Washington Flora Checklist
A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Washington State
Hosted by the University of Washington Herbarium


Checklist » Primulaceae
Primulaceae   (Primrose Family)

Notes: FNA8: "As typically described (e.g., A. Cronquist 1981; V. H. Heywood 1978), Primulaceae were clearly polyphyletic, closely related to Myrsinaceae and Theophrastaceae. M. Källersjö et al. (2000) and B. Ståhl and A. A. Anderberg (2004) removed the nonrosette terrestrial members from Primulaceae in the broad sense and placed them in the Myrsinaceae, which are further distinguished by leaves and calyx often dotted with yellow or dark streaks, flowers with relatively shorter corolla tubes, seeds immersed in placentae, and wood devoid of rays or with multiseriate rays only. Maesa, consisting entirely of trees found in the Eastern Hemisphere tropics, also has semi-inferior ovaries, pedicels with two bracts, and wood with both uniseriate and multiseriate rays; it, too, was removed from Primulaceae/Myrsinaceae and placed in its own family (Källersjö et al.). The families Primulaceae in the narrow sense, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae (including Samolaceae), and Maesaceae then form a monophyletic clade within Ericales (P. F. Stevens, http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/), sharing some features, most notably flowers with sympetalous corollas, stamens in a single series and opposite the petals, free-central placentation, bitegmic, tenuinucellate ovules, and plants generally with tannins and saponins.

Additional evidence (L. Martins et al. 2003) indicates that Androsace and Primula may not be monophyletic; more work is needed to resolve these issues. The work of M. Källersjö et al. (2000) showed that Douglasia should remain separate from Androsace, and Dodecatheon should remain separate from Primula, although Dodecatheon clearly is derived from Primula subg. Auriculastrum. Alternative views suggesting more inclusive concepts of Primula and Androsace have been offered by I. Trift et al. (2002), A. R. Mast et al. (2004), and G. M. Schneeweiss et al. (2004). The phylogenetic position of Cyclamen, a scapose taxon currently included in Myrsinaceae, has not been resolved. Our understanding of Primulaceae is still in flux, and future taxonomic realignments at the familial and generic levels are to be expected."

Family Synonyms:
» Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family)
» Theophrastaceae (Joewood Family)

Literature: (none)

Family treatment authored by Fred Weinmann; last updated 10/29/2009 by David Giblin
Taxon (native species in boldface) # Synonyms Common Names
Anagallis arvensis L.   [FNA8, JPM-2] 3 scarlet pimpernel
Androsace filiformis Retz.   [FNA8, H&C] 1 slender-stem rock-jasmine
Androsace septentrionalis L.   [FNA8, H&C] 2 pygmyflower, rock jasmine
Dodecatheon alpinum (A. Gray) Greene   [FNA8] 0 alpine shootingstar
Dodecatheon austrofrigidum K. L. Chambers   [FNA8] 1 tundra shootingstar
Dodecatheon conjugens Greene var. conjugens    [FNA8, H&C] 2 slimpod shooting star, desert shooting star
Dodecatheon conjugens Greene var. viscidum (Piper) Mason ex St. John   [FNA8, H&C] 4 slimpod shooting star, desert shooting star
Dodecatheon dentatum Hook.   [FNA8, H&C] 3 white shooting star
Dodecatheon hendersonii Gray   [FNA8, H&C] 5 broad-leaved shooting star, Henderson's shooting star
Dodecatheon jeffreyi Van Houtte   [FNA8, H&C] 3 tall mountain shooting star, Jeffrey's shooting star
Dodecatheon poeticum Henderson   [FNA8, H&C] 1 narcissus shooting star, poet's shootingstar
Dodecatheon pulchellum (Raf.) Merr. var. cusickii (Greene) Reveal   [FNA8] 3 Cusick’s shootingstar
Dodecatheon pulchellum (Raf.) Merr. var. monanthum (Greene) B. Boivin   [FNA8] 4 dark-throated shooting star
Dodecatheon pulchellum (Raf.) Merr. var. pulchellum    [FNA8, H&C] 11 dark-throated shooting star
Douglasia laevigata A. Gray   [FNA8] 3 smooth douglasia, cliff dwarf primrose
Douglasia nivalis Lindl.   [FNA8, H&C] 4 snow douglasii
Lysimachia ciliata L.   [FNA8, H&C] 8 fringed yellow-loosestrife
Lysimachia hybrida Michx.   [FNA8] 11 Mississippi or lowland loosestrife
Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano   [FNA8] 5 sea milkwort
Lysimachia minima (L.) U. Manns & Anderb   [Cholewa, A.F. 2014. Phytoneuron 2014-28: 1–2.] 4 chaffweed
Lysimachia nummularia L.   [FNA8] 0 creeping-Jenny
Lysimachia punctata L.   [FNA8, H&C] 0 large yellow-loosestrife
Lysimachia terrestris (L.) B.S.P.   [FNA8, H&C] 5 swampcandles
Lysimachia thyrsiflora L.   [FNA8, H&C] 7 tufted yellow-loosestrife
Lysimachia vulgaris L.   [FNA8] 0 garden yellow-loosestrife
Samolus parviflorus Raf.   [FNA8, JPM-2] 2 water pimpernel
Trientalis europaea L.   [FNA8] 4 Arctic starflower
Trientalis latifolia Hook.   [FNA8, H&C] 3 western starflower, broad-leaved starflower

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