Washington Flora Checklist
A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Washington State
Hosted by the University of Washington Herbarium


Checklist » Ericaceae
Ericaceae   (Heath Family)

Notes: FNA8: "The closest relatives of the broadly defined Ericaceae are Clethraceae and Cyrillaceae. Some phylogenies show Cyrillaceae as sister to Ericaceae; other analyses have Clethraceae and Cyrillaceae as closest relatives to each other, together forming the sister group to Ericaceae. Monotropa and related genera (genera 5-12 of this treatment), and Pyrola and related genera (genera 1-4 of this treatment) have been treated as families Monotropaceae and Pyrolaceae. Not all botanists agreed with this, as summarized by G. H. M. Lawrence (1951): "Many botanists (including Hutchinson) have held the view that the Pyrolaceae are not sufficiently distinct from the Ericaceae to be treated as a separate family." Differences in habit, floral features, and pollen have helped maintain family status for Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae in regional floras. Molecular and morphological analyses (K. A. Kron et al. 2002) show these lineages embedded within Ericaceae. Similarly, Empetraceae has been demonstrated to be nested within Ericaceae and is here included in the Ericaceae.

Studies in the last several decades, especially since 1990 including molecular data, have resulted in rearrangements of generic limits in the Ericaceae. These are discussed under the various genera; for the reader’s convenience they are summarized here. Ledum is included in Rhododendron; Leiophyllum and Loiseleuria are included in Kalmia; and Hypopitys is included in Monotropa. Arctous is separated from the much larger Arctostaphylos, to which it is inferred to form a sister clade. Eubotrys is segregated from Leucothoe, with which it has often been combined. Vaccinium is treated in a broad sense, to include segregates such as Oxycoccus; although Vaccinium is decidedly polymorphic, this seems a workable approach until generic limits in the Vaccinieae Reichenbach are better understood."

Family Synonyms:
» Empetraceae (Crowberry Family)
» Monotropaceae (Indian-Pipe Family)
» Pyrolaceae (Wintergreen Family)

» Judd, W. S. and K. A. Kron. 1993. Circumscription of Ericaceae (Ericales) as determined by preliminary cladistic analyses based on morphological, anatomical, and embryological features. Brittonia 45: 99-114.

Kron, K. A. et al. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 68: 335-423.

External Links:

