Lichens are composite organisms composed of fungal species in a symbiotic relationship with algae and/or cyanobacteria. Although lichens are classified and named based on the fungal component, they are here presented separately from fungi for convenience of access.
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220 species, 22 subspecies and varieties
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Index to genera:Calicium
Description: Thallus yellow-green, granular; Stalks black, 1.5-2.5 mm in height, to 0.15 mm in diameter; Capitula black.
Distribution: Washington; Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming; British Columbia, Yukon Territory, Alberta.
Habitat: Mountain forest.
Substrate: Primarily on conifer bark and wood, but also on deciduous trees.
Description: Thallus yellow-orange, thick, somewhat waxy; Squamules slightly lobed; Apothecia to 2 mm in diameter, disks orange with paler margins.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Oregon, California.
Habitat: Coastal, to 1600\' elevation where salt spray is present.
Substrate: On rock.
Description: Thallus blue-grey to whitish, smooth to areolate. Apothecia bright yellow, to 2 mm in diameter, sometimes slightly pruinose, with raised grey margin.
Distribution: Washington; Reported in all continental US states with the exceptions of Nevada, Louisiana and Florida; Canada.
Habitat: In open woodlands.
Substrate: Common on bark, esp. of poplar and elm.
Description: Thallus, egg-yolk yellow to dark yellow-orange; Areoles granular, becoming a leprose crust; Apothecia rare, but may be abundant in some specimens.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Oregon, California, midwest and central states, Maine to South Carolina; British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec, disjunct in Northwest Territories.
Habitat: Widely distributed.
Substrate: Rock of all kinds, wood and soil.
Description: Thallus within the host; Apothecia clustered, rusty red-orange, with dark orange to black margins
Distribution: East of Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Oregon, northeastern California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico; British Columbia.
Substrate: Parasitic on a variety of arctic/alpine lichens growing on siliceous rock.
Description: Thallus nearly imperceptible, dark grey to yellowish; Apothecia to 0.5 mm in diameter, crowded, dull orange to orange-brown with egg-yolk yellow margins.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; midwest and eastern United States with disjunct across New Mexico-Texas border.
Substrate: Mortar, cement, concrete and natural limestone.
Description: Thallus yellow-orange, squamulose to areolate, areoles discrete to 0.4 mm in diameter, commonly constricted at the base, with conspicuous yellow-orange prothallus; Apothecia common, to 1.1 mm in diameter.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; coastal Oregon and northern California; coastal British Columbia.
Habitat: Lower salt-spray zone.
Substrate: Maritime rock.
Description: Thallus pale sulphur-yellow, grey when in shade, continuous and smooth; Apothecia orange, occasionally with pale yellow to white pruina, to 1.5 mm in diameter.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, midwestern states, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, New York to Maine; southern Canada from Alberta to Nova Scotia.
Substrate: On bark of deciduous trees and conifers, and on wood.
Description: Apothecia abundant, 0.3-0.5 mm, orange to orangish-yellow, margins of same color or slightly lighter.
Distribution: Washington; Uncertain, but widespread in US boreal and temperate zones.
Substrate: Abundant on bark and wood of many tree species. May also occur on rock.
Description: Thallus highly variable, from inconspicuous to yellow-orange and areolate; Areoles scattered and convex, less than 0.2 mm; Apothecia generally abundant, scattered to crowded, yellow to yellow orange, 0.3-1.1 mm.
Habitat: Upper intertidal zone to beach edge.
Substrate: Rock and driftwood.
Thallus areolate, or entirely within rock; Areoles scattered or contiguous, pale brown to pinkish; Apothecia orange or scarlet, 0.6-1.2 mm, margins paler.
From coastal mountains to upper intertidal zone.
Description: Thallus bright orange to dark yellow, appearing in circular patches with narrow lobes around the periphery; Lobes convex and flattened at tips, 0.3-0.8 mm wide and 1-5 mm in length; granular isidia often present in center of older thallus; Apothecia rare.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska; British Columbia;
Habitat: Coastal, in salt-spray zone.
Substrate: On rock, especially where bird manure is present.
Thallus bright yellow, forming small rosettes of overlapping lobes; Lobes 0.1-0.5 mm in width, edged with granular soredia. Apothecia uncommon, dark yellow to orange-brown with thin yellow margins, 0.2-0.7 mm in diameter.
Washington; widespread across United States and Canada.
Tree trunks, twigs, bark.
Description: Thallus almost entirely within substrate material, scattered dark yellow granules. Apothecia abundant, 0.3-1.2 mm.
Distribution: Washington; From Alaska south to Arizona and New Mexico, east to Maine in northern states; British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut;
Habitat: Exposed areas.
Substrate: Calcareous rock, or dust-impregnated bark where soil is lime-rich.
Description: Thallus dark egg-yolk yellow, forming tiny rosettes of squamules or convex aureoles; Apothecia 0.4-1.3 mm with raised margins.
Distribution: East of Cascades in Washington; California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming.
Habitat: Juniper/sage canyons.
Substrate: On bark, wood, soil or rock.
Description: Thallus bright yellow, granular to areolate. Apothecia 0.4-0.7 mm, often with discontinuous margins.
Distribution: Washington; Rocky Mountains, Alaska; Northern Canada.
Substrate: Tundra soil, moss, lichen, dead vegetation.
Description: Thallus forming small cushions of flattened granules, sometimes with scattered yellow areoles; Apothecia 0.5-1.5 mm, crowded.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, Oregon, California, across Rocky Mountain states and midwest, northern states to Maine; British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Northern Territories, Manitoba.
Habitat: In sun.
Substrate: Common on noncalcareous rock, esp. granitic rock, rarely on wood or bark.
Description: Thallus with narrow lobes bearing rounded piles of greenish soredia on tips; Apothecia rare.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, Oregon, northern California; British Columbia.
Habitat: Wet, forested coastal areas.
Description: Thallus nonsorediate, lobes mostly under 0.8 mm in width, often exhibiting black dots (buried pycnidia); Apothecia brown and abundant, up to 15 mm in diameter.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, southern Oregon, northern California; British Columbia.
Habitat: Coastal forests.
Description: Thallus brownish-red and spiny, forming cushions. Branches rounded or angular, up to 2 mm in width, longitudinally grooved or ridged, with deep, broad pseudo cyphellae up to 0.6 mm long and 0.3 mm in width.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado; Northern and northwestern Canadian provinces.
Habitat: Among heath in alpine and arctic habitats.
Description: Thallus olive-brown to grey-olive, lobes flattened or curled in at the sides, 1-4 mm in width, typically regularly forked with marginal pseudocyphellae; Apothecia rare, shiny red-brown, appearing on lobe tips.
Distribution: Montana east to Maine, south through Appalachia; Southernmost borders of central and eastern Canadian provinces.
Description: Thallus bright yellow, occasionally flecked with orange, comprised entirely of fine powdery soredia less than 0.1 mm.
Distribution: Largely west of Cascades in Washington; northern British Columbia to southern California, northern Michigan and Wisconsin, coastal Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, southern Mississippi and Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida.
Habitat: Shaded areas.
Substrate: Bark of all kinds, occasionally on rock.
Description: Thallus pale yellowish-green with large, deeply lobed squamules. Podetia largely squamulose, bearing large red apothecia at the tips.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, northern Canada.
Substrate: On rotting wood, stumps, logs, occasionally on soil.
Thallus grey to greenish-grey, usually pruinose. Podetia slender and pointed, cups occasionally present.
Washington; Alaska to Oregon, Idaho, west of Rockies in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Maine; Nunavut, northern and southern Quebec.
Open or partial shade, mainly at higher elevations.
Coastal from southeast Alaska to California.
Sand dunes, sandy soil, seaside cliffs and rocky slopes, always near the coast.
Sandy soil, moss over sand, or rock.