Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.

Browse by common name:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Common names beginning with M:
Wild madder (Galium mollugo)
Distribution: Scattered locations in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming; widely distributed in east of the Mississippi River.
Habitat: Occurring in disturbed soil, waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common madia (Madia elegans)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open places, often becoming a roadside weed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Threadstem madia (Madia exigua)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common east of the crest; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open woods, grasslands, roadsides, and other open areas where often disturbed, from the plains and foothills, occasionally up to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Pacific madrona (Arbutus menziesii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Chiefly in drier, often rocky areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Chiefly in drier, often rocky areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Madweed (Scutellaria lateriflora)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; occurring throughout North America.
Habitat: Moist bottomlands and meadows, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Madwort (Asperugo procumbens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, irrigation ditches, and other disturbed open areas where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Pale madwort (Alyssum alyssoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows, forest openings, sagebrush flats, roadsides, fields, and disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington (population in Chelan County was planted); southeastern Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry areas, from foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maidenhair fern (Adiantum aleuticum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east sporadically to the Rocky Mountains, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern maidenhair fern (Adiantum aleuticum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east sporadically to the Rocky Mountains, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
One-leaved malaxis (Malaxis monophyllos)
Origin: Native
Alkali mallow (Malva parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, also in southeastern and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurpoe
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Common mallow (Malva sylvestris)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
High mallow (Malva sylvestris)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Low mallow (Malva pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, also in the eastern half of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and wastelots, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-whorl mallow (Malva parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, also in southeastern and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurpoe
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Annual
American mannagrass (Glyceria grandis)
Distribution: Alaska south to Oregon, chiefly east of the Cascades; east to northeast United States and south to Virginia and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sloughs, damp meadows and stream borders.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - Early August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canada mannagrass (Glyceria canadensis)
Origin: Introduced
Rattlesnake mannagrass (Glyceria canadensis)
Origin: Introduced
Tall mannagrass (Glyceria elata)
Distribution: British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Lake margins, stream banks, moist mountain meadows and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall mannagrass (Glyceria maxima)
Origin: Introduced
Water mannagrass (Glyceria fluitans)
Origin: Introduced
Coastal manroot (Marah oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, also rarely in Hells Canyon in Idaho.
Habitat: Low elevation fields, thickets and open areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Manroot (Marah oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, also rarely in Hells Canyon in Idaho.
Habitat: Low elevation fields, thickets and open areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Manyflower (Nicotiana acuminata)
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: August - October
Growth Duration: Annual
Fourleaf manyseed (Polycarpon tetraphyllum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, also in the southern U.S.
Habitat: Lawns, meadows, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bristly manzanita (Arctostaphylos columbiana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dry forest openings and rocky slopes, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green-leaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos patula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Low elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Medium manzanita (Arctostaphylos ×media)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, chiefly on the east side of the Olympic Peninsula. Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky balds and forest openings from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pinemat manzanita (Arctostaphylos nevadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Dry forest edge and openings from middle elevations in the mountains to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big-leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to southern California.
Habitat: Moist woods from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Box elder maple (Acer negundo)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Occasionally escapes from cultivation, chiefly in disturbed areas or riparian zones.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America, escaped from cultivation
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Field maple (Acer campestre)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, forest edges, and other disturbed areas where escaped from cultivation
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Hedge maple (Acer campestre)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, forest edges, and other disturbed areas where escaped from cultivation
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Norway maple (Acer platanoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington east to Idaho, also widespread in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge, riparian zones, fields, and other disturbed areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist woods from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silver maple (Acer saccharinum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, also in central and eastern North America where native.
Habitat: Riparian corridors, moist bottomlands, and other areas near water, often disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge, fields, and other disturbed areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vine maple (Acer circinatum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Moist woods from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common mare's-tail (Hippuris vulgaris)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to south California and New Mexico, east through southern Canada and the northern states to Maine.
Habitat: Streams, ponds and shallow lakes, generally at least partially emerged.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain mare's-tail (Hippuris montana)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Northwest Territories and Alberta.
Habitat: Wet meadows, streams and mossy banks in the moungtains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Beck's water marigold (Bidens beckii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Lowland ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis)
Origin: Introduced
Water marigold (Bidens beckii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Lowland ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)
Distribution: Introduced in much of the United States
Habitat: Illegal plantings in openings in the forests
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Mountain mariposa (Calochortus subalpinus)
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in Washington; from Mt. Adams and Mt St. Helens, Washington to the Three Sisters area in Oregon.
Habitat: Open forests in loose volcanic soils, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big-pod mariposa lily (Calochortus eurycarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to eastern Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Grasslands and open coniferous forests at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad-fruited mariposa lily (Calochortus nitidus)
Distribution: Occurring in Whitman County in Washington; Washington east to adjacent areas of Idaho and in northeast Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northwestern mariposa lily (Calochortus elegans)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and northern California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides and open coniferous forests, middle to high elvations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sagebrush mariposa lily (Calochortus macrocarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry open forests, hillsides, grasslands and sagebrush, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wide-fruited mariposa lily (Calochortus eurycarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to eastern Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Grasslands and open coniferous forests at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Baker's mariposa-lily (Calochortus apiculatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northeast counties of Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to southeastern Alberta, northern Idaho, and western Montana.
Habitat: Dry meadows to sparse or deep woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyall's mariposa-lily (Calochortus lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; British Columbia south along the east slope of the Cascades to south-central Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open coniferous forests at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pointed mariposa-lily (Calochortus apiculatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northeast counties of Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to southeastern Alberta, northern Idaho, and western Montana.
Habitat: Dry meadows to sparse or deep woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Subalpine mariposa-lily (Calochortus subalpinus)
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in Washington; from Mt. Adams and Mt St. Helens, Washington to the Three Sisters area in Oregon.
Habitat: Open forests in loose volcanic soils, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Three-spot mariposa-lily (Calochortus apiculatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northeast counties of Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to southeastern Alberta, northern Idaho, and western Montana.
Habitat: Dry meadows to sparse or deep woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; introduced from Eurasia into northeastern United States.
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation along roadsides and in disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nevada marsh fern (Amauropelta nevadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to central Cascades in Washington; also in eastern Asia.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist forest, and springs, lowland to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierra marsh fern (Amauropelta nevadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to central Cascades in Washington; also in eastern Asia.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist forest, and springs, lowland to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Burweed marsh-elder (Cyclachaena xanthiifolia)
Distribution: Ocurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bottomlands and other moist, open, often disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from south-central Canada and the central U.S.
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Tall marsh-elder (Cyclachaena xanthiifolia)
Distribution: Ocurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bottomlands and other moist, open, often disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from south-central Canada and the central U.S.
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Broadleaved marsh-marigold (Caltha biflora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascade crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to western Nevada.
Habitat: Open wet area in subalpine and alpine marshes and seepages.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Twinflowered marsh-marigold (Caltha biflora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascade crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to western Nevada.
Habitat: Open wet area in subalpine and alpine marshes and seepages.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Floating marsh-pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Marshes, ponds and wet ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western marsh-rosemary (Limonium californicum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the coast; northwestern Washington to Baja California, Mexico.
Habitat: Coastal salt marshes.
Origin: Introduced from Oregon or California
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple marshlocks (Comarum palustre)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern portion of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bogs, wet meadows and lake margins, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow marshmarigold (Caltha palustris)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Coastal Alaska to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetlands, tidal marshes, and coastal bogs.
Origin: Both native and introduced populations
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blue-lips blue-eyed Mary (Collinsia grandiflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open, moist to rather dry areas, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Mahala mat (Ceanothus prostratus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Idaho and western Nevada.
Habitat: Drier open woods, moderate to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Matchweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington, chiefly in southeastern part of state; Alberta to Manitoba, south to California and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills, valleys and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Matrimony-vine (Lycium barbarum)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Matweed (Amaranthus blitoides)
Distribution: Introduced in the Pacific Northwest; more common east of the Cascades
Habitat: Dry, disturbed areas
Origin: Introduced from central United States
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual
May-lily (Maianthemum dilatatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Shady, moist areas, open to dense woods, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
False mayweed (Tripleurospermum inodorum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Noxious weed in fields and waste ground in eastern Washington.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Scented mayweed (Matricaria chamomilla)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east in sporadic occurrences to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Scentless mayweed (Tripleurospermum inodorum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Noxious weed in fields and waste ground in eastern Washington.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Japanese mazus (Mazus pumilus)
Distribution: Introduced in eastern United States and in scattered locations in southwest Washington and adjacent Oregon.
Habitat: Lawns and wet bottom lands.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May - November
Growth Duration: Annual
Douglas's meadow-foam (Limnanthes douglasii)
Origin: Introduced
Creeping meadow-foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Field meadow-foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis)
Distribution: Alaska to Newfoundland, south to Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Missouri, and New Jersey. Found on both sides of the Cascades in WA.
Habitat: Swampy areas in meadows, in irrigated fields, and along roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific meadow-foxtail (Alopecurus saccatus)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender meadow-foxtail (Alopecurus myosuroides)
Distribution: Introduced in many parts of North America; occasional in Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Wet places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Annual
Tufted meadow-foxtail (Alopecurus carolinianus)
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Annual
Purple meadow-rue (Thalictrum dasycarpum)
Distribution: Occurring in the northeastern corner of Washington; Alberta south to Arizona, east to central North America.
Habitat: Meadowlands and moist woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veiny-leaf meadow-rue (Thalictrum venulosum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico, east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Riparian areas, coniferous forest understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black medic (Medicago lupulina)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, often on sandy or gravelly soil.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Bur medic (Medicago minima)
Distribution: Occurring in the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east along the southern U.S. to eastern North America, also in the Hells Canyon area in Idaho.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Spotted medic (Medicago arabica)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including wastelots, roadsides and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Toothed medic (Medicago polymorpha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, scattered eastward across much of North America.
Habitat: Waste ground and disturbed areas, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Medusa-head (Taeniatherum caput-medusae)
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in east-central Washington; more common on both sides of the Cascades in Oregon, east into southeast Idaho and south into California.
Habitat: Weed of waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Annual
Silky melic (Melica ciliata)
Origin: Introduced
Rusty menziesia (Rhododendron menziesii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Forest understory and edges from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
False mermaidweed (Floerkea proserpinacoides)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east across the northern U.S. and southern Canada to the Altantic Coast.
Habitat: Along vernal streams in the foothills to wet areas at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Mezereon (Daphne mezereum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Washington, east to northern Idaho and western Montana, also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wetlands, forest edges, and fields, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mezereon (Thymelaea passerina)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Annual
Bog microseris (Microseris borealis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and wet meadows in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coast microseris (Microseris bigelovii)
Distribution: Known historically from west of the Cascades crest in the San Juan Islands in Washington, but now considered extirpated; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal sandy soils, dunes, occasionally in rocky areas, coastal islands, headlands, and bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cut-leaved microseris (Microseris laciniata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Moist meadows and drier slopes from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nodding microseris (Microseris nutans)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Slopes, meadows, flats, and forest openings,often in somewhat moist places, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pink microsteris (Microsteris gracilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common east of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Lowlands and foothills in open, dry to moderately moist places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Midsummer-men (Rhodiola integrifolia)
Distribution: In the Cascades and northeastern corner of Washington; Alaska to south to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Cliffs, talus and ridges, subalpine to alpine, generally where moist in early summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White upright mignonette (Reseda alba)
Distribution: Introduced sparingly in Washington, usually along the coast; British Columbia south to California; upper central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
American milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum)
Distribution: Widespread in North America; British Columbia south the California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ponds and quiet streams, often in brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Andean water milfoil (Myriophyllum quitense)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east across Canada to New Brunswick, east in the U.S. to Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah; occurring in Mexico and South America.
Habitat: Ponds and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, and quiet streams.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum × Myriophyllum sibiricum)
Origin: Introduced
Milfoil (Achillea millefolium)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal
Habitat: Common in open, dry to somewhat moist areas from low to high elevations; tolerant of disturbance.
Origin: Both native and introduced populations
Flowers: February-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum)
Distribution: Widespread in North America; British Columbia south the California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ponds and quiet streams, often in brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Siberian water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum)
Distribution: Widespread in North America; British Columbia south the California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ponds and quiet streams, often in brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
South American water milfoil (Myriophyllum aquaticum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Ponds and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spiked water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, and quiet streams.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Terrestrial water milfoil (Myriophyllum ussuriense)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Wahkiakum County. British Columbia to Oregon; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Freshwater intertidal zone on mudflats. British Columbia south to Oregon; circumboreal.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Two-leaf milfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum)
Distribution: Known only from Puget Sound lowlands in Washington; British Columbia south to California; widely distributed east of the Mississippi River in Canada and the U.S where apparently it is native.
Habitat: Lakes and ponds.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ussurian milfoil (Myriophyllum ussuriense)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Wahkiakum County. British Columbia to Oregon; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Freshwater intertidal zone on mudflats. British Columbia south to Oregon; circumboreal.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Verticillate milfoil (Myriophyllum verticillatum)
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington;
Habitat: Aquatic habitats below the water surface.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Waterwort water milfoil (Myriophyllum quitense)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east across Canada to New Brunswick, east in the U.S. to Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah; occurring in Mexico and South America.
Habitat: Ponds and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western milfoil (Myriophyllum hippuroides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California; also in Illinois.
Habitat: Ponds and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western water milfoil (Myriophyllum hippuroides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California; also in Illinois.
Habitat: Ponds and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Whorled water milfoil (Myriophyllum verticillatum)
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington;
Habitat: Aquatic habitats below the water surface.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Devil's milk (Chelidonium majus)
Distribution: Weedy introduction across southern Canada and the northern tier of states in the United States.
Habitat: Moist to dry woods, roadsides, fields, waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Mad woman's milk (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Wolf's milk (Euphorbia virgata)
Distribution: Introduced in much of the United States, except Oklahoma to Virginia and south; mostly eastern Washington, Idaho and Montana in the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Noxious weed of disturbed soils
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Milk-thistle (Silybum marianum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across Canada and the southwestern U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Alpine milk-vetch (Astragalus alpinus)
Distribution: Occurring in the northcentral region of Washington; Alaska to northeastern Oregon and northeastern Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains; circumpolar.
Habitat: Open slopes and rocky areas from upper montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ames's milk-vetch (Astragalus pulsiferae)
Distribution: Known only from Mt. Adams and Klickitat County in Washington; Occurring in the northern Sierra Nevada of California and adjacent Nevada; not reported from Oregon.
Habitat: Sandy and gravelly flats in sagebrush and open pine forests on basalt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arthur's milk-vetch (Astragalus arthuri)
Distribution: Known only from Asotin County in Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Oregon and adjacent west-central Idaho.
Habitat: Grassy hills and rocky meadows, often on basalt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Asotin milk-vetch (Astragalus asotinensis)
Distribution: Known only from Asotin County in Washington; Endemic to Snake River Canyon of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Grassy slopes in shrub-steppe at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balloon milk-vetch (Astragalus whitneyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington south to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: High, open, rocky ridges and slopes, often in serpentine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Basalt milk-vetch (Astragalus conjunctus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from south-central to southeastern Washington; Washington to southeast Oregon and adjacent southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush grasslands to brushy slopes and ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Basalt milk-vetch (Astragalus filipes)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northeast California, east to Nevada and Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains and lower foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Beckwith's milk-vetch (Astragalus beckwithii)
Distribution: Occurring in the southeastern region of Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Nevada, east to western Idaho along the Snake River drainage, also disjunct in Kamloops, British Columbia.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to dry hillsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bent milk-vetch (Astragalus inflexus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry hillsides in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blue Mts. milk-vetch (Astragalus reventus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; Washington to northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Pondersoa pine forest openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Buckwheat milk-vetch (Astragalus caricinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the south-central part of Washington; Washington south along the Snake River corridor to Oregon and southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Grasslands, dry and sandy slopes in shrub-steppe habitat.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canada milk-vetch (Astragalus canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, stream banks, ditches, ponderosa pine forest openings, and seasonally moist alkaline flats in sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chickpea milk-vetch (Astragalus cicer)
Distribution: In scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountain states and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, dry slopes, and other disturbed areas, often where moist or wet.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbian milk-vetch (Astragalus columbianus)
Distribution: Endemic to east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open areas in shrub-steppe.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crouching milk-vetch (Astragalus succumbens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington from Kittitas and Grant counties south; Washington to Umatilla and Gilliam Counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts, sandy barrens and lower foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Curve-pod milk-vetch (Astragalus speirocarpus)
Distribution: Endemic to Washington from Kittitas County south to Klickitat County, east to Grant County,
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cusick's milk-vetch (Astragalus cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring in the southeastern corner in Washington; Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to central Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to grassy or rocky slopes, often on talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elegant milk-vetch (Astragalus eucosmus)
Distribution: Known only from Okanogan County in Washington; Alaska to Montana and east-central Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado, east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Montane forests and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Freckled milk-vetch (Astragalus lentiginosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Texas.
Habitat: Open areas, desert flats to subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Geyer's milk-vetch (Astragalus geyeri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; southeastern Oregon to Nevada and California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah, disjunct in British Columbia and along Columbia River of Washington and north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Sandy desert areas, especially on dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Hairy milk-vetch (Astragalus inflexus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry hillsides in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hanging pod milk-vetch (Astragalus arrectus)
Distribution: Known from Lincoln and Whitman counties in Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush flats to open ponderosa pine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hill milk-vetch (Astragalus collinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to west-central Idaho along the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.