Family treatment authored by Fred Weinmann; last updated 12/15/2009 by David Giblin
Taxon (native species in boldface) # Synonyms Common Names
Allotropa virgata Torr. & Gray ex Gray   [FNA8, H&C] 0 candystick, sugarstick
Andromeda polifolia L. var. polifolia    [FNA8] 2 bog rosemary
Arbutus menziesii Pursh   [FNA8, H&C] 1 Pacific madrone, Pacific madrona
Arctostaphylos columbiana Piper   [FNA8, H&C] 1 bristly manzanita
Arctostaphylos ×media Greene   [FNA8, H&C] 0 medium manzanita
Arctostaphylos nevadensis Gray ssp. nevadensis    [FNA8] 1 pinemat manzanita
Arctostaphylos patula Greene   [FNA8, H&C] 5 green-leaf manzanita
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.   [FNA8, H&C] 1 kinnikinnik, red bearberry
Cassiope lycopodioides (Pall.) D. Don   [FNA8, IFBC] 3 clubmoss mountain heather; club-moss mountain-heather
Cassiope mertensiana (Bong.) G. Don ssp. mertensiana    [FNA8] 3 western moss heather, Mertens' mountain heather
Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don ssp. saximontana (Small) Porsild   [FNA8] 2 four-angled mountain heather, white arctic mountain heather
Chimaphila menziesii (R. Br. ex D. Don) Spreng.   [FNA8, H&C] 1 little prince's-pine
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. P. C. Barton ssp. umbellata    [FNA8] 8 Pipsissewa
Elliottia pyroliflora (Bong.) S.W. Brim & P.F. Stevens   [FNA8, IFBC] 2 copperbush
Empetrum nigrum L.   [H&C] 2 crowberry
Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Bigelow   [FNA8, H&C] 2 creeping-snowberry
Gaultheria humifusa (Graham) Rydb.   [FNA8, H&C] 2 alpine wintergreen
Gaultheria ovatifolia Gray   [FNA8, H&C] 0 western teaberry, slender wintergreen
Gaultheria shallon Pursh   [FNA8, H&C] 0 salal
Harrimanella stelleriana (Pallas) Coville   [FNA8, IFBC] 2 Alaska bellheather; Alaskan moss-heather; Alaskan mountain-heather
Hemitomes congestum Gray   [FNA8, H&C] 4 gnome-plant, coneplant
Kalmia microphylla (Hook.) Heller var. microphylla    [FNA8] 2 bog laurel, alpine-laurel
Kalmia microphylla (Hooker) A. Heller var. occidentalis (Small) Ebinger   [FNA8] 2 Western swamp laurel
Kalmia procumbens (L.) Gift & Kron   [FNA8] 3 alpine or trailing azalea
Menziesia ferruginea Sm.   [FNA8] 6 fool's-huckleberry, false azalea
Moneses uniflora (L.) Gray   [FNA8, IFBC] 4 single-delight
Monotropa hypopitys L.   [FNA8] 7 many-flower Indian-pipe
Monotropa uniflora L.   [FNA8, H&C] 2 one-flower Indian-pipe
Orthilia secunda (L.) House   [FNA8, JPM-2] 4 one-sided pyrola, sidebells
Phyllodoce empetriformis (Sm.) D. Don   [FNA8, H&C] 1 pink mountain-heath
Phyllodoce glanduliflora (Hook.) Coville   [FNA8, H&C] 2 yellow mountain-heath
Phyllodoce ×intermedia (Hook.) Camp   [FNA8, H&C] 2
Pityopus californicus (Eastw.) Copel.   [FNA8, JPM-2] 3 California pinefoot
Pleuricospora fimbriolata Gray   [FNA8, H&C] 2 fringed pinesap
Pterospora andromedea Nutt.   [FNA8, H&C] 0 woodland pinedrops
Pyrola asarifolia Michx. ssp. asarifolia    [FNA8] 4 pink pyrola
Pyrola asarifolia Michx. ssp. bracteata (Hook.) Haber   [FNA8] 2 pink pyrola
Pyrola chlorantha Sw.   [FNA8, H&C] 3 green-flower wintergreen
Pyrola dentata Sm. 0
Pyrola minor L.   [FNA8, H&C] 2 snowline wintergreen, lesser wintergreen
Pyrola picta Sm.   [FNA8, IFBC] 8 white-vein wintergreen
Rhododendron albiflorum Hook.   [FNA8, H&C] 2 white rhododendron
Rhododendron columbianum (Piper) Harmaja   [FNA8] 8 western Labrador tea
Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd   [FNA8, IFBC] 1 Labrador tea
Rhododendron macrophyllum D. Don ex G. Don   [FNA8, H&C] 1 Pacific rhododendron, California rhododendron
Vaccinium caespitosum Michx.   [FNA8, H&C] 9 dwarf bilberry, dwarf huckleberry
Vaccinium corymbosum L.   [FNA8] 4 high-bush blueberry
Vaccinium deliciosum Piper   [FNA8, H&C] 0 blueleaf huckleberry, Cascade blueberry, Rainier blueberry
Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.   [FNA8, H&C] 1 large cranberry, cultivated cranberry
Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl. ex Torr.   [FNA8, H&C] 4 thin-leaved huckleberry, tall huckleberry, square-twig blueberry
Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx.   [FNA8, IFBC] 3 velvet-leaf blueberry
Vaccinium myrtillus L.   [FNA8, H&C] 3 dwarf blueberry, low blueberry
Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm.   [FNA8] 1 oval-leaf blueberry
Vaccinium ovatum Pursh   [FNA8, H&C] 1 evergreen huckelberry
Vaccinium oxycoccos L.   [FNA8, H&C] 10 small cranberry
Vaccinium parvifolium Sm.   [FNA8, H&C] 0 red huckleberry
Vaccinium scoparium Leib. ex Coville   [FNA8, H&C] 2 grouseberry
Vaccinium uliginosum L.   [FNA8, H&C] 8 bog blueberry, bog bilberry

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