Lichenized Fungi

Lichens are composite organisms composed of fungal species in a symbiotic relationship with algae and/or cyanobacteria. Although lichens are classified and named based on the fungal component, they are here presented separately from fungi for convenience of access.


Browse by scientific name:

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Scientific names beginning with C:
Calicium viride
Description: Thallus yellow-green, granular; Stalks black, 1.5-2.5 mm in height, to 0.15 mm in diameter; Capitula black.
Distribution: Washington; Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming; British Columbia, Yukon Territory, Alberta.
Habitat: Mountain forest.
Substrate: Primarily on conifer bark and wood, but also on deciduous trees.
Caloplaca arenaria
Description: Thallus barely perceptible; Apothecia rusty orange to olive-brown, 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter, frequently crowding.
Distribution: East of Cascades crest in Washington; Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine.
Habitat: Open areas.
Substrate: On siliceous rock.
Caloplaca bolacina
Description: Thallus yellow-orange, thick, somewhat waxy; Squamules slightly lobed; Apothecia to 2 mm in diameter, disks orange with paler margins.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Oregon, California.
Habitat: Coastal, to 1600\' elevation where salt spray is present.
Substrate: On rock.
Caloplaca cerina
Description: Thallus blue-grey to whitish, smooth to areolate. Apothecia bright yellow, to 2 mm in diameter, sometimes slightly pruinose, with raised grey margin.
Distribution: Washington; Reported in all continental US states with the exceptions of Nevada, Louisiana and Florida; Canada.
Habitat: In open woodlands.
Substrate: Common on bark, esp. of poplar and elm.
Caloplaca citrina
Description: Thallus, egg-yolk yellow to dark yellow-orange; Areoles granular, becoming a leprose crust; Apothecia rare, but may be abundant in some specimens.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Oregon, California, midwest and central states, Maine to South Carolina; British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec, disjunct in Northwest Territories.
Habitat: Widely distributed.
Substrate: Rock of all kinds, wood and soil.
Caloplaca epithallina
Description: Thallus within the host; Apothecia clustered, rusty red-orange, with dark orange to black margins
Distribution: East of Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Oregon, northeastern California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico; British Columbia.
Habitat: Arctic/alpine.
Substrate: Parasitic on a variety of arctic/alpine lichens growing on siliceous rock.
Caloplaca feracissima
Description: Thallus nearly imperceptible, dark grey to yellowish; Apothecia to 0.5 mm in diameter, crowded, dull orange to orange-brown with egg-yolk yellow margins.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; midwest and eastern United States with disjunct across New Mexico-Texas border.
Substrate: Mortar, cement, concrete and natural limestone.
Caloplaca flavogranulosa
Description: Thallus yellow-orange, squamulose to areolate, areoles discrete to 0.4 mm in diameter, commonly constricted at the base, with conspicuous yellow-orange prothallus; Apothecia common, to 1.1 mm in diameter.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; coastal Oregon and northern California; coastal British Columbia.
Habitat: Lower salt-spray zone.
Substrate: Maritime rock.
Caloplaca flavorubescens
Description: Thallus pale sulphur-yellow, grey when in shade, continuous and smooth; Apothecia orange, occasionally with pale yellow to white pruina, to 1.5 mm in diameter.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, midwestern states, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, New York to Maine; southern Canada from Alberta to Nova Scotia.
Substrate: On bark of deciduous trees and conifers, and on wood.
Caloplaca holocarpa
Description: Apothecia abundant, 0.3-0.5 mm, orange to orangish-yellow, margins of same color or slightly lighter.
Distribution: Washington; Uncertain, but widespread in US boreal and temperate zones.
Substrate: Abundant on bark and wood of many tree species. May also occur on rock.
Caloplaca inconspecta
Description: Thallus highly variable, from inconspicuous to yellow-orange and areolate; Areoles scattered and convex, less than 0.2 mm; Apothecia generally abundant, scattered to crowded, yellow to yellow orange, 0.3-1.1 mm.
Distribution: Washington;
Habitat: Upper intertidal zone to beach edge.
Substrate: Rock and driftwood.
Caloplaca luteominia
Description: Thallus areolate, or entirely within rock; Areoles scattered or contiguous, pale brown to pinkish; Apothecia orange or scarlet, 0.6-1.2 mm, margins paler.
Distribution: Washington;
Habitat: From coastal mountains to upper intertidal zone.
Substrate: On rock.
Caloplaca verruculifera
