Newfoundland, south on both sides of the Cascades, Washington to California, east to Colorado; also Minnesota to Maine, south to Tennessee
Habitat: Moist woods and meadows, sea level to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Coix lacryma-jobiJob's-tears
Origin: Introduced from tropical Asia
Coleanthus subtilismoss grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - October
Cortaderia jubatapurple pampas grass
Distribution: Occurring in lowland western Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation
Origin: Introduced from northern South America
Flowers: June-September
Cortaderia selloanapampas grass
Distribution: Occurring in several counties west of the Cascades crest; Washington to California, in scattered states eastward to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed, open soil of wastelots, abandoned fields, and roadsides at low elevations, often near coast.
Origin: Introduced from central South America
Flowers: May-July
Corynephorus canescensgray club-awn grass
Origin: Introduced
Crypsis alopecuroidesfoxtail pricklegrass
Distribution: Occurring in the south-central areas of Washington;
Habitat: Sandy soils around drying lake margins and other seasonally moist, disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from n. Africa and Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Crypsis vaginifloramodest pricklegrass
Origin: Introduced from the western Mediterranean
Cynodon dactylonbermuda grass
Distribution: Common in the warmer portion of the United States, California to Florida; occasional in the Pacific Northwet.
Habitat: A weed of lawns, partures and railroad tracks.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - September
Cynosurus cristatuscrested dogtail
Distribution: Introduced in scattered locations west of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon, and in California and Idaho.
Habitat: Waste places, old meadows, roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - July
Cynosurus echinatusbristly dog's-tail grass
Distribution: Introduced in southwest British Columba and Oregon\'s Wilamette Valley, south into California; more common in central and eastern United States.
Habitat: Weed of waste places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Dactylis glomerataorchard grass
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; distributed widely throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas such as meadows, fields, roadsides, and forest edges; common forage plant; also planted in logged areas in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Danthonia californicaCalifornia oatgrass
Distribution: British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Open, grassy meadows to rocky ridges, from coastal prairies to mid-elevations in the mountains, often with ponderosa pine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Danthonia decumbenscommon heath-grass, mountain heath-grass
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July - September
Danthonia intermediatimber oatgrass
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Danthonia spicatapoverty oatgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to Oregon, east to Newfoundland and eastern United States.
Habitat: Sandy to rocky soil in dry woods and fairly dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Danthonia unispicatafew-flower oatgrass, one-spike oatgrass
Distribution: British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to California, east to Alberta and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry to occasionally moist prairies, foothills, and open parks and ridges in mountain forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Deschampsia cespitosa
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: From coastal marshes and moist prairies to alpine ridges, talus slopes, mountain meadows, and moist areas in the mountains in general.
Flowers: June-September
ssp. beringensis – bering hair grass, Beringian hairgrass
ssp. cespitosa – tufted hair grass
ssp. holciformis – Pacific hair grass, tufted hairgrass
Deschampsia danthonioidesannual hair grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - July
Deschampsia elongataslender hair grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Alberta, Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist sandy or gravelly banks and slopes, and borders of streams and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Desmazeria rigidafern grass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - July
Dichanthelium acuminatum
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south along the coast to California; east of the Cascades mainly along water courses or around springs in the mountains, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky or sandy river banks or lake margins to open woods, marshy areas or dry prairies, from sea level to high elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. fasciculatum – hairy panicgrass
Dichanthelium oligosanthes
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to northern California, east to Idaho, Montana and Utah, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry prairies or rocky areas to sandy stream banks.
Origin: Unknown
Flowers: May-July
ssp. scribnerianum – Scribner's panicgrass witchgrass
Digitaria ischaemumsmooth crabgrass
Distribution: Most of southern Canada, and all of the United States except the extreme southeast and southwest.
Habitat: Lawns, roadsides and wastland, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July - September
Digitaria sanguinalishairy crabgrass
Distribution: A weed in most of the United States.
