Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.

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Common names beginning with C:
490 common names
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Index to common names:
cabbage, cactus, calliopsis, calypso, camas, camelthorn, campion, cancerwort, candyflower, candystick, candytuft, carelessweed, carpetweed, carrot, cascara, cat's eye, cat's-ear, cat's-eye, cat-tail, catalpa, catchfly, catchweed, catnip, cats-ear, cattail, ceanothus, cedar, celandine, celery, centaury, cerastium, chaenactis, chaffweed, chain-tree, chamomile, Charlie, charlock, checker-mallow, checkerbloom, cheeseweed, cherry, cherry-laurel, chervil, chess, chestnut, chick-pea, chickweed, chicory, chinquapin, chives, chokeberry, chokecherry, chucklusa, cinquefoil, clarkia, clary, Claytonia, claytonia, cleareye, cleavers, clematis, cliff-brake, cliff-fern, clotbur, clover, clover-fern, club-rush, clubmoss, clubrush, cobraplant, cock's-head, cocklebur, cockleburr, codlins-and-cream, coldenia, collinsia, collomia, coltsfoot, columbine, combleaf, combseed, comfrey, coneplant, conyza, coolwort, coon's-tail, copperbush, coraldrops, coralroot, cordgrass, coreopsis, corn, corncockle, cornflower, corydalis, costmary, cotoneaster, cotton, cotton-grass, cottongrass, cottonrose, cottontop, cottonweed, cottonwood, cous, cow-parsnip, cow-poison, cowcockle, crabapple, crabgrass, cranberry, cranberry-bush, crane's-bill, cranes-bill, cranesbill, crazyweed, creeper, creeping-glow-wort, creeping-Jenny, cress, crinklemat, crocus, cross, crossflower, crowberry, crowfoot, crown, crown vetch, crumbweed, crupina, cryptantha, cuckooflower, cucumber, cudweed, cuneaire, cup, currant, cut-leaf, cyclamen, cypress
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington and California; more commonly found in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Deer cabbage (Nephrophyllidium crista-galli)
Origin: Native
Skunk cabbage (Lysichiton americanus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Marshes, swamps, and forested wetlands from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington and California; more commonly found in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Wild cabbage (Caulanthus lasiophyllus)
Distribution: Reported from Washington; Washington to Baja California, Mexico, east to Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sandy banks, gravelly or rocky areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow skunk cabbage (Lysichiton americanus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Marshes, swamps, and forested wetlands from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dark-spine ball cactus (Pediocactus nigrispinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to southeastern Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Lowland to montane sagebrush desert, grasslands, and coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snowball cactus (Pediocactus nigrispinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to southeastern Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Lowland to montane sagebrush desert, grasslands, and coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calliopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and along the lower Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open and disturbed areas at low to mid elevations where seasonally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Calypso (Calypso bulbosa)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Mostly in cool, deep shade of moist forests in soil rich in humus, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common camas (Camassia quamash)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Open, moist areas, often where dry by late spring, from lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cusick's camas (Camassia cusickii)
Distribution: Disjunct in Klickitat County in Washington; northeastern Oregon and adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Moist slopes and seeps, often montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glaucous death camas (Anticlea elegans)
Distribution: In the Olympic Mountains of Washington and across the northern border east of the Cascacdes crest; Alaska to Oregon, south in the Rockies to New Mexico, east across Canada and the northern United States to Virginia.
Habitat: Meadow, open forests and rocky slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great camas (Camassia leichtlinii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, prairies, balds, and hillsides where moist, at least in spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington, Idaho, and California east to Colorado and Texas.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in arid lands at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Biennial campion (Silene csereii)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east across the central and northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Moss campion (Silene acaulis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Rock crevices and talus slopes at high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rose campion (Lychnis coronaria)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Utah; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Along roadways, railways and waste land.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White campion (Silene latifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, pastures, irrigation ditches, forest edge, thickets, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Sharpleaf cancerwort (Kickxia elatine)
Origin: Introduced
Candyflower (Claytonia sibirica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and northeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, usually shady places, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Spreading candyflower (Montia diffusa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Marin County, California.
Habitat: Moist woods at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Candystick (Allotropa virgata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Deep humus of coniferous forests at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild candytuft (Noccaea fendleri)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Common in open, rocky areas from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carelessweed (Cyclachaena xanthiifolia)
Distribution: Ocurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bottomlands and other moist, open, often disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from south-central Canada and the central U.S.
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east over nearly all of temperate North America.
Habitat: Moist, often waste ground, especially along river banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Green carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east over nearly all of temperate North America.
Habitat: Moist, often waste ground, especially along river banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
American wild carrot (Daucus pusillus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east across the southern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Grassy balds, headlands, rocky outcroppings, and other to seasonally moist open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Wild carrot (Daucus carota)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, lawns, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
Cascara (Frangula purshiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Forest understory and margins from low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pine woods cat's eye (Cryptantha simulans)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest openings, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Sand dune cat's eye (Cryptantha fendleri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand dunes and very sandy soil at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Hairy cat's-ear (Hypochaeris radicata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and further east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, grassy balds, prairies, grasslands, lawns, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rough cat's-ear (Hypochaeris radicata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and further east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, grassy balds, prairies, grasslands, lawns, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth cat's-ear (Hypochaeris glabra)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, also from Texas to the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, rocky balds, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations, often where sandy.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Basin cat's-eye (Cryptantha ambigua)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to western Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Clearwater cat's-eye (Cryptantha intermedia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to western Idaho and northwestern Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and remnant balds at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Quill cat's-eye (Cryptantha affinis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and South Dakota.
Habitat: Open areas from sagebrush to coniferous forest openings at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Snake River cat's-eye (Oreocarya spiculifera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and Nevada, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats in the plains, valleys and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thompson's cat's-eye (Oreocarya thompsonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains and nearby areas.
Habitat: Middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Weakstem cat's-eye (Cryptantha flaccida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; central Washington to southern California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats at lower elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Broad-leaf cat-tail (Typha latifolia)
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Marshes, ponds and shallow slow-flowing water, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow-leaf cat-tail (Typha angustifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widespread in the eastern half of North America; Eurasia.
Habitat: Shallow, quiet to slow-moving water.
Origin: Introduced from Europe and/or eastern North America
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Southern cat-tail (Typha domingensis)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern catalpa (Catalpa speciosa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Idaho; native from southern Rocky Mountains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and abandoned homesteads.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California and scattered in other western U.S. states; native from Great Plains to Atlantic Cost.
Habitat: Disturbed habitats and abandoned homesteads.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cascade catchfly (Silene suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to California.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine slopes, often on talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Conoid catchfly (Silene conoidea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington southern British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana; also in Texas and Missouri..
