Publication: Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 180. 1803.
selected vouchers: WTU
Notes: FNA3: "Betula glandulosa is the characteristic dwarf birch of upland habitats throughout much of the mountainous west, occurring as well in dry open areas across the north. Where their ranges meet, B . glandulosa intergrades with both B . pumila Linnaeus and B . nana Linnaeus subsp. exilis (Sukaczev) Hultén, creating a confusing complex of intermediate forms."