Habitat: Lawns, gardens, and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July - October
Distichlis spicataalkaline grass, coastal salt grass
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia, south to California; also along the east coast of the United States from Canada to Florida and Texas.
Habitat: Coastal beaches and salt marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Echinochloa colonaawnless barnyard grass, or jungle-rice
Origin: Introduced from the tropics
Echinochloa crus-gallibarnyard grass, or large barnyard grass
Distribution: Found throughout southern Canada and most of the United States.
Habitat: Cultivted fields and wasteland, usually where moist, especially along irrigation ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June - October
Echinochloa crus-pavonis
Origin: Native
var. crus-pavonis – gulf barnyard grass
Echinochloa muricata
Origin: Introduced
var. microstachya – American barnyard grass, or watergrass
Eleusine indicagoosegrass
Distribution: Uncommon weed in western Oregon; more common in California and eastern United States.
Habitat: Waste ground and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Africa
Flowers: July - August
×Elyhordeum macounii
Origin: Native
Elymus albicansMontana wild rye
Origin: Native
Elymus bakeriBaker's wild rye
Origin: Native
Elymus canadensisCanadian wild rye
Distribution: Alaska south on the east side of the Cascades to California, east to Quebec, north Carolina and Texas
Habitat: Sandy, dry to moist meadows to mountain canyons.
Flowers: June - August
var. canadensis – Canadian wild rye, nodding wild rye
Elymus curvatusbeardless wild rye, awnless wildrye
Origin: Native
Elymus elymoides
Distribution: British Columbia south to southern California, east to Alberta and Texas.
Habitat: Dry and rocky to moist habitats, from along the coast to inland desert plains and prairies, and in the mountains to above tree line.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
ssp. californicus – California squirreltail
ssp. elymoides – bottlebrush squirreltail
ssp. hordeoides – bottlebrush squirreltail
Elymus glaucus
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to California, east to Ontario and Indiana.
Habitat: Prairies, open woods, and dry to moist hillsides, from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. glaucus – blue wildrye
ssp. virescens – blue wildrye
Elymus ×hansenii
Origin: Native
Elymus hirsutusboreal wild rye
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Elymus lanceolatus
Origin: Native
ssp. lanceolatus – thick-spiked wheatgrass
ssp. psammophilus – sand-dune wheatgrass
Elymus multisetusbig squirreltail
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Elymus ×pseudorepensfalse quackgrass
Origin: Native
Elymus repenscreeping wild rye
Distribution: Native to Eurasia; Alaska to Greenland and south to California, Texas, and North Carolina.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Elymus scribneriScribner's wild rye
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Elymus sierraeSierra wheatgrass
Origin: Native
Elymus trachycaulus
Origin: Native
ssp. trachycaulus – bearded wheatgrass
Elymus violaceusArctic wheatgrass, bearded wheatgrass
Origin: Native
Elymus wawawaiensiswawawai wild rye
Origin: Native
Eragrostis cilianensisstinkgrass
Distribution: Central Washington south ot California, east to Maine.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and waste land, and along streams and pond margins.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - October
Eragrostis curvulaweeping lovegrass
Distribution: In scattered locations across Washington; occurring from West to East Coast of U.S., typically in the southern half of the country.
Habitat: Distrubed areas where open and forest edge.
Origin: Introduced from southern Africa
Flowers: June-July
Eragrostis hypnoidesteal love grass
Distribution: In Washington, chiefly west of the Cascades, and along the Columbia and Snake Rivers; widespread in central and eastern United States.
Habitat: Mud flats along streams, ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Eragrostis lutescenssix-weeks love grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - October
Eragrostis mexicana
Origin: Introduced
ssp. virescens – Mexican lovegrass, orcutt's lovegrass
Eragrostis minorlittle lovegrass
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Eragrostis pectinacea
Flowers: June - September
var. pectinacea – purple eragrostis, tufted eragrostis
Eragrostis pilosa
Flowers: October
var. pilosa – India lovegrass
Eremopyrum triticeumannual false wheat grass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry wasteland, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Festuca brachyphylla
Origin: Introduced
ssp. brachyphylla – alpine fescue
Festuca campestrisprairie fescue
Origin: Native
Festuca filiformisfine-leaf sheep fescue
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May - August
Festuca idahoensisbluebunch fescue
Distribution: British Columbia south to Sierran California, east to Alberta and Colorado.
Habitat: Grasslands and sagebrush desert to dry and rock mountain slopes, occasionally to 12,000 feet in elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - July
Festuca occidentaliswestern fescue
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - July
Festuca ovinasheep fescue
Origin: Introduced
Festuca roemeriRoemer's fescue
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, balds and forest openings mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Festuca rubra
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. mediana – dune red fescue
ssp. pruinosa – rock fescue
ssp. rubra – red fescue
ssp. secunda – red fescue
Festuca saximontana
Origin: Native
var. purpusiana – sheep fescue
var. saximontana – sheep fescue
Festuca subulatabearded fescue
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - Early June
Festuca subulifloracrinkle-awn fescue
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Festuca trachyphyllahard fescue
Origin: Introduced
Festuca valesiacaValais fescue
Origin: Introduced
Festuca viridulagreen-leaf fescue
Distribution: British Colubia south to California, east to Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Subalpine slopes, rock slides, and meadows to well above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Festuca washingtonicaWashington fescue
Origin: Native
Glyceria borealissmall floating manna grass
Distribution: Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to California and New Mexico.
Habitat: Swamps, wet meadows, and stream margins, often growing in 1-3 feet of water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - October
Glyceria canadensis
var. canadensis – rattlesnake manna grass
Glyceria declinatalow glyceria
Origin: Introduced
Glyceria elatatall mannagrass
Distribution: British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Lake margins, stream banks, moist mountain meadows and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Glyceria grandis
Distribution: Alaska south to Oregon, chiefly east of the Cascades; east to northeast United States and south to Virginia and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sloughs, damp meadows and stream borders.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - Early August
var. grandis – reed mannagrass
Glyceria leptostachyaslender-spike manna grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Glyceria maximatall mannagrass
Origin: Introduced
Glyceria ×occidentalisnorthwestern manna grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Glyceria striatafowl manna grass
Distribution: Alaska south to northern California, east to Newfoundland and Florida.
Habitat: Wet places, bogs, and mountain meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Hesperostipa comata
Distribution: British Columbia south on the east side of the Cascades to California, east to Ontario and Texas.
Habitat: Plains and prairies to forested areas in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
ssp. comata – needle and thread
ssp. intermedia – Tweedy's needlegrass
Holcus lanatuscommon velvet grass
Distribution: Widely introduced in Canada and the United States, more common west of the Cascades in Washington.
Habitat: Roadsides, lawns, waste ground to open woods in the lower mountains.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - September
Holcus mollis
ssp. mollis – creeping velvet grass
Hordeum brachyantherum
Distribution: Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Ocean beaches to mountain meadows,usually where moist, but also from dry sagebrush desert to rocky ridges.
Flowers: June - August
ssp. brachyantherum – meadow barley
Hordeum depressumdwarf barley
Distribution: Introduced from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, south on both sides of the Cascades to southern California, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: A weed of waste areas, especially where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Hordeum jubatum
Distribution: Alaska south on both sides of the Cascades to California, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast, south to Mexico.
Habitat: Common weed of dry to moist soil, from sagebrush desert to grasslands and mountain forests, often abundent in disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. jubatum – foxtail barley
Hordeum marinum
Origin: Introduced
ssp. gussonianum – mediterranean barley
Hordeum murinum
Distribution: Uncommon weed in the United States, occasional in southern British Columbia and western Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and wasteland.
