Publication: Sp. Pl. 2: 987. 1753.
selected vouchers: WTU
Notes: Vars. only weakly separated, following Jeps. Man. not worth recognition, "populations show founder effects"
FNA21: "Recognition of a dozen or more taxa (treated as species, subspecies, varieties, and/or forms) has been proposed for plants treated together here as Xanthium strumarium. Bases for the various taxa mostly involved subtle differences in the burs."