Checklist » Waifs & Sporadic Escapes

Waifs & Sporadic Escapes

The following 375 exotic species and infraspecies are currently categorized as waifs or very sporadic escapes from cultivation in Washington. Taxa may be included in this list for the following reasons:

  • Waifs known only from a relatively few old collections and not collected since (e.g., ballast plants).
  • Exotic taxa that have been documented as naturalized from only one or a few sites, especially if in urban areas.
  • Garden or crop plants that repeatedly occur only as sporadic individuals or small patches of plants temporarily appearing around dump sites, gardens, cultivated fields, recently seeded areas, and the likes, presumably without persisting or spreading to form naturalized populations.
  • Ornamentals and garden plants known only from a few adventive populations in urban settings (e.g., around arboreta, gardens, greenhouses, universities, landscaping beds, lawns, rockeries, sidewalk cracks), presumably not far from where originally planted.
  • Ornamental and garden plants represented only by seedlings or saplings near cultivated individuals.
  • Exotic taxa persisting at 1 or a few locations where planted, and slightly spreading to form populations at those sites, but not spreading to new sites.
  • Long-lived trees and shrubs that persist only where planted (e.g., old homesteads, vacant lots, highway plantings, or restoration/reclamation sites).
  • Species on noxious weed lists that are now eradicated.
  • Species on noxious weed lists that have not yet been documented from Washington with an herbarium specimen.
Ferns and Lycophytes:
Family
Taxon
Common Names
Aspleniaceae
 
Marsileaceae
Australian waterclover
Osmundaceae
 
Osmundaceae
 
Gymnosperms:
Family
Taxon
Common Names
Cupressaceae
 
Cupressaceae
 
Taxaceae
Taxus baccata L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
English yew
Dicots:
Family
Taxon
Common Names
Adoxaceae
 
Adoxaceae
 
Amaranthaceae
 
Amaranthaceae
blood amaranth, caterpillar amaranth, purple amaranth
Amaranthaceae
Argentina amaranth
Amaranthaceae
 
Amaranthaceae
rough-fruited waterhemp, tall waterhemp
Amaranthaceae
Australian saltbush, berry saltbush, creeping saltbush
Amaranthaceae
Beta vulgaris L.[FNA4, HC, HC2]
common beet
Amaranthaceae
beet, cultivated beet
Amaranthaceae
 
Amaranthaceae
 
Amaranthaceae
white goosefoot
Amaranthaceae
winged pigweed
Amaranthaceae
oak-leaf goosefoot
Amaranthaceae
Spinacia oleracea L.[FNA4, HC, HC2]
spinach
Anacardiaceae
Rhus typhina L.[Flora of Virginia, HC2]
staghorn sumac
Apiaceae
bishop's goutweed
Apiaceae
dill
Apiaceae
 
Apiaceae
 
Apiaceae
blue eryngo
Apiaceae
 
Asteraceae
Artemisia annua L.[FNA19, HC, HC2]
sweet Annie, sweet sagewort, annual wormwood
Asteraceae
dusty miller, oldwoman, beach wormwood, Steller's wormwood
Asteraceae
pot marigold
Asteraceae
Carthamus tinctorius L.[FNA19, HC, HC2]
safflower
Asteraceae
asthmaweed
Asteraceae
bigleaf tickseed
Asteraceae
lance-leaved tickseed
Asteraceae
 
Asteraceae
tall globe thistle
Asteraceae
Echinops ritro L.[FNA19, HC2]
southern globe-thistle
Asteraceae
southern globe thistle
Asteraceae
great globe thistle
Asteraceae
cut leaf burnweed, New Zealand burnweed, Australian fireweed
Asteraceae
eastern burnweed, eastern fireweed
Asteraceae
American burnweed
Asteraceae
 
