Publication: Mem. Torrey Bot. Club. 2: 42. 1890.
selected vouchers: WTU
Notes: FNA3: "Populations of Trautvetteria caroliniensis in western North America have been distinguished from the eastern typical material as T . caroliniansis var. borealis (Hara) T. Shimizu [synonym: T . caroliniensis var. occidentalis (A. Gray) C.L. Hitchcock]. Asian populations, long treated as the distinct species T . japonica Siebold & Zuccarini, were most recently regarded (T. Shimizu 1981; M. Tamura 1991) as conspecific with the North American populations [as T . caroliniensis var. japonica (Siebold & Zuccarini) T. Shimizu]. Aside from geography, varietal differences seem rather arbitrary."