Lichens are composite organisms composed of fungal species in a symbiotic relationship with algae and/or cyanobacteria. Although lichens are classified and named based on the fungal component, they are here presented separately from fungi for convenience of access.
Description: Thallus grey to purplish, lower surface black, rhizines present. Apothecia black, common.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Exposed rock.
Substrate: Non-calcareous rock.
Description: Thallus pendent, extremely long (to 9\\', rarely to 15\\'), with slender, almost undivided branches. Side branches and fibrils perpendicular. Pollution-sensitive.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine; Ontario, Quebec.
Habitat: Open or lightly shaded forest, often near water.
Substrate: On trees of all kinds.