Flowers: June - July
ssp. glaucum – mouse barley
ssp. leporinum – mouse barley
ssp. murinum – mouse barley
Hordeum pusillumlittle barley
Distribution: Eastern Washington south to southern California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Grasslands to desert areas, often on saline soils and wasteland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Hordeum vulgare
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Old fields, wasteland, roadsides, and other disturbed areas where escaped from cultivation.
Flowers: May-June
ssp. vulgare – common barley
Koeleria macranthaprairie Koeler's grass
Distribution: British Columbia south to northern Mexico, east to Ontario and Deleware.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts, prairies, and open forests to subalpine ridges, mostly on sandy to rocky soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Leersia oryzoidesrice cut grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia east to the Atlantic Coast, south throughout the U.S.
Habitat: Wet places, often in fairly deep water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Leptochloa fusca
Distribution: Occurring in a few scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: August-September
ssp. fascicularis – bearded sprangletop
Leymus cinereusGreat Basin lyme grass
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; central and western North America.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe, arid grasslands, forest edges, and other dry, open areas in the intermountain west.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Leymus flavescenssand lyme grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Leymus mollis
Distribution: Coastal areas of Washington; Alaska south to California; northern areas of North America.
Habitat: Coastal sand dunes, marshes, headlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. mollis – yellow ryegrass
Leymus racemosusmammoth lyme grass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July - August
Leymus triticoidesbeardless lyme grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Leymus ×vancouverensisVancouver wildrye
Origin: Native
Lolium multiflorumannual ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, perennial ryegrass
Distribution: Introduced and well established in much of temperate North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Lolium perenneEnglish ryegrass, perennial ryegrass
Distribution: Commonly cultivated as a forage plant; escaped and well established in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Old fields, roadsides, and waste places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Lolium temulentum
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
ssp. temulentum – darnel
Melica aristatabearded melic grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Melica bulbosaonion grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Melica fugaxsmall melic grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - Early July
Melica harfordiiHarford's melic grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - July
Melica smithiiSmith's melic grass
Distribution: Slouthern British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Melica spectabilisshowy melic grass
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south to northern California chiefly east of the Caascade crest, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Usually in moist, loamy soil in meadows and open parks in mountain forests, but also dry to wet meadowlands and open forests to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - July
Melica subulataAlaska oniongrass
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open slopes to thick, dry or moist woods, from near sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Molinia caeruleapurple moor grass
Distribution: Known from a single locality in King County where it is persistent; occurring in scattered locations throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevation near the coast.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Muhlenbergia andinafoxtail muhly
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Muhlenbergia asperifoliaor alkali muhly, scratchgrass
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascades, to California, east to Montana and Texas.
Habitat: Dry to moist alkaline places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Muhlenbergia filiformispull-up muhly
Distribution: British Columbia south to California, east to Alberta and New Mexico.
Habitat: Usually near warm springs or seepage areas, in moist meadows of mountain valleys to subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Muhlenbergia glomerataspiked muhly
Origin: Native
Muhlenbergia mexicanaMexican muhly, wirestem muhly
Origin: Native
Muhlenbergia minutissimaannual muhly, least muhly
Origin: Native
Flowers: July
Muhlenbergia racemosagreen muhly
Origin: Native
Flowers: August - September
Muhlenbergia richardsonismatted muhly
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascade crests, to Baja California, east to New Brunswick and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist to dry lowlands, meadows, mountain prairies and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Oryzopsis asperifoliawhite-grain mountain-rice grass
Distribution: British Columbia east to Newfoundland, south to Maine and Montana and the northeast portion of Washington.
Habitat: Open coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Panicum capillare
Distribution: Introduced and weedy in much of the United States and southern Canada.
Habitat: Moist and irrigated areas, along streams and around ponds.
Flowers: June - September
ssp. capillare – or common panicgrass, witchgrass
Panicum dichotomiflorum
Distribution: Native in most of central and eastern United States; occasionally introduced in Washington.
Habitat: Waste ground.