Habitat: Basaltic grasslands and sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hillside milk-vetch (Astragalus collinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to west-central Idaho along the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.
Habitat: Basaltic grasslands and sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hood River milk-vetch (Astragalus hoodianus)
Distribution: Occurring in the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Klickitat County in Washington; Klickitat County, Washington to Hood River and Wasco counties in Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open areas in sagebrush and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Howell's milk-vetch (Astragalus howellii)
Distribution: Occurring in the southeastern corner in Washington; southeastern Washington to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Stony hillsides among sagebrush and bunchgrass, often over basalt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Arpil-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Indian milk-vetch (Astragalus australis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska south in the Rocky Mountains to northeastern Oregon, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, east to the Great Plains and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Foothill bluffs and riverbanks to subalpine and alpine ridges and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
John Day milk-vetch (Astragalus diaphanus)
Distribution: Known historically from Klickitat County in Washington, but now thought to be extirpated; Klickitat County, Washington south to Wheeler and Grant counties in Oregon.
Habitat: Gravel bars, alluvial slopes, and in thin gravelly soil overlying basaltic rock.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Laxmann's milk-vetch (Astragalus laxmannii)
Distribution: Occurring in north-central and eastern Washington; Yukon Territory to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains and Minnesota.
Habitat: Prairies to rocky foothills in sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leiberg's milk-vetch (Astragalus leibergii)
Distribution: Endemic to Douglas, Kittitas and Chelan counties of central Washington.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and plains, commonly in sagebrush scabland on basalt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser-bladder milk-vetch (Astragalus microcystis)
Distribution: Occurring in the northeastern counties of Washington; southern British Columbia to Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Prairies and foothills to ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Longleaf milk-vetch (Astragalus reventus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; Washington to northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Pondersoa pine forest openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyall's milk-vetch (Astragalus lyallii)
Distribution: Endemic to Washington from Kittitas and Douglas counties south to Benton, east to Grant and Adams counties.
Habitat: Sagebrush and desert areas, especially on sand dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Medic milk-vetch (Astragalus speirocarpus)
Distribution: Endemic to Washington from Kittitas County south to Klickitat County, east to Grant County,
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Palouse milk-vetch (Astragalus arrectus)
Distribution: Known from Lincoln and Whitman counties in Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush flats to open ponderosa pine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pauper milk-vetch (Astragalus misellus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open areas in shrub-steppe.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Piper's milk-vetch (Astragalus riparius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; southeastern WA east to adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry bluffs and canyon banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pulse milkvetch (Astragalus tenellus)
Distribution: Disjunct in Douglas County in Washington; Yukon to southeastern Oregon and Nevada, east to Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Prairies and foothills to lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple milk-vetch (Astragalus alpinus)
Distribution: Occurring in the northcentral region of Washington; Alaska to northeastern Oregon and northeastern Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains; circumpolar.
Habitat: Open slopes and rocky areas from upper montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pursh's milk-vetch (Astragalus purshii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Prairies and sagebrush deserts, foothills and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Robbins's milk-vetch (Astragalus robbinsii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northern counties in Washington; Alaska to Oregon,east to Alberta and south in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Stream banks and alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Russian milk-vetch (Astragalus falcatus)
Distribution: Known from Whitman County in Washington; British Columbia to Washington and Montana, also in a few scattered locations across North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sheldon's milk-vetch (Astragalus sheldonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Asotin County in Washington; southeastern Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe and ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sickle milk-vetch (Astragalus falcatus)
Distribution: Known from Whitman County in Washington; British Columbia to Washington and Montana, also in a few scattered locations across North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spalding's milk-vetch (Astragalus spaldingii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to northeast Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush and grasslands in the foothills and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Specklepod milk-vetch (Astragalus lentiginosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Texas.
Habitat: Open areas, desert flats to subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spiral-pod milk-vetch (Astragalus speirocarpus)
Distribution: Endemic to Washington from Kittitas County south to Klickitat County, east to Grant County,
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sprawling milk-vetch (Astragalus succumbens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington from Kittitas and Grant counties south; Washington to Umatilla and Gilliam Counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts, sandy barrens and lower foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stalked-pod milk-vetch (Astragalus sclerocarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest chiefly in the Columbia River Basin and Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central British Columbia to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Dunes and sandy barrens, low elevation
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Standing milk-vetch (Astragalus laxmannii)
Distribution: Occurring in north-central and eastern Washington; Yukon Territory to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains and Minnesota.
Habitat: Prairies to rocky foothills in sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stiff milk-vetch (Astragalus conjunctus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from south-central to southeastern Washington; Washington to southeast Oregon and adjacent southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush grasslands to brushy slopes and ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Subarctic milk-vetch (Astragalus australis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska south in the Rocky Mountains to northeastern Oregon, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, east to the Great Plains and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Foothill bluffs and riverbanks to subalpine and alpine ridges and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
The Dalles milk-vetch (Astragalus sclerocarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest chiefly in the Columbia River Basin and Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central British Columbia to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Dunes and sandy barrens, low elevation
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thistle milk-vetch (Astragalus kentrophyta)
Distribution: Known historically from Walla Walla County but considered extirpated; southern Alberta to east-central California, east to Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sandy deserts to alpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Transparent milk-vetch (Astragalus diaphanus)
Distribution: Known historically from Klickitat County in Washington, but now thought to be extirpated; Klickitat County, Washington south to Wheeler and Grant counties in Oregon.
Habitat: Gravel bars, alluvial slopes, and in thin gravelly soil overlying basaltic rock.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Tweedy's milk-vetch (Astragalus tweedyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, from Yakima County south; central Washingtonto north-central Oregon near the Columbia River and lower Deschutes River.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Weedy milk-vetch (Astragalus miser)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to central Washington, Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands and foothills to montane forests, dry ridges and occasionally alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Whited's milk-vetch (Astragalus sinuatus)
Distribution: Endemic to Chelan County in Washington.
Habitat: Among sagebrush on rocky hillsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woody-pod milk-vetch (Astragalus sclerocarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest chiefly in the Columbia River Basin and Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central British Columbia to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Dunes and sandy barrens, low elevation
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woolly-pod milk-vetch (Astragalus purshii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Prairies and sagebrush deserts, foothills and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yakima milk-vetch (Astragalus reventiformis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Sherman County in Oregon.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe to low, dry, open ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Humboldt milkweed (Asclepias cryptoceras)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Gravelly to heavy clay soil in the foothills and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mexican whorled milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; northeastern Washington to Baja California, Mexico, east to Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, usually along vernal stream beds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow-leaf milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; northeastern Washington to Baja California, Mexico, east to Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, usually along vernal stream beds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pallid milkweed (Asclepias cryptoceras)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Gravelly to heavy clay soil in the foothills and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Riparian corridors, irrigation ditches, roadsides, and other at least seasonally wet areas at low elevations, often in loam soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
Distribution: Known from Okanogan County in Washington; Washington, also in Idaho, east across North America to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Riparian zone, including standing water
Origin: Introduced?
Flowers: August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sea milkwort (Lysimachia maritima)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; circumboreal; Alaska to California, east to Newfoundland, south in eastern North America to Virginia.
Habitat: Coastal tideflats and saline areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dusty miller (Artemisia stelleriana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the northeastern coast of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; native to Alaska, also occurring from the Great Lakes region east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal dunes and beaches in developed coastal areas, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Millet (Panicum miliaceum)
Distribution: Introduced and cultivated in many parts of the United States; occasionally escaping and persisting in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Abandoned fields, roadsides, waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Annual
Spiny milk-vetch (Astragalus kentrophyta)
Distribution: Known historically from Walla Walla County but considered extirpated; southern Alberta to east-central California, east to Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sandy deserts to alpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Annual water miner's lettuce (Montia fontana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, eastward across northern Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet places, including meadows, fields, lawns, and vernally moist sites, sometimes aquatic and floating, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cushion miner's lettuce (Claytonia rubra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sandy areas, shrublands, dry coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Erubescent miner's lettuce (Claytonia rubra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sandy areas, shrublands, dry coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Lake Washington miner's lettuce (Claytonia washingtoniana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and coniferous forests at low elevations, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Littleleaf miner's lettuce (Montia parvifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry soils, rocky outcrops, and other open, exposed areas from the coast to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Small-flowered miner's lettuce (Claytonia parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open rocky areas, open forest, forest edge, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Miner's-lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Forest openings and margins, shaded rock crevices, and open areas where seasonally moist from the coast to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Apple mint (Mentha suaveolens)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Washington to California and Arizona
Habitat: Roadsides, wasteland, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bergamot mint (Mentha aquatica)
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California; central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, riparian areas, and wetlands.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water mint (Mentha aquatica)
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California; central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, riparian areas, and wetlands.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild mint (Mentha canadensis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada and most of the United States to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Common in lake and pond shore margins, riparian zones, wetlands, and other wet areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow mission bells (Fritillaria pudica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Nevada, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe to mixed coniferous forests, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sitka mistmaiden (Romanzoffia sitchensis)
Distribution: Occurring on oth sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Wet cliffs and ledges, usually at middle to high elevations in the mountains, but descending to near sea level in the Columbia River Gorge.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tracy's mistmaiden (Romanzoffia tracyi)
Distribution: Along the coast in southwestern Washington; south to northern California.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and rocks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine mitrewort (Pectiantia pentandra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Wet meadows and moist woods, especially along streams, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bare-stemmed mitrewort (Mitella nuda)
Distribution: Alaska south to the Cascades of northwest Washington, east to Labrador and south to north-central Montana.
Habitat: Damp woods, along streams and in bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewer's mitrewort (Brewerimitella breweri)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist mountain valleys and wooded slopes to timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal mitrewort (Brewerimitella ovalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Deep, moist woodlands, bottomlands, and wet banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cross-shaped mitrewort (Ozomelis stauropetala)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah.
Habitat: Open to dense moist woods at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leafy mitrewort (Mitellastra caulescens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northwest California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Shady woods, wet meadows and swamps, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Side-flowered mitrewort (Ozomelis stauropetala)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah.
Habitat: Open to dense moist woods at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Star-shaped mitrewort (Mitellastra caulescens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northwest California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Shady woods, wet meadows and swamps, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Three-toothed mitrewort (Ozomelis trifida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist forests, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lewis' mock orange (Philadelphus lewisii)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry to moist, partially shaded to open areas from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mock-stawberry (Duchesnea indica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest and forest edge at low elevations, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Modesty (Whipplea modesta)
Distribution: Occurring on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, rocky, open to lightly forested areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mole plant (Euphorbia lathyris)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Arizona, widely distributed in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Mountain monardella (Monardella odoratissima)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, dry, often rocky places, low deserts to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
California monkey-fiddle (Hesperochiron californicus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to western MT, WY, and UT.
Habitat: Mostly in more or less alkaline meadows and flats, in plains, foothills and valleys
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small monkey-fiddle (Hesperochiron pumilus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascade crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Meadows and moist, open slopes from the foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewer's monkey-flower (Erythranthe breweri)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry to moist open woods and meadows from middle elevations in the mountains to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Candelabrum monkey-flower (Erythranthe pulsiferae)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California,
Habitat: Vernally moist areas, seeps, and stream banks from the lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Chickweed monkey-flower (Erythranthe alsinoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Shady, vernally (springtime) moist places on cliffs and ledges, especially at low elevations; often growing in moss mats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Coastal monkey-flower (Erythranthe dentata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northern California.
Habitat: Stream banks and other moist places to wet places from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Disappearing monkey-flower (Erythranthe inflatula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to northeastern California, east to southwestern Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist to wet open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Downy monkey-flower (Mimetanthe pilosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to Baja California, east to southwestern Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Moist, sandy areas and dry stream beds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Dwarf purple monkey-flower (Diplacus nanus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washinton; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, sandy, or gravelly soil among sagebrush desert or conifer forest at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
False monkey-flower (Mimetanthe pilosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to Baja California, east to southwestern Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Moist, sandy areas and dry stream beds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Field monkey-flower (Erythranthe arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to southern Idaho, Utah, and Nevada, disjunct in west-central Montana.
Habitat: Open slopes and stream bank.;
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Great purple monkey-flower (Erythranthe lewisii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Wyoming and Colorado.
Habitat: Common in wet meadows and along rivers and streams from middle to high elevations in the mountains, occasionally found along low elevation rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large monkey-flower (Erythranthe grandis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Coastal areas including bluffs, dunes, wet cliff faces, marshes, ditches, lake and pond margins, and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large mountain monkey-flower (Erythranthe caespitosa)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains of Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet meadows and wet, rocky slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large-nose monkey-flower (Erythranthe nasuta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho, Utah, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Rocky or moist slopes, stream banks, and seeps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Liverwort monkey-flower (Erythranthe jungermannioides)
Distribution: Known historically from east of the Cascades crest in Klickitat County in Washington, but now considered extirpated; south-central Washington to adjacent Oregon, and south along the Deschutes River to the Maupin area.
Habitat: Moss mats, basalt crevices, and cliffs at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Miniature monkey-flower (Erythranthe suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; north-central Washington to southern California, east to Colorado and Arizona.
Habitat: Open, moist to rather dry places, from the valleys and foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Nesom's monkey-flower (Diplacus cusickioides)
Distribution: Reported from east of the Cascades crest in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to west-central and southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry volcanic or sandy soils among sagebrush desert or conif forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Nez Perce monkey-flower (Erythranthe ampliata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in far southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to western Montana, possibly also in southern British Columbia, southern Alberta, and northwestern Wyoming.
Habitat: Basalt outcrops and seeps in grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Primrose monkey-flower (Erythranthe primuloides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet meadows and boggy areas at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pulsifer's monkey-flower (Erythranthe pulsiferae)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California,
Habitat: Vernally moist areas, seeps, and stream banks from the lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Purple-stem monkey-flower (Erythranthe floribunda)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and west into the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist open places at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Scarlet monkey-flower (Erythranthe cardinalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the southern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's monkey-flower (Erythranthe scouleri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades in southwestern Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Seeps, stream and river banks at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Seep monkey-flower (Erythranthe guttata)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Wet places, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sessile-leaved monkey-flower (Erythranthe ptilota)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Wet places generally at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sharp-leaved monkey-flower (Erythranthe decora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon, also in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist to wet open areas from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-flowered monkey-flower (Erythranthe breviflora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist and wet open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Showy monkey-flower (Erythranthe decora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon, also in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist to wet open areas from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-leaved monkey-flower (Erythranthe microphylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to western Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Rocky slopes, wet meadows, streambanks, and seeps from lowland areas to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Snouted monkey-flower (Erythranthe nasuta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho, Utah, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Rocky or moist slopes, stream banks, and seeps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Stalk-leaved monkey-flower (Erythranthe patula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeast Washington to adjacent northeast Oregon and adjacent west-central Idaho.
Habitat: Vernally moist areas, seeps, and stream banks from the lowlands to the middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Tooth-leaved monkey-flower (Erythranthe dentata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northern California.
Habitat: Stream banks and other moist places to wet places from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Washington monkey-flower (Erythranthe washingtonensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the cascades crest in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to adjacent north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Shallow or gravelly soils of vernally moist areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Wing-stem monkey-flower (Erythranthe alsinoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Shady, vernally (springtime) moist places on cliffs and ledges, especially at low elevations; often growing in moss mats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow monkey-flower (Erythranthe guttata)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Wet places, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Allegheny monkeyflower (Mimulus ringens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest along the Columbia and Snake rivers in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Montana, also in central and eastern North America where native.
Habitat: Riparian corridors in open sites, tolerant of episodic or extensive inundation.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Square-stemmed monkeyflower (Mimulus ringens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest along the Columbia and Snake rivers in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Montana, also in central and eastern North America where native.
Habitat: Riparian corridors in open sites, tolerant of episodic or extensive inundation.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbian monkshood (Aconitum columbianum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist woods and meadows, moderate to subalpine elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prostrate monolepis (Blitum spathulatum)
Origin: Native
Montbretia (Crocosmia ×crocosmiiflora)
Origin: Introduced from South Africa
Growth Duration: Perennial
Branching montia (Montia diffusa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Marin County, California.
Habitat: Moist woods at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Chamisso's montia (Montia chamissoi)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; scattered locations east of the Mississippi in the U.S.
Habitat: Wet areas, often in water, from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf montia (Montia dichotoma)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Casifornia, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist areas in the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Howell's montia (Montia howellii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist lowland areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - May
Growth Duration: Annual
Lineleaf montia (Montia linearis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Calfornia, east to the Rocky Mountains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Moist to dry, usually sandy soil, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Narrow-leaf montia (Montia linearis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Calfornia, east to the Rocky Mountains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Moist to dry, usually sandy soil, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Narrow-leaved montia (Montia linearis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Calfornia, east to the Rocky Mountains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Moist to dry, usually sandy soil, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Water montia (Montia chamissoi)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; scattered locations east of the Mississippi in the U.S.
Habitat: Wet areas, often in water, from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Booth's mooncup (Eremothera boothii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; eastern Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert on dry rocky slopes, loose soil, sand or ash, sometimes along roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Common moonwort (Botrychium neolunaria)
Origin: Native
Dainty moonwort (Botrychium crenulatum)
Distribution: East Cascades in northern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Arizona
Habitat: Mesic meadows, fen margins, and streamsides under Thuja plicata, at montane elevations.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green triangle moonwort (Botrychium viride)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, also in New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist montane or subalpine meadows to open forest or thickets.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Least moonwort (Botrychium simplex)
Origin: Native
Michigan moonwort (Botrychium michiganense)
Distribution: Scattered in Western North America and eastward to the Great Lakes; in Washington known from the northeast corner of the state.
Habitat: Mesic montane meadows.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mingan moonwort (Botrychium minganense)
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Colorado and to Maine across the northern tier of states
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain moonwort (Botrychium montanum)
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to Montana
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northwestern moonwort (Botrychium pinnatum)
Distribution: Alaska to Washington and the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon
Habitat: Moist or wet, mostly open places at fairly high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Paradox moonwort (Botrychium paradoxum)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red triangle moonwort (Botrychium lanceolatum)
Distribution: Circumboreal, extending south to southern Washington and Pennsylvania
Habitat: Moist or wet places in the mountains, occasionally to high elevations
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scalloped moonwort (Botrychium crenulatum)
Distribution: East Cascades in northern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Arizona
Habitat: Mesic meadows, fen margins, and streamsides under Thuja plicata, at montane elevations.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
St. John (Botrychium pinnatum)
Distribution: Alaska to Washington and the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon
Habitat: Moist or wet, mostly open places at fairly high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stalked moonwort (Botrychium pedunculosum)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Triangle moonwort (Botrychium lanceolatum)
Distribution: Circumboreal, extending south to southern Washington and Pennsylvania
Habitat: Moist or wet places in the mountains, occasionally to high elevations
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Two-spiked moonwort (Botrychium paradoxum)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Upswept moonwort (Botrychium ascendens)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western moonwort (Botrychium hesperium)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Night-blooming morning-glory (Calystegia atriplicifolia)
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in the Mount Adams area of Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, rocky, open slopes or in ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mexican mosquito-fern (Azolla microphylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Texas.
Habitat: Ponds and backwaters, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Pacific mosquito-fern (Azolla filiculoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Ponds, backwaters, and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual
Alaskan moss-heather (Harrimanella stelleriana)
Distribution: Alaska to the high Cascades of Washington
Habitat: Rocky slopes and seeps, alpine to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Four-angled moss-heather (Cassiope tetragona)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the crest in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, also in Montana
Habitat: Open, rocky areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mertens's moss-heather (Cassiope mertensiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas from the subalpine to alpine, often where dry in summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mother-of-the-evening (Hesperis matronalis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, disturbed forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca)
Distribution: Scattered location in Washington; found occasionally in North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, often in association with cities and towns.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid mountain heather (Phyllodoce ×intermedia)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to Oregon, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cascade mountain-ash (Sorbus scopulina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Open areas, from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
European mountain-ash (Sorbus aucuparia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, thickets, shorelines, and other generally moist areas where often disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sitka mountain-ash (Sorbus sitchensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Forest openings at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swedish mountain-ash (Sorbus hybrida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington.
Habitat: Shoreline ledges and thickets at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western mountain-ash (Sorbus scopulina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Open areas, from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hooker's mountain-avens (Dryas hookeriana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, northeast Oregon, and in the Rockies from Northwest Territory to Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming and Colorado.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
White mountain-avens (Dryas hookeriana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, northeast Oregon, and in the Rockies from Northwest Territory to Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming and Colorado.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow mountain-avens (Dryas drummondii)
Distribution: Known from only a small number of scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the North Cascades and Selkirk Mountains of Washington, the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon, and the Rocky Mountains of Montana; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: High elevations, often above timberline, but down to lower elevations along streams
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pink mountain-heath (Phyllodoce empetriformis)
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming; in the Olympics and Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Rocky sites in high coniferous forests to alpine meadows
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow mountain-heath (Phyllodoce glanduliflora)
Distribution: Occurring in mountainous areas across Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky sites in high coniferous forests to alpine meadows and seeps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alaskan mountain-heather (Harrimanella stelleriana)
Distribution: Alaska to the high Cascades of Washington
Habitat: Rocky slopes and seeps, alpine to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clubmoss mountain-heather (Cassiope lycopodioides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Alpine rocky slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Little mountain-ricegrass (Piptatheropsis exigua)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia, south east of the Cascade crest to Oregon, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Sandy to rocky soil, mountain meadows to subalpine and alpine ridges and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain-sorrel (Oxyria digyna)
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico; also across Canada to Labrador, and the Olympics in Washington
Habitat: Moist, usually rocky ground, alpine to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristle-flower mountain-trumpet (Collomia macrocalyx)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Kittitas and Yakima counties in Washington; central Washington and also in north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Diffuse mountain-trumpet (Collomia tenella)
Distribution: Mostly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Nevada, east to Idaho, Utah and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Large-flower mountain-trumpet (Collomia grandiflora)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open to lightly wooded areas, lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Narrow-leaf mountain-trumpet (Collomia linearis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Ontario and New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to somewhat moist, open or lightly shaded areas in the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Variable-leaf mountain-trumpet (Collomia heterophylla)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Woods, forest openings and stream banks, low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow-staining mountain-trumpet (Collomia tinctoria)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to central Idaho and southeast Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills to moderate or mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Common mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium fontanum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Dwarf mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium pumilum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, and from the Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, sandy or gravelly balds, fields, prairies, roadsides, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Nodding mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium nutans)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America except for California, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry to moist shorelines, streambanks, fields, and other disturbed, open areas..
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sticky mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium glomeratum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Five-stamen mouse-ear chikweed (Cerastium semidecandrum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, also from the Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, forest edge, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bristly mouse-tail (Myosurus apetalus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist areas and vernal streambeds, mostly low elevation grasslands and sagebrush, occasionally to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sedge mouse-tail (Myosurus apetalus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist areas and vernal streambeds, mostly low elevation grasslands and sagebrush, occasionally to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Shortstemmed mouse-tail (Myosurus sessilis)
Distribution: Known from Klickitat County in Washington; South-central Washington south to north-central Oregon, also in central California.
Habitat: Vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Vernal pool mouse-tail (Myosurus sessilis)
Distribution: Known from Klickitat County in Washington; South-central Washington south to north-central Oregon, also in central California.
Habitat: Vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Alpine mousetail (Ivesia gordonii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest from central Washington south; central Washington to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Rocky slopes, grassland, sagebrush, forest openings, and subalpine to alpines ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tiny mousetail (Myosurus minimus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to south-central Canada and across the central U.S. to the southeastern states.
Habitat: Wet places, especially vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Tweedy's mousetail (Ivesia tweedyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mud-midget (Wolffiella gladiata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; central and eastern U.S., where native.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, and bogs at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from eastern United States
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grassleaf mud-plantain (Heteranthera dubia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest along major rivers in Washington, however particularly common and rather invasives in lower Yakima River; British Columbia to California, widespread in eastern North America.
Habitat: River backwaters, slow-moving rivers, quiet streams, ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Awl-leaf mudwort (Limosella aquatica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains and further eastward to northeastern North America.
Habitat: In shallow water or wet mud of rivers, lakes, and ponds at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Stemless mudwort (Limosella acaulis)
Origin: Native
Aleutian mugwort (Artemisia tilesii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, and east across Canada to Quebec.
Habitat: Open rocky or gravelly, wet or dry sites, from middle elevations to the alpine, descending to sea level northward.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal mugwort (Artemisia suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Bluffs, beaches, rocky areas, and riverbanks, especially near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Mostly along stream banks and river bottoms.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Michaux's mugwort (Artemisia michauxiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky places in the mountains at rather high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Three-forked mugwort (Artemisia furcata)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Northwest Territories, Alberta, and Nunavut.
Habitat: Open, rocky ledges and talus slopes in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western mugwort (Artemisia ludoviciana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows and open slopes, from the lowlands to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Annual muhly (Muhlenbergia minutissima)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July
Growth Duration: Annual
Foxtail muhly (Muhlenbergia andina)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Least muhly (Muhlenbergia minutissima)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July
Growth Duration: Annual
Matted muhly (Muhlenbergia richardsonis)
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascade crests, to Baja California, east to New Brunswick and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist to dry lowlands, meadows, mountain prairies and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Or alkali muhly (Muhlenbergia asperifolia)
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascades, to California, east to Montana and Texas.
Habitat: Dry to moist alkaline places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pullup muhly (Muhlenbergia filiformis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Kansas.
Habitat: Moist or wet meadows, shores, seeps, hot springs, and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Spiked muhly (Muhlenbergia glomerata)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wirestem muhly (Muhlenbergia mexicana)
Origin: Native
White mulberry (Morus alba)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, also from the Great Plains eastward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Riparian corridors of rivers and streams, and other open disturbed areas where moist to wet.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrowleaf mule's ears (Wyethia angustifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington, and east in the Columbia River Gorge; Washington to California.
Habitat: Meadows and moist, open hillsides at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern mule's ears (Wyethia amplexicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Seasonally moist areas in sagebrush-steppe, to open areas at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Flannel mullein (Verbascum thapsus)
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Common on open, disturbed ground, roadsides and logged areas in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
Great mullein (Verbascum thapsus)
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Common on open, disturbed ground, roadsides and logged areas in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
Moth mullein (Verbascum blattaria)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas, often where dry.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
Turkey mullein (Croton setigerus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Baja California, east to western Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy or rocky areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Wand mullein (Verbascum virgatum)
Distribution: Lowland western Washington; Washington south to California, east across the southern U.S. and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Open disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Musk-flower (Erythranthe moschata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist meadows and seeps, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Musk-plant (Erythranthe moschata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist meadows and seeps, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ball mustard (Neslia paniculata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Ocean.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and forest openings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Black mustard (Brassica nigra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Distrubed areas such as roadsides, fields, and waste lots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue mustard (Chorispora tenella)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe habitat, both degraded and intact; disturbed areas, roadsides, and pastures.
Origin: Introduced from sw Asia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Brown mustard (Brassica juncea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
California mustard (Caulanthus lasiophyllus)
Distribution: Reported from Washington; Washington to Baja California, Mexico, east to Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sandy banks, gravelly or rocky areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Common mustard (Brassica rapa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-Septemeber
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Corn mustard (Sinapis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste places and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region, reaching North America perhaps as early as 8000 years bp (Jacobson et al. 1988)
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Dog mustard (Erucastrum gallicum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Field mustard (Brassica rapa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-Septemeber
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in Utah, widespread from central Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest understory, often where moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Hare's-ear mustard (Conringia orientalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, waste places, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste ground and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Leaf mustard (Brassica juncea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Long-beaked fiddle mustard (Streptanthella longirostris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; Washington to California, east to Wyoming and New Mexico.
Habitat: Open desert and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Mediterranean hoary mustard (Hirschfeldia incana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Rush mustard (Sisymbrium linifolium)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Arizona (not including California), east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe communities, rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-podded mustard (Hirschfeldia incana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Summer mustard (Hirschfeldia incana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Syrian mustard (Euclidium syriacum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also along the coast in northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Tower mustard (Turritis glabra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally moist, sometimes rocky, soil in open woods, clearings, and grassy balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Treacle mustard (Conringia orientalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, waste places, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Treacle mustard (Erysimum cheiranthoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Tumble mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas of sagebrush desert, ponderosa pine forest openings, roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
White mustard (Sinapis alba)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste places and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region, reaching North America perhaps as early as 8000 years bp (Jacobson et al. 1988)
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Muttongrass (Poa fendleriana)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August