Checklist » Ericaceae
Ericaceae[FNA8, HC, HC2](Heath Family)
Synonyms:
Empetraceae[HC]Crowberry Family
MonotropaceaeIndian-Pipe Family
PyrolaceaeWintergreen Family

Notes: FNA8: "The closest relatives of the broadly defined Ericaceae are Clethraceae and Cyrillaceae. Some phylogenies show Cyrillaceae as sister to Ericaceae; other analyses have Clethraceae and Cyrillaceae as closest relatives to each other, together forming the sister group to Ericaceae. Monotropa and related genera (genera 5-12 of this treatment), and Pyrola and related genera (genera 1-4 of this treatment) have been treated as families Monotropaceae and Pyrolaceae. Not all botanists agreed with this, as summarized by G. H. M. Lawrence (1951): "Many botanists (including Hutchinson) have held the view that the Pyrolaceae are not sufficiently distinct from the Ericaceae to be treated as a separate family." Differences in habit, floral features, and pollen have helped maintain family status for Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae in regional floras. Molecular and morphological analyses (K. A. Kron et al. 2002) show these lineages embedded within Ericaceae. Similarly, Empetraceae has been demonstrated to be nested within Ericaceae and is here included in the Ericaceae.

Studies in the last several decades, especially since 1990 including molecular data, have resulted in rearrangements of generic limits in the Ericaceae. These are discussed under the various genera; for the reader's convenience they are summarized here. Ledum is included in Rhododendron; Leiophyllum and Loiseleuria are included in Kalmia; and Hypopitys is included in Monotropa. Arctous is separated from the much larger Arctostaphylos, to which it is inferred to form a sister clade. Eubotrys is segregated from Leucothoe, with which it has often been combined. Vaccinium is treated in a broad sense, to include segregates such as Oxycoccus; although Vaccinium is decidedly polymorphic, this seems a workable approach until generic limits in the Vaccinieae Reichenbach are better understood."

References:

» Judd, W. S. and K. A. Kron. 1993. Circumscription of Ericaceae (Ericales) as determined by preliminary cladistic analyses based on morphological, anatomical, and embryological features. Brittonia 45: 99-114.
» Kron, K. A. et al. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 68: 335-423.

Family information last updated 12/15/2009 by David Giblin.

Taxon (native taxa in boldface)
Common Names
# Synonyms
candystick, sugarstick
0 synonyms
Andromeda polifolia L.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
 
0 synonyms
var. polifolia[FNA8, HC2]
bog rosemary
1 synonym
Pacific madrona, Pacific madrone
1 synonym
 
0 synonyms
bristly manzanita
1 synonym
medium manzanita
0 synonyms
kinnikinnick, pinemat manzanita
0 synonyms
ssp. nevadensis[FNA8, HC2]
pinemat manzanita
0 synonyms
green-leaf manzanita
6 synonyms
red bearberry, kinnikinnik
1 synonym
 
0 synonyms
club-moss mountain-heather, clubmoss mountain-heather
1 synonym
Mertens's moss-heather
1 synonym
ssp. mertensiana[FNA8, HC2]
Mertens' mountain heather, western moss heather
2 synonyms
four-angled moss-heather
0 synonyms
four-angled mountain heather, white arctic mountain heather
2 synonyms
little prince's-pine
1 synonym
common prince's-pine
1 synonym
ssp. umbellata[FNA8, HC2]
Pipsissewa, common prince's-pine
7 synonyms
copperbush
3 synonyms
Empetrum nigrum L.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
crowberry
2 synonyms
creeping-snowberry
2 synonyms
alpine wintergreen
2 synonyms
western teaberry, slender wintergreen
0 synonyms
salal
0 synonyms
Alaska bell-heather, Alaska bellheather, alpine heather, Alaskan moss-heather, Alaskan mountain-heather
2 synonyms
coneplant, gnome-plant
4 synonyms
western bog laurel
1 synonym
var. microphylla[FNA8, HC2]
alpine-laurel, bog laurel
2 synonyms
Western swamp laurel
2 synonyms
alpine-azalea, alpine azalea, trailing azalea
3 synonyms
single-delight
4 synonyms
many-flower Indian-pipe
7 synonyms
Monotropa uniflora L.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
one-flower Indian-pipe
2 synonyms
one-sided pyrola, sidebells
5 synonyms
pink mountain-heath
1 synonym
yellow mountain-heath
2 synonyms
 
1 synonym
California pinefoot
3 synonyms
fringed pinesap
2 synonyms
woodland pinedrops
0 synonyms
leafless wintergreen
0 synonyms
common pink wintergreen, liver-leaf wintergreen
0 synonyms
ssp. asarifolia[FNA8, HC2]
pink pyrola
5 synonyms
pink pyrola
2 synonyms
Pyrola chlorantha Sw.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
green-flower wintergreen
3 synonyms
toothleaf pyrola
4 synonyms
Pyrola elliptica Nutt.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
white wintergreen
0 synonyms
Pyrola minor L.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
lesser wintergreen, snowline wintergreen
2 synonyms
Pyrola picta Sm.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
white-vein wintergreen
3 synonyms
white rhododendron
2 synonyms
mt. Labrador tea, smooth Labrador tea, western Labrador tea
8 synonyms
rusty Labrador-tea, bog Labrador tea
1 synonym
California rhododendron, Pacific rhododendron
1 synonym
false azalea, fool's-huckleberry
5 synonyms
dwarf bilberry, dwarf huckleberry
10 synonyms
high-bush blueberry
4 synonyms
Cascade blueberry, Rainier blueberry, blueleaf huckleberry
0 synonyms
cultivated cranberry, large cranberry
1 synonym
square-twig blueberry, tall huckleberry, thin-leaved huckleberry
4 synonyms
velvet-leaf blueberry
3 synonyms
Vaccinium myrtillus L.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
dwarf blueberry, low blueberry
3 synonyms
Alaska blueberry, oval-leaf blueberry
1 synonym
Vaccinium ovatum Pursh[FNA8, HC, HC2]
evergreen huckelberry
1 synonym
Vaccinium oxycoccos L.[FNA8, HC, HC2]
small cranberry
10 synonyms
red huckleberry
0 synonyms
grouseberry
2 synonyms
bog bilberry, bog blueberry
8 synonyms