Flowers: May - September
ssp. dichotomiflorum – fall panicum, western witchgrass
Panicum miliaceum
Distribution: Introduced and cultivated in many parts of the United States; occasionally escaping and persisting in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Abandoned fields, roadsides, waste ground.
Flowers: July - September
ssp. miliaceum – broomcorn, hog millet, panic millet, proso millet
ssp. ruderale – broomcorn, hog millet, panic millet
Pascopyrum smithiiwestern-wheat grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Paspalum distichumknotgrass, Thompsongrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly along the lower Columbia River corridor in Washington; occurring in most of western North America and the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Along ditches and streams where the soil is moist much of the season.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: August-October
Pennisetum glaucumpearl millet
Distribution: Known in Washington from a collection in Yakima County; occurring in scattered locations across North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, meadows, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Phalaris arundinaceareed canary grass
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Wet places, usually where disturbed, especially along roads, streambanks, and open fields.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Phalaris canariensiscommon canary grass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Phalaris paradoxamediterranean canary grass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Phleum alpinummountain Timothy
Distribution: Alaska east to Newfoundland, south in the subalpine regions of the mountains in most of western United States.
Habitat: Streambanks and meadows at higher elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Phleum pratense
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, especially moist, open meadows, from coast to midmontane.
Flowers: May-July
ssp. pratense – common Timothy
Phragmites australis
Distribution: In scattered locations throughout many areas of Washington; widely distributed throughout North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, including roadsides, often where wet or seasonally moist.
Flowers: July-September
ssp. americanus – common reed
ssp. australis – common reed
Piptatheropsis exigualittle mountain-ricegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia, south east of the Cascade crest to Oregon, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Sandy to rocky soil, mountain meadows to subalpine and alpine ridges and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pleuropogon refractusnodding false semaphore grass
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south in both the Southern British Columbia south in both the Olympics and Cascades of Washington, and the Cascades and coastal mountain of Oregon, to Mendocino County, California.
Habitat: Bogs, stream banks, swampy meadows,and moist, shaded woods, from near sea level toabout 5000 feet elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Poa alpina
ssp. alpina – alpine blue grass
Poa annuaannual blue grass
Distribution: Common weed throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Lawns, gardens, roadsides, and waste ground to open woods.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March - August
Poa bolanderiBolander's blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Poa bulbosa
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; throughout most of western North America, more scattered in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas from the coast to midmontane.
Flowers: March-June
ssp. vivipara – bulbous blue grass
Poa compressaflat-stem blue grass
Distribution: Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to most of the United States; common in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Waste ground, roadsides, and gardens to open woods and meadows, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Poa confiniscoastline blue grass
Distribution: VAncouver Island, British Columbia, south along the coast to San Francisco, California.
Habitat: Coastal sand dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Poa curtifolialittle mountain blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Poa cusickii
Distribution: British Columbia south in the Olympics and Cascades to California, east to Saskatchewan and Colorado.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to alpine meadows and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. cusickii – Cusick's bluegrass
ssp. epilis – skyline bluegrass
ssp. pallida – Cusick's bluegrass
ssp. purpurascens – Cusick's bluegrass
Poa fendleriana
Flowers: May - August
ssp. longiligula – muttongrass
Poa glauca
ssp. rupicola – timberline bluegrass
Poa howelliiHowell's blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Poa infirmaweak bluegrass
Origin: Introduced
Poa interiorinterior bluegrass, woods blue grass
Origin: Native
Poa laxifloraloose-flower blue grass
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to the Olympic Peninsula of Washington and Multnomah, Clackamus and Benton Counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Moist woods to rocky, open slopes, from near sea level to lower elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June
Poa leibergiiLeiberg's blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late March - May
Poa leptocomamarsh blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Poa lettermaniiLetterman's blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: August
Poa macranthasand-dune blue grass
Distribution: Southern Vancouver Island and the islands of Puget Sound, south along the coast to Mendocino County, California.