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Douglas's catchfly (Silene douglasii)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to mountain slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Evening catchfly (Silene latifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, pastures, irrigation ditches, forest edge, thickets, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Forked catchfly (Silene dichotoma)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Menzies's catchfly (Silene menziesii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Common in open woods from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Night-flowering catchfly (Silene noctiflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Grain fields and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Oregon catchfly (Silene oregana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, and to northeastern Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings and meadows from middle elevation to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Palmer's catchfly (Silene bernardina)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Yakima County, where disjunct; Lane County, Oregon to California, Nevada, and Mexico, east to western Idaho; disjunct in Yakima County, WA.
Habitat: Grassy slopes to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parry's (Silene parryi)
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red catchfly (Silene dioica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and southern Canada to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and wastelots where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's catchfly (Silene scouleri)
Distribution: Occuring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Prairies, forest openings, and meadows from low elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sleepy catchfly (Silene antirrhina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Spalding's catchfly (Silene spaldingii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the eastern and southeastern counties in Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent northeastern Oregon and western Idaho, also in western Montana.
Habitat: Sagebrush, scabland and ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Suksdorf's catchfly (Silene suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to California.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine slopes, often on talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet William catchfly (Atocion armeria)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wastelots, roadsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Catchweed (Asperugo procumbens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, irrigation ditches, and other disturbed open areas where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Catnip (Nepeta cataria)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington, but in scattered locations on the west side; widely established throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, streambanks, waste places, sometimes in relatively undisturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elegant cats-ear (Calochortus elegans)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and northern California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides and open coniferous forests, middle to high elvations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common cattail (Typha latifolia)
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Marshes, ponds and shallow slow-flowing water, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prostrate ceanothus (Ceanothus prostratus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Idaho and western Nevada.
Habitat: Drier open woods, moderate to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Redstem ceanothus (Ceanothus sanguineus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forest, slopes, and thickets, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canoe cedar (Thuja plicata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist or swampy areas from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Cones: Producing cones in April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser celandine (Ficaria verna)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas generally at low elevations, often where seasonally moist in the spring.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Celery (Apium graveolens)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada, east across the southern U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, usually where moist, where escaped from nearby cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild celery (Vallisneria americana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Introduced from British Columbia to Oregon, and in Montana; native in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes and quiet streams
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Branching centaury (Centaurium pulchellum)
Origin: Introduced
Common centaury (Centaurium erythraea)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California east to Idaho; eastern North America.
Habitat: Escaped to meadows, prairies and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Desert centaury (Zeltnera exaltata)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; east to Nebraska and Colorado, south to eastern California.
Habitat: Moist places, especially around alkaline lakes and hot springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
European centaury (Centaurium erythraea)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California east to Idaho; eastern North America.
Habitat: Escaped to meadows, prairies and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lesser centaury (Centaurium pulchellum)
Origin: Introduced
Muhlenberg`s centaury (Zeltnera muehlenbergii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings, wet areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Tall centaury (Zeltnera exaltata)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; east to Nebraska and Colorado, south to eastern California.
Habitat: Moist places, especially around alkaline lakes and hot springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Starry cerastium (Cerastium arvense)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except for the south-central and southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open slopes and meadows, from coastal cliffs and balds to inland valleys, rocky hillsides, forest openings, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hoary chaenactis (Chaenactis douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert flats and slopes, ponderosa pine forest openings, and meadows near the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Chaffweed (Lysimachia minima)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington, though also found near the coast; throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Moist ground and vernal pools at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Golden chain-tree (Laburnum anagyroidis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest at low elevations in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Utah.
Habitat: Forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed sites often in proximity to residential development where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Austrian chamomile (Cota austriaca)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from the Pullman area; not known from elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains in the U.S, widespread from the midwestern U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas generally at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
False chamomile (Tripleurospermum inodorum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Noxious weed in fields and waste ground in eastern Washington.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Field chamomile (Anthemis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains in the U.S, widespread from the midwestern U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas generally at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Golden chamomile (Cota tinctoria)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the central and northern regions of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mayweed chamomile (Anthemis cotula)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed areas generally at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Stinking chamomile (Anthemis cotula)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed areas generally at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east in sporadic occurrences to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow chamomile (Cota tinctoria)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the central and northern regions of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea)
Distribution: Occurring in locations throughout Washington; introduced thoughout nearly all of North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Charlock (Sinapis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste places and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region, reaching North America perhaps as early as 8000 years bp (Jacobson et al. 1988)
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Jointed charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other distrubed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced, probably from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Bristly-stem checker-mallow (Sidalcea hirtipes)
Distribution: Clark and Lewis counties in Washington; south to Lincoln, Tillamook and Clatsop Counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal mountains to bluffs along the ocean, but not on tideflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Henderson's checker-mallow (Sidalcea hendersonii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to the Umpqua River area in Oregon.
Habitat: On or adjacent to tidelands, coastal marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Meadow checker-mallow (Sidalcea campestris)
Distribution: Native only to the Willamette Valley area (Multnomah and Washington to Benton and Linn counties). Introduced as a garden plant in western Washington, but rarely persisting.
Habitat: Dry fields and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nelson's checker-mallow (Sidalcea nelsoniana)
Distribution: Occurring in southwest Washington; south in Willamette Valley of Oregon from Portland to Salem, west to Tillamook County.
Habitat: Gravelly, well-drained soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains, meadows and ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Virgate checkerbloom (Sidalcea virgata)
Distribution: Known only from Thurston County in Washington; Thurston County, WA and then Yamhill County, Oregon south along West Cascades to California.
Habitat: Moist prairies and meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cheeseweed (Malva parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, also in southeastern and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurpoe
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Thickets, rocky slopes, open forests, shorelines, and openings, from the lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
European bird cherry (Prunus padus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska, southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Washington, Montana, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ornamental, occasionally escapes
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ground cherry (Physalis heterophylla)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Fields, forest edge, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Low hairy ground cherry (Physalis grisea)
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb)
Distribution: Ocurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Utah, and also in the eastern United States.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nanking cherry (Prunus tomentosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; also in Utah, and from northern Great Plains east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Thickets and hedgerows.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Perfumed cherry (Prunus mahaleb)
Distribution: Ocurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Utah, and also in the eastern United States.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Puget Sound cherry (Prunus ×pugetensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon, east in the Columbia River Gorge and in Chelan County, WA.
Habitat: Low elevations in forests or forest edges, or disturbed areas, typically where both parent species are present.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana, also east from the Great Plains to the midwestern U.S. and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, thickets, forest edge, and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet cherry (Prunus avium)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington, though distributed widely throughout the state; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edges, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yoshino cherry (Prunus yedoensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; also occurring in central California.
