Publication: Sp. Pl. 2: 1196. 1753.
selected vouchers: WTU
Notes: FNA3: "n its native range, Papaver dubium is a tetraploid complex of five subspecies whose morphologies and distributions intersect to a considerable degree (J. W. Kadereit 1989, 1990). Probably several, if not all, of these entities have been introduced in North America, but it is fruitless to try to distinguish them here, where the species has arrived as a crop weed and the subspecies have no geographic integrity.
Papaver dubium sometimes seems to intergrade with P . rhoeas , at least in North America. The most readily evident character for distinguishing them reliably is the nature of the distal pubescence on the peduncles--whether spreading or appressed."