Habitat: Chiefly on sand dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Poa marcidawithered blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Poa nemoraliswoodland bluegrass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - August
Poa nervosaHooker's blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - August
Poa palustrisfowl blue grass
Distribution: Introduced and widely distributed through Alaska and Canada, south to northern California and Virginia.
Habitat: Sea level to open meadows and forested areas in the mountains, always where moist.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - August
Poa paucispiculaAlaska blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Poa pratensis
Distribution: Throughout Washington; common throughout temperate world.
Habitat: Moist, distrurbed areas at from the coast to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - October
ssp. pratensis – kentucky blue grass
Poa secunda
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grasslands and forest openings from sea-level to the alpine
Flowers: April-July
ssp. juncifolia – alkali bluegrass, big bluegrass, Nevada bluegrass
ssp. secunda – curly blue grass
Poa stenantha
var. stenantha – narrow-flower blue grass
Poa suksdorfiiwestern blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Poa trivialisrough-stalk blue grass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Poa unilateralis
ssp. pachypholis – San Francisco blue grass
Poa wheeleriWheeler's blue grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - August
Podagrostis aequivalvisarctic bent, Arctic bent
Origin: Native
Podagrostis humilisalpine bent, mountain bent
Origin: Native
Podagrostis thurberianaThurber's bent
Origin: Native
Polypogon australisChilean rabbit's-foot grass
Origin: Introduced
Polypogon fugaxAsia Minor bluegrass
Polypogon interruptusditch rabbit's-foot grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Polypogon monspeliensisannual rabbit's-foot grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Wet to dry waste areas, including vernal pools where the water is brackish.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
Polypogon viridisbeardless rabbit's-foot grass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - September
Psathyrostachys junceaRussian-wild rye
Origin: Introduced
×Pseudelymus saxicola
Origin: Native
Pseudoroegneria spicata?bluebunch wheatgrass
Distribution: British Columbia south, chiefly east of the Cascade crests, but also in the coastal mountains, to California, east to the Dakotas and New Mexico.
Habitat: From the plains to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Puccinellia distansweeping alkaligrass, European alkali grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; North-central British Columbia south, chiefly east of the Cascades, to California, east through most of Canada and to the east base of the Rockies.
Habitat: Moist soil, especially where alkaline.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Puccinellia lemmoniiLemmon's alkali grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Puccinellia nutkaensisNootka alkali grass, shining alkali grass
Origin: Native
Puccinellia nuttallianaNuttall's alkali grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Puccinellia pumiladwarf alkali grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Redfieldia flexuosablowout grass
Origin: Introduced from central United States
Sasa palmatabroadleaf bamboo
Distribution: Occurring in the Puget Sound lowlands in Washington; also known from Tennessee.
Habitat: Disturbed lowland areas where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Schedonorus arundinaceustall fescue, tall rye grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Meadowlands, fallow fields an ditch banks.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Schedonorus pratensismeadow fescue, meadow rye grass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered localities on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Meadows, pastures, roadsides, and other disturbed areas, often where moist
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Schizachyrium scoparium
Distribution: Alberta east to Quebec, south through most of the United States east of the rockies; sparingly introduced in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Prairies and foothills.
Origin: Introduced?
Flowers: July - August
var. scoparium – broom beardgras, broom bluestem, little bluestem
Sclerochloa duracommon hard grass
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in much of western United States; established in eastern Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Weed of waste areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June
Scribneria bolanderiScribner's grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - May
Secale cerealecultivated rye
Distribution: Widely cultivated, especially in poor, dry soil, often persistent for more than one season.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Setaria faberiChinese foxtail
Origin: Introduced from China
Setaria italicaItalian bristlegrass, foxtail millet
Origin: Introduced from China
Setaria pumila
Origin: Introduced
ssp. pallidefusca – yellow foxtail, pigeon grass
ssp. pumila – yellow foxtail
Setaria verticillatahooked bristlegrass, rough bristlegrass
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in the Pacific Northwest; more common in other parts of the United States.
Habitat: Weed of gardens, irrigated areas and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: August - September
Setaria viridis
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
var. viridis – green bristlegrass
Sorghum bicolorsorghum
Origin: Introduced from Africa
Sorghum halepenseJohnson grass
Distribution: Introduced and established in much of the United States; rarely persistent in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Waste ground, especially where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: July - October
Spartina alterniflorasaltwater cordgrass, smooth cordgrass
Distribution: Introduced in Pacific County, Washington; common along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Habitat: Along the coast in brackish water.
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic coast of North America
Flowers: August - September
Spartina anglicaEnglish cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Spartina densifloraChilean cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from Chile
Spartina gracilisalkali cordgrass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Spartina patenssaltmeadow cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic Coast of North America
Spartina pectinatafreshwater cordgrass, prairie cordgrass
Distribution: Eastern Washington and Oregon, east to Newfoundland and North Carolina.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds, and fresh-water marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Spartina ×townsendiiTownsend's cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Sphenopholis intermediaslender wedgescale
Origin: Native
Sphenopholis obtusataprairie wedgescale
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Sporobolus airoidesalkali-sacaton
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Sporobolus compositus
Origin: Native
var. compositus – rough dropseed
Sporobolus cryptandrussand dropseed
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascades, to southern California, east to Ontario, Maine, and most of the United States except the extreme southeast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, especilly where sandy, to the foothills and grassland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Sporobolus neglectussmall dropseed
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Taeniatherum caput-medusaemedusa-head
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in east-central Washington; more common on both sides of the Cascades in Oregon, east into southeast Idaho and south into California.
Habitat: Weed of waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Thinopyrum intermedium
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
ssp. barbulatum – pubescent wheatgrass
ssp. intermedium – intermediate wheatgrass
Thinopyrum ponticumEurasian quack grass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in the southern portion of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the central portion of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including roadsides, wastelots, and agricultural fields.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Torreyochloa pallida
Distribution: Alaska south along the coast to California, east to Alberta and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet places, from near sea level to 11,000 feet elevation in mountain meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
var. pauciflora – weak alkaligrass
Tripidium ravennaeravennagrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington along the southern border; also occurring in California, Idaho, and scattered states across central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Dry, disturbed grasslands, meadows, and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Triplasis purpurea
var. purpurea – purple sandgrass
Trisetum canescenstall false oat
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Trisetum cernuumnodding Trisetum
Origin: Native
Trisetum cernuumnodding Trisetum
Trisetum flavescensyellow false oat
Origin: Introduced
Trisetum spicatumnarrow false oat
Distribution: Alaska across Canada to Greenland, south through most of the mountains of western United States and the Appalachians.
Habitat: Montane forests to alpine slopes in rocky, dry or moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Trisetum wolfiibeardless false oat
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Triticum aestivumbread wheat
Distribution: Introduced world-wide, but fails to persist more that a few seasons on its own.
Habitat: Cultivated in fields.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - June
Vahlodea atropurpureaarctic-hair grass
Distribution: Alaska south to the high mountains of California, east to Newfoundland and New Hamshire.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, streambanks, and lake margins to alpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Ventenata dubiaVentenata
Distribution: Chiefly in the eastern portion of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, pastures, crop land, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Vulpia bromoidesbrome fescue
Distribution: Introduced from southern British Columbia to southern California and Arizona, occasional farther east.
Habitat: From ocean beaches and salt marshes to sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - June
Vulpia microstachysNuttall's fescue, small fescue
Origin: Native
Vulpia myurosrat-tail six-weeks grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; occurring throughout most of North America except for the Great Plains and eastern Canada.
Habitat: A weedy species of waste places and dry, overgrazed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Vulpia octoflora
Origin: Native
var. hirtella – six-weeks fescue
var. octoflora – six-weeks fescue
Zea mays
ssp. mays – corn, Indian corn, maize
Zizania palustris
Origin: Introduced
var. palustris – northern wild rice