Habitat: Thickets and shorelines, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Japan
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cherry-laurel (Prunus laurocerasus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Fields, forest edge, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Burr chervil (Anthriscus caucalis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of the United States and parts of Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edges, wastelots, and other disturbed areas where often seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Rough chervil (Chaerophyllum temulum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the lowlands in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge and understory, shady roadsides, and other disturbed areas where shady and seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial
Wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, also in eastern North America and Greenland.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas where seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Soft chess (Bromus hordeaceus)
Distribution: Common introduction from Alaska south to Baja California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Waste ground, roadsides, dry hillsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Annual
European chestnut (Castanea sativa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; also occurring in scattered states in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest, thickets, and forest openings at low elevations, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spanish chestnut (Castanea sativa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; also occurring in scattered states in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest, thickets, and forest openings at low elevations, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; also occurring in scattered states in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest, thickets, and forest openings at low elevations, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chick-pea (Cicer arietinum)
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in eastern Washington; scattered localities in other parts of western North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas on the edge of or near agricultural fields.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Alpine chickweed (Cerastium beeringianum)
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascade Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S.; east across Canada to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Alpine zone, mostly in cirques or on talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common chickweed (Stellaria media)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: February-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Field chickweed (Cerastium arvense)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except for the south-central and southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open slopes and meadows, from coastal cliffs and balds to inland valleys, rocky hillsides, forest openings, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Forked mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium dichotomum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in the Columbia River Gorge and in southeastern Washington; Washington to California, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, especially along roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Giant chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana; also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Stream banks, woods, marshes and wet meadows.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gray mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium brachypetalum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; southern Washington to western Oregon; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Greater chickweed (Stellaria neglecta)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington, California, and scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Lesser chickweed (Stellaria pallida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, also in California, east across the U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, forest edge, and other disturbed areas, often where seasonally moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Short-stalk mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium brachypodum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington, where disjunct; southeastern Oregon to southern Idaho and southwestern Montana; disjunct in central Washington.
Habitat: Grassy or disturbed areas, often where seasonally wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Upright chickweed (Moenchia erecta)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in scattered locations in other parts of the central and southern U.S.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Water chickweed (Montia fontana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, eastward across northern Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet places, including meadows, fields, lawns, and vernally moist sites, sometimes aquatic and floating, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Water chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana; also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Stream banks, woods, marshes and wet meadows.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Giant chinquapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Mason County, Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Golden chinquapin (Chrysolepis chrysophylla)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Mason County, Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, further east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, rocky or gravelly streambanks and lake shores
Origin: Both native and introduced populations
Flowers: April - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild chives (Allium vineale)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)
Origin: Introduced
Common chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Thickets, open forest, shorelines, rocky slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Thickets, open forest, shorelines, rocky slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
White chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Thickets, open forest, shorelines, rocky slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chucklusa (Lomatium canbyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington chiefly in the Columbia River Basin. central Washington to northeastern Nevada, east to southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Scablands and sagebrush steppe in rather deep soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Perennial
Biennial cinquefoil (Potentilla biennis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, typically where moist to wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Blueleaf cinquefoil (Potentilla glaucophylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine and alpine meadows, and along stream banks in high mountain forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewer's cinquefoil (Potentilla breweri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from central Washington south; central Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Moist meadows and stream banks to open slopes at middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brook cinquefoil (Potentilla rivalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to central North America, and further east to the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Damp soil, especially along rivers and around lakes, ponds, and swamps at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Bushy cinquefoil (Potentilla supina)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and east across Canada and the midwestern U.S. to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sandy stream banks, lake shores, and moist flats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Different-leaved cinquefoil (Potentilla glaucophylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine and alpine meadows, and along stream banks in high mountain forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Diverse-leaved cinquefoil (Potentilla glaucophylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine and alpine meadows, and along stream banks in high mountain forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Drummond's cinquefoil (Potentilla drummondii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Forest openings, meadows and high ridges, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fan-leaf cinquefoil (Potentilla flabellifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Common in moist meadows from middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fringe-leaf cinquefoil (Potentilla flabellifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Common in moist meadows from middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hoary cinquefoil (Potentilla argentea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy or gravely soil, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Jepson's cinquefoil (Potentilla jepsonii)
Origin: Native
Marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern portion of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bogs, wet meadows and lake margins, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Newberry's cinquefoil (Potentilla newberryi)
Distribution: Known historically (1898) from the Columbia River Gorge in Washington, now likely extirpated; central Oregon to California, east to northwestern Nevada.
Habitat: Vernal pools, shores, and mudflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Northern cinquefoil (Potentilla villosa)
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascades, Olympic Mountains, and at Mt. Rainier in Washington; Alaska to Oregon.
Habitat: Arctic tundra to alpine ridges, talus slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Norwegian cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Usually in moist soil, often along irrigation ditches or in waste places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Pennsylvania cinquefoil (Potentilla pensylvanica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, and further east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Damp alpine meadows, rocky slopes, ridges, and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
River cinquefoil (Potentilla rivalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to central North America, and further east to the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Damp soil, especially along rivers and around lakes, ponds, and swamps at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Rough cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Usually in moist soil, often along irrigation ditches or in waste places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Open areas from low elevations to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silver cinquefoil (Potentilla argentea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy or gravely soil, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silverweed cinquefoil (Potentilla anserina)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet, alkaline areas from coast to arid inlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Varied habitats; moderately saline soil, grasslands, moist areas in shrub-steppe, forested mountains and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snow cinquefoil (Potentilla nivea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the southern Rocky Mountains to Colorado, further east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Arctic tundra and gravel bars to alpine slopes and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sticky cinquefoil (Drymocallis glandulosa)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Open, mesic areas from coastal meadows to forest openings, to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Subarctic cinquefoil (Potentilla hyparctica)
Distribution: Known only from west of the Cascades crest in Whatcom County in Washington; Alaska to Washington, also south to south-central Montana and Wyoming; circumboreal.
Habitat: Alpine rocky slopes, talus, heath, turf, and snowmelt meadows, often acidic.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sulphur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, but not in Yukon Territory, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, trails, and disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vari-leaved cinquefoil (Potentilla glaucophylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine and alpine meadows, and along stream banks in high mountain forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Villous cinquefoil (Potentilla villosa)
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascades, Olympic Mountains, and at Mt. Rainier in Washington; Alaska to Oregon.
Habitat: Arctic tundra to alpine ridges, talus slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common clarkia (Clarkia rhomboidea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California and Arizona, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy soil in forest openings at low to moderate elevtions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Twiggy clarkia (Clarkia viminea)
Distribution: Known historically (1893) from west of the Cascades crest in Clark County of southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to California.
Habitat: Grassy or rocky slopes and flats.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow clarkia (Clarkia amoena)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Balkan clary (Salvia nemorosa)
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Meadow clary (Salvia pratensis)
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; escaping in parts of western, central, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fell-fields Claytonia (Claytonia megarhiza)
Distribution: Occurring in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington; in scattered locations from Northwest Territories south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Gravelly soil and talus slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lake Washington claytonia (Claytonia washingtoniana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and coniferous forests at low elevations, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Pale claytonia (Claytonia exigua)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to northwestern Nevada.
Habitat: Open areas on rock, clayey soils, or sand.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Sand claytonia (Claytonia arenicola)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the eastern border of Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Mossy and rocky places, from sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cleareye (Salvia sclarea)
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; occasionally escaping in parts of western, central, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Common cleavers (Galium aparine)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Variety of habitats, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Columbia clematis (Clematis occidentalis)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Often in deep, fine soils in shady forest, also in cliffs and other rocky sites in open woods and thickets, at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's clematis (Clematis hirsutissima)
Distribution: Occurring in only a few counties in central and eastern Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Montana, south to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Evergreen clematis (Clematis vitalba)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge, hillsides, parks, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced; native to Europe and Africa
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oriental clematis (Clematis orientalis)
Distribution: Known from Yakima County in Washington; also known from the Columbia River Gorge area in Oregon, and other scattered locations in southwestern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rock clematis (Clematis occidentalis)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Often in deep, fine soils in shady forest, also in cliffs and other rocky sites in open woods and thickets, at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western clematis (Clematis ligusticifolia)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Oklahoma and the Dakotas.
Habitat: River valleys and sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewer's cliff-brake (Pellaea breweri)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and Cascades Range in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to western Montana, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Talus slopes, cliff crevices and other rocky places, foothills to timberline.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gastony's cliff-brake (Pellaea gastonyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Saskatoon to northeastern Washington, South Dakota, and Missouri.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, usually on limestone, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon cliff-brake (Aspidotis densa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Cliff crevices and moist, rocky slopes, foothills to near timberline, often on serpentine
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierran cliff-brake (Pellaea brachyptera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest, where disjunct in Chelan County; otherwise, Lane County, OR to the Sierra Mountains of California.
Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes from lowlands to montane.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth cliff-brake (Pellaea glabella)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to Washington, east to the southern Rocky Mountains, and eastward to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, limestone or basalt, from lowlands to the montane.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cliff-fern (Woodsia scopulina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges and talus slopes in the mountains, and in less arid parts of the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon cliff-fern (Woodsia oregana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges and talus slopes in the mountains, and in less arid parts of the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spiny clotbur (Xanthium spinosum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, damp or seasonally wet, alkaline soils, wastelots and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from South America (although treated as native in CA by Jeps. Man.)
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest throughout much of Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arrow-leaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum)
Distribution: Occurring in a few locations west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to California; also in the south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Big-head clover (Trifolium macrocephalum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington, south through eastern Oregon, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bowl clover (Trifolium cyathiferum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to western Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Wet meadows and seeps to fairly dry, sandy soil, at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Branched clover (Trifolium dichotomum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the San Juan Islands in Washington; southern Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands, and San Juan Islands, otherwise Willamette Valley, Oregon to California.
Habitat: Open forest, sandy embankments, and grassy balds on islands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Burrowing clover (Trifolium subterraneum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Pastures, prairies, roadsides, lawns, fields, and other open disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Clustered clover (Trifolium glomeratum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough lowlands; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, lawns, and other disturbed sites often with dry, gravelly, compacted soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cow clover (Trifolium wormskioldii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Costal dunes to moist meadows and stream banks at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough lowlands; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cup clover (Trifolium cyathiferum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to western Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Wet meadows and seeps to fairly dry, sandy soil, at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Douglas's clover (Trifolium douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern and southeastern Washington; eastern Washington to east-central Oregon, east to eastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas in including open meadows, forested wetlands, and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dutch clover (Trifolium repens)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, meadows, wastelots, trailsides, and other disturbed open areas from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Few-flowered clover (Trifolium oliganthum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, grasslands, and prairies at low elevations, often where dry and rocky.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Field clover (Trifolium campestre)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wastelots, roadsides, fields, meadows, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Foothill clover (Trifolium ciliolatum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Wet meadows to rather dry, sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Golden clover (Trifolium aureum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming; also occurring in most of eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, railways, wastelots, and other disturbed open sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Greater hop clover (Trifolium aureum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming; also occurring in most of eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, railways, wastelots, and other disturbed open sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Hop clover (Medicago lupulina)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, often on sandy or gravelly soil.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Hop clover (Trifolium campestre)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wastelots, roadsides, fields, meadows, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Knotted clover (Trifolium striatum)
Distribution: Occurring in lowlands west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Large-head clover (Trifolium macrocephalum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington, south through eastern Oregon, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Least hop clover (Trifolium dubium)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Long-stalked clover (Trifolium longipes)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Meadows and valleys, lower mountains to subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nodding clover (Trifolium cernuum)
Distribution: Known from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, lawns, fields, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Notch-leaf clover (Trifolium bifidum)
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Open woodlands and grassy slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Pinole clover (Trifolium bifidum)
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Open woodlands and grassy slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Plumed clover (Trifolium plumosum)
Distribution: Occurring in the southeastern region in Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry hillsides, meadowlands, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poverty clover (Trifolium depauperatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in northwestern Washington; also in Gulf Islands and Vancouver Islands in British Columbia, otherwise southwestern Oregon to southern California.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and vernally moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Rabbitfoot clover (Trifolium arvense)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, further eastward across the northern U.S. and southern Great Plains and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Rancheria clover (Trifolium albopurpureum)
Distribution: Known from only a few scattered locations in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to Arizona.
Habitat: Cliffs, balds, and forest openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Red clover (Trifolium pratense)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation; found along mountain trails where horses have been used
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Reversed clover (Trifolium resupinatum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; eastern Washington to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Rose clover (Trifolium hirtum)
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Salt marsh clover (Trifolium wormskioldii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Costal dunes to moist meadows and stream banks at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sand clover (Trifolium willdenovii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east along the Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides, balds, prairies, and meadows at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender clover (Trifolium gracilentum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, where native, and east to Arizona.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, fields, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-head clover (Trifolium microcephalum)
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows, sandy riverbanks and drier hillsides, coastal to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots and other disturbed places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Pastures, prairies, roadsides, lawns, fields, and other open disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Suckling clover (Trifolium dubium)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Suffocated clover (Trifolium suffocatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington and in California
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, lawns, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Teasel clover (Trifolium retusum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough region in Washington; also occurring in southern Oregon and northern California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Thimble clover (Trifolium microdon)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in South America.
Habitat: In meadows or on rocky or sandy soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Thompson's clover (Trifolium thompsonii)
Distribution: Endemic to Chelan and Douglas counties in Washington.
Habitat: Common on dry, grassy hillsides just below the ponderosa pine woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tomcat clover (Trifolium willdenovii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east along the Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides, balds, prairies, and meadows at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Tree clover (Trifolium ciliolatum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Wet meadows to rather dry, sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Twin clover (Trifolium latifolium)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in far eastern and southeastern Washington; eastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist meadows to rocky ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valparaiso clover (Trifolium microdon)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in South America.
Habitat: In meadows or on rocky or sandy soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
White clover (Trifolium repens)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, meadows, wastelots, trailsides, and other disturbed open areas from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
White-tip clover (Trifolium variegatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil to moist meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Woolly-head clover (Trifolium eriocephalum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow clover (Trifolium aureum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming; also occurring in most of eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, railways, wastelots, and other disturbed open sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Hairy clover-fern (Marsilea vestita)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Ponds, vernal pools, and floodplains from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Spores: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Triangular club-rush (Schoenoplectus triqueter)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the lower Columbia River; southwestern Washington to adjacent northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Freshwater intertidal zone.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alaskan clubmoss (Diphasiastrum sitchense)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana, and across central Canada to northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada; also in eastern Asia from Japan north.
Habitat: Subalpine-alpine meadows and open rocky areas at mid-to high elevations in the mountains; occasionally in conifer forest or under brush.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine clubmoss (Diphasiastrum alpinum)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and Cascades Range in Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to northern Idaho, northwest Montana, and Quebec; circumboreal.
Habitat: Rocky slopes, dry heath meadows, and open conifer forests at high elevations. In Washington, often found associated with Phyllodoce, Cassiope, and Vaccinium in dry heath soils.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bog clubmoss (Lycopodiella inundata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California; in scattered locations in north central Canada; from Minnesota and Ontarioa east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, pond and lakeshores from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common clubmoss (Lycopodium clavatum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also in central and eastern North America; circumboreal
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods and swamps.
Origin: Native
Spores: Produces spores April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fir clubmoss (Huperzia miyoshiana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northwest Oregon, east to Idaho and western Montana; also in eastern Asia.
Habitat: Moist, brushy talus slopes, edges of coniferous forests, or mossy rocks, from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid clubmoss (Diphasiastrum ×takedae)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Idaho, also in far eastern Canada; Eurasia.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Interrupted clubmoss (Spinulum annotinum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana and south in the Rockies to New Mexico; across Canada and in eastern United States from Maine to Virginia.
Habitat: Moist forests, bog edges and rocky areas, lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh clubmoss (Lycopodiella inundata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California; in scattered locations in north central Canada; from Minnesota and Ontarioa east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, pond and lakeshores from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern bog clubmoss (Lycopodiella inundata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California; in scattered locations in north central Canada; from Minnesota and Ontarioa east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, pond and lakeshores from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
One-cone clubmoss (Lycopodium lagopus)
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascades in Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, western Montana, the Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist, open areas, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prickly tree clubmoss (Dendrolycopodium dendroideum)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, and south in eastern North America to Alabama; circumboreal.
Habitat: Woodlands and open brushy areas. In Washington, found mostly among rock or talus with thick moss or duff layers, often under brush or on edges of forest. At mid elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ptarmigan clubmoss (Lycopodium lagopus)
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascades in Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, western Montana, the Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist, open areas, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sitka clubmoss (Diphasiastrum sitchense)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana, and across central Canada to northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada; also in eastern Asia from Japan north.
Habitat: Subalpine-alpine meadows and open rocky areas at mid-to high elevations in the mountains; occasionally in conifer forest or under brush.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stiff clubmoss (Spinulum annotinum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana and south in the Rockies to New Mexico; across Canada and in eastern United States from Maine to Virginia.
Habitat: Moist forests, bog edges and rocky areas, lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western clubmoss (Huperzia occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington; southeastern Alaska to Oregon, east to western Montana.
Habitat: In shaded conifer forest, usually where moist such as along streams and in depressions; rooted on decaying logs, duff, or soil. Low to mid elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chairmaker's clubrush (Schoenoplectus pungens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast; Europe.
Habitat: Marshes and wet, low ground; tolerent of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Low clubrush (Isolepis cernua)
Distribution: Coastal from Southern British Columbia south to northern Mexico.
Habitat: Usually in brackish to saline water of marshes, beaches, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Annual
Low lateral clubrush (Isolepis cernua)
Distribution: Coastal from Southern British Columbia south to northern Mexico.
Habitat: Usually in brackish to saline water of marshes, beaches, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Annual
Swaying clubrush (Schoenoplectus subterminalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah, also from northern Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Quiet, shallow water 2-8 dm. deep,
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tufted clubrush (Trichophorum cespitosum)
Distribution: Circumboreal, extending south in North America chiefly west of the Cascades to central Oregon; also in North Carolina, Utah and Idaho.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs, marshes, and other very wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water clubrush (Schoenoplectus subterminalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah, also from northern Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Quiet, shallow water 2-8 dm. deep,
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cobraplant (Darlingtonia californica)
Distribution: Introduced at Summer Lake in Washington; Lane County, Oregon to northwest California.
Habitat: Bogs along coast, along streams, often on serpentine
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cock's-head (Astragalus agrestis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to Canada\'s Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist spots in sagebrush plains, and mountain meadows to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canada cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast
Habitat: Wet meadows, shorelines, and disturbed open areas where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast
Habitat: Wet meadows, shorelines, and disturbed open areas where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Spiny cockleburr (Xanthium spinosum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, damp or seasonally wet, alkaline soils, wastelots and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from South America (although treated as native in CA by Jeps. Man.)
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Codlins-and-cream (Epilobium hirsutum)
Distribution: Introduced occasionally west of the Cascades and near Bingen in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon; upper central and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Garden escape in wet areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coldenia (Tiquilia nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Collinsia (Collinsia parviflora)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California and Colorado, east to Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Lowlands to alpine meadows in vernally (springtime) moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Few-flowered collinsia (Collinsia sparsiflora)
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to adjacent northern Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Open slopes, swales, forest edge, and balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Rattan collinsia (Collinsia rattanii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington along the Columbia River Gorge; south-central Washington to the John Day valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Open woods at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Alpine collomia (Collomia debilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and Nevada, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Shifting talus slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristle-flowered collomia (Collomia macrocalyx)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Kittitas and Yakima counties in Washington; central Washington and also in north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Diffuse collomia (Collomia tenella)
Distribution: Mostly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Nevada, east to Idaho, Utah and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Large-flowered collomia (Collomia grandiflora)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open to lightly wooded areas, lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Larsen's alpine collomia (Collomia larsenii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Rocky, often moist slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow-leaf collomia (Collomia linearis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Ontario and New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to somewhat moist, open or lightly shaded areas in the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Talus collomia (Collomia larsenii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Rocky, often moist slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Varied-leaf collomia (Collomia heterophylla)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Woods, forest openings and stream banks, low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow-staining collomia (Collomia tinctoria)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to central Idaho and southeast Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills to moderate or mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Washington; also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and disturbed forest understory ta low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Japanese sweet coltsfoot (Petasites japonicus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Forest edge, typically where moist and disturbed; generally escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus)
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Meadows, swamps, and other wet places, from low elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
European Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris)
Distribution: Introduced as a garden flower, occasionally escaping.
Habitat: Disturbed soil near gardens.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red columbine (Aquilegia formosa)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest throughout Washington; Alaska to California, coastal and inland to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open woods, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sitka columbine (Aquilegia formosa)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest throughout Washington; Alaska to California, coastal and inland to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open woods, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow columbine (Aquilegia flavescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist mountain meadows and talus to alpine slopes
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Combleaf (Polyctenium fremontii)
Distribution: Known only from Grant County in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Open areas in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristly combseed (Pectocarya setosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Open areas in sagebrush-steppe habitat.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Shortleaf combseed (Pectocarya penicillata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open areas, often in sandy soil and among sagebrush, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Common comfrey (Symphytum officinale)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastward from Great Lakes region to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation, often found in disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid comfrey (Symphytum ×uplandicum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prickly comfrey (Symphytum asperum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, and in scattered locations elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rough comfrey (Symphytum asperum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, and in scattered locations elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coneplant (Hemitomes congestum)
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia south to Monterey County, California.
Habitat: Rich humus in damp coniferous forests at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
South American conyza (Conyza bonariensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to California, eastward in the southern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Northern false coolwort (Bolandra oregana)
Distribution: Along the Columbia River Gorge and in southeastern Washington; Washington south to Oregon along the lower Columbia River Gorge, and along the Snake River and its tributaries in Oregon and Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, mossy rocks, usually near waterfalls.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon coolwort (Sullivantia oregana)
Distribution: Columbia River Gorge and lower Willamatte Valley, Oregon.
Habitat: On moist cliffs, especially near waterfalls.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coon's-tail (Ceratophyllum demersum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Standing to slow-moving water, from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Copperbush (Elliottia pyroliflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist forests and stream banks at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red coraldrops (Veronica rubra)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open slopes and dry meadows in the lowlands and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Early coralroot (Corallorhiza trifida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern coralroot (Corallorhiza trifida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific coralroot (Corallorhiza mertensiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Usually in moist coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted coralroot (Corallorhiza maculata)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across southern Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Striped coralroot (Corallorhiza striata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east along the U.S. and Canadian border to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist humus in shady coniferous and deciduous forests, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western coralroot (Corallorhiza mertensiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Usually in moist coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow coralroot (Corallorhiza trifida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alkali cordgrass (Spartina gracilis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chilean cordgrass (Spartina densiflora)
Origin: Introduced from Chile
Growth Duration: Perennial
English cordgrass (Spartina anglica)
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: Perennial
Freshwater cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)
Distribution: Eastern Washington and Oregon, east to Newfoundland and North Carolina.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds, and fresh-water marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)
Distribution: Eastern Washington and Oregon, east to Newfoundland and North Carolina.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds, and fresh-water marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saltmeadow cordgrass (Spartina patens)
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic Coast of North America
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saltwater cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora)
Distribution: Introduced in Pacific County, Washington; common along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Habitat: Along the coast in brackish water.
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic coast of North America
Flowers: August - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora)
Distribution: Introduced in Pacific County, Washington; common along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Habitat: Along the coast in brackish water.
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic coast of North America
Flowers: August - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Townsend's cordgrass (Spartina ×townsendii)
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbia coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and along the lower Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open and disturbed areas at low to mid elevations where seasonally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Corn (Zea mays)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Annual
Sand corn (Toxicoscordion paniculatum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, sagebrush desert, and ponderosa or lodgepole pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common corncockle (Agrostemma githago)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Garden cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Mountain cornflower (Centaurea montana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah, also from Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Golden corydalis (Corydalis aurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America except southeastern U.S.
Habitat: In varied habitats, from moist to dry and well-drained soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Marsh corydalis (Corydalis aquae-gelidae)
Distribution: In the Cascades in Clackamas and Multnomah Counties, Oregon
Habitat: Wet places of shaded forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow corydalis (Corydalis lutea)
Origin: Introduced
Costmary (Tanacetum balsamita)
Distribution: Occurring scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides and other waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bearberry cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri)
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bullate cotoneaster (Cotoneaster rehderi)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Thickets, open clearings, forests, and shores typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-Jun; fruiting Sep-Dec.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Diel's cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dielsianus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwest British Columbia to southwest Oregon.
Habitat: Thickets, open forest, rocky slopes, meadows, and grasslands at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Franchet's cotoneaster (Cotoneaster franchetii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Lowland forest edges, grassy balds, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Himalayan cotoneaster (Cotoneaster simonsii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to central California.
Habitat: Thickets, forest openings, shorelines, balds, parks, and grasslands.
Origin: Introduced from southeast Asia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Late cotoneaster (Cotoneaster lacteus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, thickets, and forest margins.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Milk-flower cotoneaster (Cotoneaster lacteus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, thickets, and forest margins.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Orange cotoneaster (Cotoneaster franchetii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Lowland forest edges, grassy balds, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Puckered-leaf cotoneaster (Cotoneaster rehderi)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Thickets, open clearings, forests, and shores typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-Jun; fruiting Sep-Dec.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple-flowering cotoneaster (Cotoneaster atropurpureus)
Origin: Introduced
Rock cotoneaster (Cotoneaster horizontalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon; also in Ontario, Canada.
Habitat: Fields, forest openings, and disturbed areas typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rockspray cotoneaster (Cotoneaster horizontalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon; also in Ontario, Canada.
Habitat: Fields, forest openings, and disturbed areas typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shiny cotoneaster (Cotoneaster lucidus)
Origin: Introduced from Siberia and Mongolia
Growth Duration: Perennial
Simon's cotoneaster (Cotoneaster simonsii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to central California.
