Lichens are composite organisms composed of fungal species in a symbiotic relationship with algae and/or cyanobacteria. Although lichens are classified and named based on the fungal component, they are here presented separately from fungi for convenience of access.
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77 species, 2 subspecies and varieties
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Index to genera:Abrothallus
Description: Thallus areolate, becoming squamulose, yellowish-brown to brownish-red, often shiny. with darker brown, irregular apothecia in the center of each areole.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, western and midwestern states, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, northeastern states; British Columbia, Canada east of Canadian Rockies.
Habitat: In full or partial sun.
Substrate: On granitic rocks.
Description: Thallus dispersed reddish-brown squamules each containing a single apothecium <3 mm. with a lightly pruinose disk.
Distribution: Washington in Pend Oreille; Alaska to Texas, east of Rocky Mountains; disjuncts in Missouri, Tennessee/North Carolina border, along east coast.
Habitat: In exposed areas.
Substrate: On calcareous rock.
Description: Thallus sulphur yellow, pale to medium, sometimes pruinose, squamulose-areolate, frequently lobed at margins; apothecia large, reddish-brown, sometimes scabrose.
Distribution: East of Cascades in Washington; Rocky Mountains in Colorado;
Habitat: In the open.
Substrate: On soil.
Description: Thallus light grey to yellowish-grey areoles, heavily pruinose, 0.5-1.5 mm forming an almost continuous crust. Apothecia sunken, reddish-brown, with or without pruina.
Distribution: Kittitas County in Washington; southern California, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota; Alberta, Saskatchewan.
Substrate: On calcareous rock.
Description: Thallus white to creamy; Rimose, areolate, or not discernible. Apothecia black to greenish-brown, <1.1 mm.
Distribution: Washington; Colorado;
Substrate: On calcareous or acidic rock, bark of deciduous trees.
Description: Thallus variable, whitish; Apothecia black to brownish-black with well-developed margins.
Distribution: Washington; Uncommon in North America.
Substrate: On weathered calcareous or metalliferous rock.
Description: Thallus whitish. Apothecia <0.5 mm, brownish-red, variable in shape. Soredia and isidia absent.
Substrate: On wood, esp. old snags.
Distribution: Washington; Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana; British Columbia.
Description: Thallus pale yellowish-green, dull, margins often greenish-black; lobes thin, 2-4 mm across, closely appressed and wrinkled; lower surface light tan with short, woolly rhizines; Apothecia large, pale brown.
Distribution: Washington, largely east of Cascades crest; Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana; British Columbia.
Habitat: Subalpine, intermontane.
Substrate: Whitebark Pine, Subalpine Larch.
Description: Thallus shrubby to sub-pendent, pale greenish-yellow, 5-8 cm. in length, isidiate
Distribution: Washington; Oregon, north coastal California, Idaho, Montana; British Columbia, Alberta.
Habitat: Exposed areas.
Substrate: On conifers, especially pines.
Description: Thallus shrubby to sub-pendent, forming tufts, pale yellowish-green, sometimes with black streaks near base, 5-8 cm in length; apothecia brown disks 2-4 mm in diameter, usually abundant.
Distribution: Washington; Oregon, north coastal California.
Habitat: High-altitude montane forest.
Substrate: On conifers, esp. pine; On soil or rock.
Description: Thallus shrubby, erect or tangled, pinkish-grey to black, branch tips us. black; apothecia large, brown and infrequent.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, northern Idaho, western Montana, disjunct in Colorado, New Mexico; British Columbia, northern Canada.
Substrate: Soil, sometimes on low branches and shrubs.
Thallus pendent, pale yellowish-green; branches sometimes flattened at axils; apothecia brown.
Washington; Oregon, northern California, northern Idaho, western Montana, southern Alaska, Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire; British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec.
Cool coastal areas and moist inland sites.
Description: Thallus pendent, greyish yellow-green;
Distribution: Washington; Oregon, northern California; British Columbia.
Habitat: Cool coastal areas.
Substrate: On conifers.
Description: Thallus dark brown to black, greying on older portions. Lobes usu. short, <1.5 mm in width. Lower surface pale brown to black.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana, disjunct in Colorado; British Columbia, Yukon Territory, northern Canada.
Description: Thallus grey to brownish when dry, greenish when wet. Apothecia 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter, exciple dark brown.
Distribution: Washington; widespread throughouth US and Canada.
Substrate: On bark and wood, occasionally on siliceous rock.
Description: Thallus areolate to verrucose, dispersed, pale brown-grey to yellowish-pink, cephalodia dark pink to olive. Areoles becoming granular at base and sides.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska, Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire; western British Columbia, Yukon Territory, Quebec, Newfoundland, Labrador.
Habitat: Arctic-alpine, humid rock at lower elevations.
Substrate: On rock.
Description: Lobes 1-2 mm in width, without soredia or isidia; Lower surface white with sparse dark rhizines.
Distribution: Alaska, northeastern New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine; Canada.
Description: Thallus white to pale green, occurring in small patches. Ascomata black, branching, <1.5 mm in length, 0.1-0.2 mm in width, forming asteriated clusters.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Southern California and Arizona, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, New York, Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut; west of Cascades in British Columbia, northeastern Canada.
Habitat: In forest.
Substrate: On bark, esp. hardwood.
Description: Thallus pale to dark greenish-grey, sometimes yellowish, rimose-areolate to somewhat verrucose. Apothecia 0.4-1.2 mm in diameter, black, level with surface of thallus.
Distribution: Washington; western and midwestern states to Arizona and northern New Mexico, northern US, Carolinas, Tennessee, Virginia, with disjuncts in Missouri and Texas; Canada.
Habitat: Usu. in sun.
Substrate: On siliceous rock.