Asteraceae
German filago
Asteraceae
 
Asteraceae
 
Asteraceae
sawtooth sunflower
Asteraceae
narrow leaved sunflower
Asteraceae
Helianthus tuberosus L.[FNA21, HC, HC2]
Jerusalem artichoke
Asteraceae
oxtongue
Asteraceae
silver ragwort
Asteraceae
Lactuca sativa L.[FNA19, HC, HC2]
garden lettuce
Asteraceae
Shasta daisy
Asteraceae
daggerleaf cottonweed
Asteraceae
annual marguerite
Asteraceae
hawkweed oxtongue
Balsaminaceae
kashmir balsam
Berberidaceae
wintergreen barberry
Betulaceae
 
Betulaceae
 
Betulaceae
 
Boraginaceae
oval lungwort
Boraginaceae
creeping comfrey
Boraginaceae
white comfrey
Brassicaceae
yellowtuft
Brassicaceae
Arabis alpina L.[FNA7, HC2]
 
Brassicaceae
 
Brassicaceae
horseradish
Brassicaceae
 
Brassicaceae
cabbage, wild cabbage
Brassicaceae
New Zealand bittercress
Brassicaceae
wood bittercress
Brassicaceae
 
Brassicaceae
 
Brassicaceae
 
Brassicaceae
perfoliate pennycress
Brassicaceae
Austrian yellowcress field-cress
Campanulaceae
mountain sheep's bit
Campanulaceae
 
Cannabaceae
Cannabis sativa L.[FNA3, HC, HC2]
hemp, marihuana
Caprifoliaceae
Etruscan honeysuckle
Caprifoliaceae
Amur honeysuckle
Caprifoliaceae
 
Caprifoliaceae
European fly honeysuckle
Caryophyllaceae
hairy rupturewort
Caryophyllaceae
giant chickweed, water chickweed
Caryophyllaceae
fourleaf manyseed
Caryophyllaceae
fourleaf manyseed
Caryophyllaceae
rock soapwort
Caryophyllaceae
ragged-robin
Caryophyllaceae
 
Caryophyllaceae
Bocconi's sandspurry
Caryophyllaceae
greater chickweed
Celastraceae
European spindle tree
Crassulaceae
short-leaved stonecrop
Crassulaceae
Forster's stonecrop
Crassulaceae
 
Cucurbitaceae
watermelon
Cucurbitaceae
 
Droseraceae
Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis[Gray's Manual, HC2]
Venus fly trap
Ericaceae
 
Euphorbiaceae
 
Euphorbiaceae
Mediterranean spurge
Euphorbiaceae
 
Euphorbiaceae
balkan spurge, egg leaf spurge
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia platyphyllos L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
broad leaved spurge
Euphorbiaceae
 
Euphorbiaceae
annual mercury
Fabaceae
Siberian peashrub
Fabaceae
Cicer arietinum L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
chick-pea
Fabaceae
Colutea arborescens L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
bladder-sennas
Fabaceae
Galega officinalis L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
professor-weed
Fabaceae
canary-broom
Fabaceae
Genista tinctoria L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
Dyer's greenweed
Fabaceae
honey locust
Fabaceae
Lathyrus nissolia L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
yard pea
Fabaceae
earth-nut pea
Fabaceae
lentil
Fabaceae
restharrow
Fabaceae
common restharrow
Fabaceae
Pisum sativum L.[HC, HC2, JPM2]
garden pea
Fabaceae
kudzu
Fabaceae
bristly locust
Fabaceae
nodding clover
Fabaceae
suffocated clover
Fagaceae
Castanea sativa Mill.[HC2, Stace 1997]
Spanish walnut, sweet walnut
Fagaceae
 
Garryaceae
 
Geraniaceae
montane crane's-bill, Spanish crane's-bill, montane geranium, Spanish geranium
Geraniaceae
 
Geraniaceae
purple geranium
Geraniaceae
hedgerow cranesbill
Geraniaceae
round-leaved geranium
Hydrophyllaceae
baby blue eyes, five-spot
Hydrophyllaceae
baby blue-eyes
Hypericaceae
tutsan
Hypericaceae
rose-of-sharon
Hypericaceae
pale St. John's-wort
Hypericaceae
square-stalked St. John's Wort
Juglandaceae
Japanese walnut
Juglandaceae
northern California walnut
Lamiaceae
lion's heart
Lamiaceae
 
Lamiaceae
 
Lamiaceae
Monarda didyma L.[Gray's Manual, HC, HC2]
scarlet beebalm, Oswego tea
Lamiaceae
kitchen sage
Lamiaceae
 
Lamiaceae
lemon thyme
Lauraceae
California bay
Limnanthaceae
Douglas's meadow-foam
Lythraceae
Ammannia coccinea Rottb.[Draft FNA, HC, HC2]
valley redstem
Malvaceae
cotton
Malvaceae
crimsoneyed rosemallow
Malvaceae
 
Malvaceae
small-leaved linden
Malvaceae
 
Montiaceae
Siskiyou lewisia
Oleaceae
 
Oleaceae
California privet
Oleaceae
 
Onagraceae
bronzy willow-herb
Onagraceae
broad-leaved willow-herb
Onagraceae
dwarf willow-herb
Orobanchaceae
purple owl-clover
Orobanchaceae
red bartsia
Orobanchaceae
hellroot
Orobanchaceae
butter-and-eggs, Johnny-tuck owl-clover
Orobanchaceae
butter and eggs, johnny turk
Oxalidaceae
 
Papaveraceae
yellow corydalis
Papaveraceae
Martin's fumitory
Paulowniaceae
princess tree
Plantaginaceae
Antirrhinum majus L.[HC, HC2, Stace 1997]
garden snapdragon, greater snapdragon
Plantaginaceae
disk water hyssop
Plantaginaceae
 
Plantaginaceae
large-flowered linaria
Plantaginaceae
Moroccan toadflax
Plantaginaceae
lesser snapdragon, weasel's snout
Plantaginaceae
dwarf plantain
Plantaginaceae
 
Plantaginaceae
long-leaf speedwell
Plantaginaceae
purslane speedwell
Plantaginaceae
gray speedwell
Plantaginaceae
finger speedwell
Platanaceae
American plane-tree, sycamore
Plumbaginaceae
 
Plumbaginaceae
 
Polygalaceae
 
Polygonaceae
garden buckwheat
Polygonaceae
 
Polygonaceae
rhubarb
Primulaceae
ivy-leaf cyclamen
Ranunculaceae
Adonis annua L.[FNA3, HC, HC2]
blood-drops
Ranunculaceae
 
Ranunculaceae
 
Ranunculaceae
Nigella damascena L.[FNA3, HC, HC2]
devil-in-the-bush
Resedaceae
Reseda alba L.[FNA7, HC, HC2]
white upright mignonette
Resedaceae
Reseda luteola L.[FNA7, HC, HC2]
yellow dye, Dyer's rocket, weld
Rhamnaceae
common buckthorn
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
black chokeberry
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
Siberian crabapple
Rosaceae
flowering tea crabapple
Rosaceae
Japanese crabapple, Siebold crabapple, toringo
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
oriental redtip
Rosaceae
apricot
Rosaceae
almond
Rosaceae
peach
Rosaceae
Nanking cherry
Rosaceae
Yoshino cherry
Rosaceae
Pyrus calleryana Decne.[HC2, Stace 1997]
Callery pear
Rosaceae
Pyrus nivalis Jacq.[Flora Europaea, HC2]
snow pear
Rosaceae
Allegheny blackberry, common blackberry
Rosaceae
Himalayan blackberry
Rosaceae
 
Rosaceae
purple flowering raspberry
Rosaceae
Pennsylvania blackberry
Rosaceae
gian false spiraea, giant false spiraea
Rosaceae
false spiraea
Rosaceae
Sorbus hybrida L.[HC2, Stace 1997]
Swedish service-tree
Rosaceae
wild service tree
Rosaceae
steeplebush
Rubiaceae
Galium humifusum M. Bieb.[HC2, Stace 1997]
creeping bedstraw, spreading bedstraw
Rubiaceae
rough-fruit corn bedstraw
Salicaceae
gray poplar
Salicaceae
crack willow
Salicaceae
corkscrew willow
Salicaceae
purple osier, basket willow, purple willow
Salicaceae
weeping willow
Sapindaceae
 
Saxifragaceae
rue-leaved saxifrage
Scrophulariaceae
common figwort
Scrophulariaceae
 
Scrophulariaceae
 
Scrophulariaceae
 
Scrophulariaceae
hoary mullein
Solanaceae
belladonna, deadly nightshade
Solanaceae
angel's-trumpet
Solanaceae
sacred thorn apple, jimson weed
Solanaceae
apple of Peru
Solanaceae
manyflower
Solanaceae
 
Solanaceae
low hairy ground cherry, strawberry-tomato
Solanaceae
ground cherry
Solanaceae
horse nettle
Solanaceae
irish potato
Tamaricaceae
French tamarisk
Tamaricaceae
Tamarix parviflora DC.[HC, HC2, JPM2]
small-flower tamarisk
Thymelaeaceae
mezereon
Ulmaceae
American elm
Ulmaceae
 
Ulmaceae
field elm
Urticaceae
pellitory-of-the-wall
Urticaceae
eastern pellitory-of-the-wall
Verbenaceae
herb of the cross, European vervain
Violaceae
Johnny jump-up
Violaceae
 
Vitaceae
river-bank grape
Vitaceae
European grape
Zygophyllaceae
Syrian bean-caper
Monocots:
Family
Taxon
Common Names
Alismataceae
delta arrowhead
Alismataceae
awl-leaf arrowhead
Alstroemeriaceae
Peruvian lily
Amaryllidaceae
Allium cepa L.[FNA26, HC2]
cultivated onion
Amaryllidaceae
 
Amaryllidaceae
 
Araceae
 
Asparagaceae
 
Asparagaceae
drooping star-of-bethlehem
Colchicaceae
autumn crocus
Cyperaceae
silver-spiked sedge
Cyperaceae
Carex kobomugi Ohwi[FNA23, HC2, SPNW]
Japanese sedge
Cyperaceae
small-bracted sedge
Cyperaceae
umbrella flatsedge
Cyperaceae
Cyperus fuscus L.[FNA23, HC2]
brown galingale
Hydrocharitaceae
frogs's-bit
Iridaceae
yellow crocus
Iridaceae
early crocus
Iridaceae
 
Iridaceae
spring crocus
Juncaceae
short-fruit rush
Juncaceae
Juncus inflexus L.[FNA22, HC2]
blue rush
Juncaceae
southern woodrush
Juncaceae
southern woodrush
Juncaceae
snowy woodrush
Juncaceae
great woodrush
Liliaceae
hairy star-of-bethleham
Liliaceae
common garden tulip
Poaceae
sideoat grama
Poaceae
sideoats grama
Poaceae
Briza minor L.[FNA24, HC, HC2]
little quaking grass
Poaceae
compact brome
Poaceae
Job's-tears
Poaceae
modest pricklegrass
Poaceae
goosegrass
Poaceae
 
Poaceae
Festuca ovina L.[FNA24, HC]
sheep fescue
Poaceae
silky melic
Poaceae
Chinese silvergrass
Poaceae
purple moor grass
Poaceae
pearl millet
Poaceae
pearl millet
Poaceae
tender fountaingrass
Poaceae
Chilean rabbit's-foot grass
Poaceae
Asia Minor bluegrass
Poaceae
Russian-wild rye
Poaceae
blowout grass
Poaceae
broadleaf bamboo
Poaceae
fern grass
Poaceae
sorghum
Poaceae
Johnson grass
Poaceae
Chilean cordgrass
Poaceae
ravennagrass
Smilacaceae