Habitat: Thickets, forest openings, shorelines, balds, parks, and grasslands.
Origin: Introduced from southeast Asia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spreading cotoneaster (Cotoneaster divaricatus)
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tengyueh cotoneaster (Cotoneaster tengyuehensis)
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wall cotoneaster (Cotoneaster horizontalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon; also in Ontario, Canada.
Habitat: Fields, forest openings, and disturbed areas typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Willow-leaved cotoneaster (Cotoneaster salicifolius)
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
Origin: Introduced
Chamisso's cotton-grass (Eriophorum chamissonis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the northeastern corner of Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Swamps and other wet places from along the coast to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Many-spiked cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium)
Distribution: Circumboreal at high latitudes, extending south into Oregon, Colorado and New York.
Habitat: Cold swamps and bogs at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Russet cottongrass (Eriophorum chamissonis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the northeastern corner of Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Swamps and other wet places from along the coast to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender cottongrass (Eriophorum gracile)
Distribution: Alaska, Canada and the northern half on the United States
Habitat: Wet places, mid- to high elevation in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tassel cottongrass (Eriophorum viridicarinatum)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tawny cottongrass (Eriophorum virginicum)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Field cottonrose (Filago arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the northern Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region
Habitat: Dry meadows, fields, roadsides, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Little cottonrose (Logfia minima)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Heaths, sandy soils, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-Sept.
Growth Duration: Annual
Cottontop (Micropus californicus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Daggerleaf cottonweed (Logfia gallica)
Distribution: Known from east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington, and Willamette Valley Oregon to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Black cottonwood (Populus nigra)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Streambanks, riparian zones, river corridors, and moist woods, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides)
Origin: Introduced
Narrow-leaved cottonwood (Populus angustifolia)
Origin: Native
Cous (Lomatium cous)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; southeastern Washington to northeast Nevada, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry, open, often rocky places often with sagebrush; common at low elevations, occasionally found at higher elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American cow-parsnip (Heracleum maximum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America except in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Moist areas, including meadows and forest edge from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cow-poison (Delphinium trolliifolium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Moist, shady woods at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cowcockle (Vaccaria hispanica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, railways, fields, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Flowering tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington, also in Illinois.
Habitat: Seasonally damp thickets, open forest.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon crabapple (Malus fusca)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, swamps and open canyons from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pearleaf crabapple (Malus prunifolia)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to northern Oregon, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Damp thickets, forest edges, and riparian zones.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Plumleaf crabapple (Malus prunifolia)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to northern Oregon, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Damp thickets, forest edges, and riparian zones.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Siberian crabapple (Malus baccata)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southern Washington.
Habitat: Mesic thickets and riparian zones.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington, also in Illinois.
Habitat: Seasonally damp thickets, open forest.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western crabapple (Malus fusca)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, swamps and open canyons from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis)
Distribution: A weed in most of the United States.
Habitat: Lawns, gardens, and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July - October
Growth Duration: Annual
Smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)
Distribution: Most of southern Canada, and all of the United States except the extreme southeast and southwest.
Habitat: Lawns, roadsides and wastland, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cultivated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
Distribution: In scattered locations in lowlands west of the Cascades crest; introduced British Columbia south to California; native eastern North
Origin: Introduced from northeastern United States
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
Distribution: In scattered locations in lowlands west of the Cascades crest; introduced British Columbia south to California; native eastern North
Origin: Introduced from northeastern United States
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, across Canada; from the upper Midwest to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Usually in sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cranberry-bush (Viburnum opulus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist woods at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crane's-bill (Geranium ×oxonianum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Disturbed forest understory or edge at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cut-leaf crane's-bill (Geranium dissectum)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Nevada; widely distributed in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground and waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Dalmatian crane's-bill (Geranium dalmaticum)
Origin: Introduced
Long-stalk crane's-bill (Geranium columbinum)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades and along the Columbia River in Washington; occasional introduction in central and eastern United States.
Habitat: Waste places and disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Montane crane's-bill (Geranium ibericum)
Origin: Introduced
Northern crane's-bill (Geranium bicknellii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America except along the southern U.S. boundary and lower Great Plains.
Habitat: Woodlands or open fields.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Purple crane's-bill (Geranium purpureum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-flower crane's-bill (Geranium pusillum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades; widely distributed throughout North America except along southern border of U.S.
Habitat: Moist, waste places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Spanish crane's-bill (Geranium ibericum)
Origin: Introduced
Sticky purple crane's-bill (Geranium viscosissimum)
Distribution: Widely distributed east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains..
Habitat: Moist meadows and slopes, and forest openings, from the foothills to the middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
White crane's-bill (Geranium richardsonii)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to southern California and New Mexico.
Habitat: Mostly in partial shade, from the lowlands to well up in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shining cranes-bill (Geranium lucidum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas such as roadsides and ditches, usually where moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: Apr-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Hedgerow cranesbill (Geranium pyrenaicum)
Origin: Introduced
Boreal crazyweed (Oxytropis borealis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Rocky Mountains, also in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pendent-pod crazyweed (Oxytropis deflexa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Montane forest openings and meadows to the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bearded creeper (Crupina vulgaris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central and southeastern Washington to California, east to adjacent Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
False Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus vitacea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across the U.S. to the mid-Atlantic states, where native.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas and forest edge, often where moist, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the central and eastern U.S.
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thicket creeper (Parthenocissus vitacea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across the U.S. to the mid-Atlantic states, where native.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas and forest edge, often where moist, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the central and eastern U.S.
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping-glow-wort (Sibbaldia procumbens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across most of Canda to the Atlantic Coasl.
Habitat: Open, dry to moist subalpine and alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping-Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia)
Distribution: Scattered locations west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Nevada; occurring in central U.S and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist, disturbed ground along lakes, ponds, roadsides and near gardens.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Belle Isle cress (Barbarea verna)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Colorado; also in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Columbia yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Moist, sandy soil at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Field cress (Lepidium campestre)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, river and stream banks, wastelots, and other distrubed open, often dry soils.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lava cress (Sisymbrium linifolium)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Arizona (not including California), east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe communities, rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, particularly near cities and towns.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Shepherd's cress (Teesdalia nudicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Sandy or gravelly soil at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Rosette crinklemat (Tiquilia nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale)
Distribution: Known from Pierce County in Washington; not reported for elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Lowland grassy meadows, escaping or persisting from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Herb of the cross (Verbena officinalis)
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Crossflower (Chorispora tenella)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe habitat, both degraded and intact; disturbed areas, roadsides, and pastures.