Description: Thallus bright orange to dark yellow, appearing in circular patches with narrow lobes around the periphery; Lobes convex and flattened at tips, 0.3-0.8 mm wide and 1-5 mm in length; granular isidia often present in center of older thallus; Apothecia rare.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska; British Columbia;
Habitat: Coastal, in salt-spray zone.
Substrate: On rock, especially where bird manure is present.
Candelaria concolor
Description: Thallus bright yellow, forming small rosettes of overlapping lobes; Lobes 0.1-0.5 mm in width, edged with granular soredia. Apothecia uncommon, dark yellow to orange-brown with thin yellow margins, 0.2-0.7 mm in diameter.
Distribution: Washington; widespread across United States and Canada.
Substrate: Tree trunks, twigs, bark.
Candelariella aurella
Description: Thallus almost entirely within substrate material, scattered dark yellow granules. Apothecia abundant, 0.3-1.2 mm.
Distribution: Washington; From Alaska south to Arizona and New Mexico, east to Maine in northern states; British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut;
Habitat: Exposed areas.
Substrate: Calcareous rock, or dust-impregnated bark where soil is lime-rich.
Candelariella rosulans
Description: Thallus dark egg-yolk yellow, forming tiny rosettes of squamules or convex aureoles; Apothecia 0.4-1.3 mm with raised margins.
Distribution: East of Cascades in Washington; California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming.
Habitat: Juniper/sage canyons.
Substrate: On bark, wood, soil or rock.
Candelariella terrigena
Description: Thallus bright yellow, granular to areolate. Apothecia 0.4-0.7 mm, often with discontinuous margins.
Distribution: Washington; Rocky Mountains, Alaska; Northern Canada.
Habitat: Tundra.
Substrate: Tundra soil, moss, lichen, dead vegetation.
Candelariella vitellina
Description: Thallus forming small cushions of flattened granules, sometimes with scattered yellow areoles; Apothecia 0.5-1.5 mm, crowded.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, Oregon, California, across Rocky Mountain states and midwest, northern states to Maine; British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Northern Territories, Manitoba.
Habitat: In sun.
Substrate: Common on noncalcareous rock, esp. granitic rock, rarely on wood or bark.
Cavernularia hultenii
Description: Thallus with narrow lobes bearing rounded piles of greenish soredia on tips; Apothecia rare.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, Oregon, northern California; British Columbia.
Habitat: Wet, forested coastal areas.
Cavernularia lophyrea
Description: Thallus nonsorediate, lobes mostly under 0.8 mm in width, often exhibiting black dots (buried pycnidia); Apothecia brown and abundant, up to 15 mm in diameter.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, southern Oregon, northern California; British Columbia.
Habitat: Coastal forests.
Cetraria aculeata
Description: Thallus brownish-red and spiny, forming cushions. Branches rounded or angular, up to 2 mm in width, longitudinally grooved or ridged, with deep, broad pseudo cyphellae up to 0.6 mm long and 0.3 mm in width.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado; Northern and northwestern Canadian provinces.
Habitat: Among heath in alpine and arctic habitats.
Cetraria arenaria
Description: Thallus olive-brown to grey-olive, lobes flattened or curled in at the sides, 1-4 mm in width, typically regularly forked with marginal pseudocyphellae; Apothecia rare, shiny red-brown, appearing on lobe tips.
Distribution: Montana east to Maine, south through Appalachia; Southernmost borders of central and eastern Canadian provinces.
Chrysothrix candelaris
Description: Thallus bright yellow, occasionally flecked with orange, comprised entirely of fine powdery soredia less than 0.1 mm.
Distribution: Largely west of Cascades in Washington; northern British Columbia to southern California, northern Michigan and Wisconsin, coastal Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, southern Mississippi and Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida.
Habitat: Shaded areas.
Substrate: Bark of all kinds, occasionally on rock.
Cladonia bellidiflora
Description: Thallus pale yellowish-green with large, deeply lobed squamules. Podetia largely squamulose, bearing large red apothecia at the tips.
Distribution: West of Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, northern Canada.
Substrate: On rotting wood, stumps, logs, occasionally on soil.
Cladonia ecmocyna
Description: Thallus grey to greenish-grey, usually pruinose. Podetia slender and pointed, cups occasionally present.
Distribution: Washington; Alaska to Oregon, Idaho, west of Rockies in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Maine; Nunavut, northern and southern Quebec.
Habitat: Open or partial shade, mainly at higher elevations.
Substrate: On soil.
Cladonia portentosa
Distribution: Coastal from southeast Alaska to California.
Habitat: Sand dunes, sandy soil, seaside cliffs and rocky slopes, always near the coast.
Substrate: Sandy soil, moss over sand, or rock.