Lichenized Fungi

Lichens are composite organisms composed of fungal species in a symbiotic relationship with algae and/or cyanobacteria. Although lichens are classified and named based on the fungal component, they are here presented separately from fungi for convenience of access.


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Scientific names beginning with P:
Parmotrema arnoldii
Description: Thallus pale grey, lobes somewhat divided, 6-15 mm in width. Abundant long cilia. Lower surface brown to black with wide naked margin.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; northern British Columbia to lower California, disjuncts in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.
Habitat: Open forest.
Substrate: On bark of all kinds, and occasionally on rock.
Peltigera rufescens
Description: Thallus grey to brownish, heavy tomentum on upper surface of lobes. Rhizines abundant, forming a mat. Apothecia red-brown, common.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska to northern California, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota to Maine, south to Missouri and Maryland; Canada.
Habitat: In full sun.
Substrate: Dry, sandy, calcareous soils.
Peltigera venosa
Description: Thallus deep green to dark grey-green, lobes fan-shaped or rounded to 15 mm. Lower surface white marked by raised black veins, rhizines absent.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska to northern California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Michigan, New York, Maine, New Hampshire; northern Canada, to US border in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec.
Habitat: Moist, shaded areas in regions with high rainfall.
Substrate: Mineralized soil.
Physcia adscendens
Description: Thallus pale to dark grey, lobes narrow, 1-3 mm in width. Lower surface white to tan, typically pruinose. Rhizines present.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska to southern California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, east of Mississippi with exception of Florida; Canada.
Habitat: Open areas.
Substrate: Bark and wood of various trees.
Pilophorus acicularis
Description: Thallus pale grey-green, granular/verrucose. Stalks erect to 25 mm, terminating in a small black apothecium.
Distribution: West of Cascades from Alaska to northern California; disjunct in Idaho and extreme western Montana.
Habitat: Open sites.
Substrate: On rock.
Pilophorus clavatus
Description: Thallus typically dark, brownish to olive green. Stalks erect to 20 mm, unbranched, terminating in an elongated black apothecium.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; northern British Columbia to northern Oregon.
Habitat: In shade or sometimes open areas.
Substrate: On rock.
Placopsis gelida
Description: Thallus white to grey, sometimes tinged with yellow, cephalodia brown and usually centralized.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska to Oregon and extreme western Montana.
Substrate: On rock.
Polycauliona candelaria
Origin: Native