Origin: Introduced from sw Asia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum)
Distribution: In the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California.
Habitat: Exposed rocky bluffs, but also in peat bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Celery-leaved crowfoot (Ranunculus sceleratus)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Moist meadows and boggy shoreland to semi-aquatic and often brackish areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: In sluggish streams, ponds, lakes, and mudflats at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White water crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: In sluggish streams, ponds, lakes, and mudflats at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
King's crown (Rhodiola integrifolia)
Distribution: In the Cascades and northeastern corner of Washington; Alaska to south to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Cliffs, talus and ridges, subalpine to alpine, generally where moist in early summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crown vetch (Securigera varia)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small crumbweed (Dysphania pumilio)
Distribution: Occurring along the southern border of Washington; southern British Columbia to California and northern Nevada, east to Idaho; scattered in eastern half of U.S.
Habitat: Sandy or gravelly soils, streambanks, waste areas, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Australia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Crupina (Crupina vulgaris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central and southeastern Washington to California, east to adjacent Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Beaked cryptantha (Cryptantha rostellata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, open slopes and hillsides, typically where dry, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Common cryptantha (Cryptantha affinis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and South Dakota.
Habitat: Open areas from sagebrush to coniferous forest openings at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Common cryptantha (Cryptantha intermedia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to western Idaho and northwestern Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and remnant balds at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cushion cryptantha (Greeneocharis circumscissa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to Baja California, east to Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open, usually sandy places in the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Desert cryptantha (Cryptantha scoparia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes in the valleys, plains and foothills, common among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Fendler's cryptantha (Cryptantha fendleri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand dunes and very sandy soil at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Flaccid cryptantha (Cryptantha flaccida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; central Washington to southern California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats at lower elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Large-flowered cryptantha (Cryptantha grandiflora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Salmon River area in western Idaho.
Habitat: Grasslands, open conifer forest, scree slopes, and volcanic-based substrates.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Matted cryptantha (Greeneocharis circumscissa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to Baja California, east to Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open, usually sandy places in the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Narrow-stem cryptantha (Cryptantha gracilis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California east to Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grassy slopes at low elevations to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Obscure cryptantha (Cryptantha ambigua)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to western Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Pine woods cryptantha (Cryptantha simulans)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest openings, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender cryptantha (Cryptantha affinis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and South Dakota.
Habitat: Open areas from sagebrush to coniferous forest openings at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender cryptantha (Cryptantha gracilis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California east to Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grassy slopes at low elevations to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Torrey's cryptantha (Cryptantha torreyana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana.
Habitat: Open areas, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Watson's cryptantha (Cryptantha watsonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open hillsides, sagebrush-steppe plains, and forest openings at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Wilke's cryptantha (Cryptantha ambigua)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to western Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Wingnut cryptantha (Cryptantha pterocarya)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Colorado and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy areas of sagebrush and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis)
Distribution: Currently known only from King County in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon; more commonly found in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including lawns and forest edges of urban and suburban areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild cucumber (Echinocystis lobata)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; occurring throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Moist bottomlands and thickets.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
California cudweed (Pseudognaphalium californicum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern Washington to Baja California, Mexico.
Habitat: Sandy soils, dunes, coastal canyons and chaparral.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cotton batting cudweed (Pseudognaphalium stramineum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains of the U.S.; also in scattered states along the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, usually moist places, often in disturbed soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lowland cudweed (Gnaphalium palustre)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open areas at low elevations where moist at least in spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Marsh cudweed (Gnaphalium uliginosum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Lake and pond margins, ephemeral pools, and other wet areas, sometimes where disturbed, at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Purple cudweed (Gamochaeta ustulata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, fields, and other disturbed open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Slender cudweed (Pseudognaphalium thermale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, sandy banks and ditches, open woods of ponderosa pine and Douglas fir, and mixed deciduous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spoon-leaf cudweed (Gamochaeta ustulata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, fields, and other disturbed open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Sticky cudweed (Pseudognaphalium macounii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Weedy cudweed (Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across the southern U.S. to Florida, also in New York.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Western marsh cudweed (Gnaphalium palustre)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open areas at low elevations where moist at least in spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Winded cudweed (Pseudognaphalium macounii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Sagittaria cuneaire (Sagittaria cuneata)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to New York.
Habitat: Ponds, lake shores and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Queen's cup (Clintonia uniflora)
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forests, from the foothills to fairly high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine prickly currant (Ribes montigenum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine ridges, talus slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
American red currant (Ribes triste)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and rocky slopes at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blood currant (Ribes sanguineum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open to wooded, moist to dry valleys and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
California black currant (Ribes bracteosum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist to wet woods, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cultivated black currant (Ribes nigrum)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Golden currant (Ribes aureum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert where seasonally moist to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hall's sticky currant (Ribes viscosissimum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open to forested, moist to fairly dry slopes, from middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hudson Bay currant (Ribes hudsonianum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Canadian Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist woods and meadow margins at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maple-leaf currant (Ribes acerifolium)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Stream banks, meadowland thickets, open ridges and rock slides, from middle elevations in the mountains to timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain currant (Ribes viscosissimum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open to forested, moist to fairly dry slopes, from middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern black currant (Ribes hudsonianum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Canadian Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist woods and meadow margins at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern red currant (Ribes rubrum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in the eastern counties of Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Thickets, roadsides, forest edge, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red currant (Ribes sanguineum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open to wooded, moist to dry valleys and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open to wooded, moist to dry valleys and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sticky currant (Ribes viscosissimum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open to forested, moist to fairly dry slopes, from middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stink currant (Ribes bracteosum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist to wet woods, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp currant (Ribes lacustre)
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist forests and stream banks to forestd slopes and subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp red currant (Ribes triste)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and rocky slopes at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Trailing black currant (Ribes laxiflorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Coastal woodlands to montane slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wax currant (Ribes cereum)
Distribution: Widespread east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe and sagebrush desert to sub-alpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western black currant (Ribes hudsonianum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Canadian Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist woods and meadow margins at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild red currant (Ribes triste)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and rocky slopes at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Winaha currant (Ribes wolfii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Oregon and Idaho, south and east to the southern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist forests and meadows, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wolf's currant (Ribes wolfii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Oregon and Idaho, south and east to the southern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist forests and meadows, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbia cut-leaf (Hymenopappus filifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Great Plains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy places in the foothills and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ivy-leaf cyclamen (Cyclamen hederifolium)
Origin: Introduced
Mock cypress (Bassia scoparia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other dry, distrubed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from eastern Europe and southestern Asia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Summer cypress (Bassia scoparia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other dry, distrubed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from eastern Europe and southestern Asia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual