Trifolium
clover, trefoil
39 species
10 subspecies and varieties
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Trifolium albopurpureumRancheria clover, rancheria clover
Distribution: Known from only a few scattered locations in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Arizona.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs to forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Trifolium arvenserabbit-foot clover, hare's foot
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon.
Habitat: Uncommon in waste places and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Trifolium aureumgolden clover, greater hop clover, yellow clover
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming; also occurring in most of eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, railways and waste places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Trifolium bifidumnotch-leaf clover, pinole clover
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Trifolium campestrehop clover
Distribution: Distributed chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; distributed widely throughout North America.
Habitat: Wastelands, roadsides, meadows, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
Trifolium cernuumnodding clover
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium ciliolatumfoothill clover, tree clover
Distribution: Southern Washington south to Baja California west of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada, at elevations of up to several thousand feet in the south.
Habitat: Wet meadows to rather dry, sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Trifolium cyathiferumbowl clover, cup clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Uncommon in wet meadows to fairly dry, sandy soil, at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Trifolium depauperatumpoverty clover
Distribution: Central Oregon to southern California; sporadic and possibly always introduced in Washington and Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
Habitat: Open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
var. depauperatum – poverty clover
Trifolium dichotomumbranched Indian clover
Distribution: Occurring in the San Juan Islands in Washington; Willamette Valley, OR south to California.
Habitat: Open forest, sandy embankments, and grassy balds on islands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium douglasiiDouglas' clover
Distribution: Known from Garfield, Spokane, and Whitman counties in Washington; eastern Washington south to east-central Oregon, east to eastern Idaho; disjunct in sw Oregon.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas in including open meadows, forested wetlands, and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Trifolium dubiumleast hop clover, suckling clover
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including forest openings, meadows, wastelots, roadsides, and lawns.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Trifolium eriocephalumwoolly-head clover
Distribution: Cascades from southern Washington to Northern California, east to Nevada, Utah and Montana
Habitat: Moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
var. arcuatum – woolly-head clover
var. eriocephalum – woolly-head cloover
Trifolium fragiferumstrawberry clover
Distribution: Introduced and occasionally established in Washington, Oregon and Idaho; more common in eastern United States.
Habitat: Waste places, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - July
Trifolium fucatumsour clover
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium glomeratumclustered clover
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium gracilentumslender clover
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Trifolium hirtumrose clover
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium hybridumAlsike clover
Distribution: Introduced in Western United States
Habitat: Near cultivated fields and roadsides
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April - September
Trifolium incarnatumcrimson clover
Distribution: Introduced, occasionally established in western Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Wasteland, pastures, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Trifolium latifoliumtwin clover
Distribution: Wallowa County, Oregon to Missoula, Montana.
Habitat: Moist meadows to rocky ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Trifolium longipeslong-stalked clover
Distribution: Common on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Meadows and valleys, lower mountains to subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. longipes – long-stalked clover
var. multiovulatum – long-stalked clover
var. multipedunculatum – long-stalked clover
var. reflexum – long-stalked clover
Trifolium macrocephalumbig-head clover, large-head clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington, south through eastern Oregon, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium microcephalumsmall-head clover
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana and Arizona.
Habitat: Moist meadows, sandy riverbanks and drier hillsides, coastal to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium microdonthimble clover, Valparaiso clover
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: In meadows or on rocky or sandy soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium oliganthumfew-flowerered clover
Distribution: West of the Cascades, from southwest British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadowland to dry, rocky soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Trifolium plumosumplumed clover
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
var. amplifolium – plumed clover
var. plumosum – plumed clover
Trifolium pratensered clover
Distribution: Introduced throughout the United States; common forage crop in the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation; found along mountain trails where horses have been used
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Trifolium repensDutch clover, white clover
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Established in a variety of native habitats, such as mountain meadows
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Trifolium resupinatumreversed clover
Origin: Native
Trifolium retusumteasel clover
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium striatumknotted clover
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium subterraneumburrowing clover
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California; southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Pastures, prairies, roadsides and other open, disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium suffocatumsuffocated clover
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium thompsoniiThompson's clover
Distribution: Swakane Canyon, Chelan County, Washington, north to Entiat Valley, and in Douglas County opposite Swakane Canyon.
Habitat: Common on dry, grassy hillsides just below the ponderosa pine woodlands
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Trifolium variegatumwhite-tip clover
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; Alaska south to California, east towards the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil to moist meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Trifolium vesiculosumarrow-leaf clover
Distribution: Occurring in a few locations in lowland western Washington; Washington south to California; also in the south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in including wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Origin: Introduced
Trifolium willdenoviisand clover, springbank clover, tomcat clover
Distribution: West side of the Cascades and east along the Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides, balds, prairies and meadows at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Trifolium wormskioldiicow clover, salt marsh clover
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Montana and New Mexico; more common west of the Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Costal dunes to moist meadows and stream banks at low to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - September