Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.

Browse by common name:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Common names beginning with S:
727 common names
Show only taxa with photos
Display as:
Index to common names:
sacaton, sage, sagebrush, sagewort, sago-pondweed, saintfoin, saitas, salal, salmonberry, salsify, salt and pepper, saltbush, saltlover, saltwort, sandbur, sandcarpet, sandfain, sandgrass, sandmat, sandreed, sandspurry, sandverbena, sandweed, sandwort, sanicle, sarsaparilla, saskatoon, sawwort, saxifrage, scalepod, scent-bottle, scheuchzeria, scorpion-grass, scorpion-weed, scorpiongrass, scorzonella, scouring rush, scouring-rush, scrambled eggs, scratchgrass, scurf-pea, scurfpea, scurvy-grass, scurvygrass, sea-blush, sea-milkwort, sea-pink, sea-rocket, sea-watch, seablite, seawrack, sedge, seepweed, sego lily, sego-lily, self-heal, senna, serpent-grass, serpentweed, service-tree, serviceberry, shadscale, sheep's bit, sheepburr, shepherd's-purse, shooting star, shooting-star, shotweed, sibbaldia, sicklegrass, sidalcea, sidebells, silene, silky-bent, silver-berry, silverback, silvercrown, silvergrass, silverpuffs, silverweed, single-delight, skeletonplant, skeletonweed, skullcap, skullcapp, skunkweed, skyrocket, smartweed, smelowskia, smoke, smooth medic, smotherweed, snakeroot, snakeweed, snapdragon, sneezeweed, snout, snow queen, snow-in-summer, snowberry, snowdrop, soapberry, soapwort, softgrass, soliva, Solomon's-seal, soopolallie, sorghum, sorrel, sow-thistle, sowbane, Spanish-broom, spatterdock, spearmint, spearwort, speedwell, spiderflower, spike-moss, spike-rush, spikemoss, spikenard, spikerush, spikeweed, spinach, spineflower, spiraea, spleenwort, sponge-plant, spoonwort, sprangletop, spring parsley, spring-gold, springbeauty, spruce, spurge, spurge-laurel, spurry, squashberry, squirreltail, St. John's-wort, St. Johns-wort, staggerweed, star-of-bethleham, star-of-Bethlehem, star-thistle, star-tulip, starflower, stargrass, starthistle, starwort, steeplebush, steer's-head, stephanomeria, stichwort, stickseed, sticktight, sticky-laurel, sticky-willy, stinkgrass, stinkweed, stinky-Bob, stitchwort, stock, stonecrop, stoneseed, stork's bill, stork's-bill, stranvaesia, strapwort, strawberry, strawberry tree, strawberry-tomato, streptanthella, succory, sugarbowls, sugarstick, sulfurflower, sumac, sun cup, suncup, sundew, sunflower, sunshine, surf-grass, swainsonpea, swampcandles, sweet-cicely, sweet-clover, sweet-vetch, sweetbrier, sweetflag, sweetgale, sweetgrass, swertia, swinecress, sword-fern, sycamore
Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California and Mexico, east to the Great Plains; introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Mesic or damp slopes and flats, often where alkaline, shores, grasslands, vernal pools, and hot springs at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
African sage (Salvia aethiopis)
Distribution: Introduced from the Mediterranean region to southwest United States, spreading north to eastern Oregon.
Habitat: A weed of dry waste places and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Gray ball sage (Salvia dorrii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy or rocky areas in sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie sage (Artemisia ludoviciana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows and open slopes, from the lowlands to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie-meadow sage (Salvia pratensis)
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; escaping in parts of western, central, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sage (Salvia dorrii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy or rocky areas in sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wand sage (Salvia virgata)
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry plains and foothills to the subalpine, but not in lithosol or alkaline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cut-leaf sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Nevada, east to Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, dry plains and hills in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hoary sagebrush (Artemisia cana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, dry plains and hills in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie sagebrush (Artemisia frigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry, open sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scabland sagebrush (Artemisia rigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry, rocky places from the plains and foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: September-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snowfield sagebrush (Artemisia spiciformis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to southwestern Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Cool, moist slopes, from middle elevations to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spiked sagebrush (Artemisia spiciformis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to southwestern Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Cool, moist slopes, from middle elevations to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry, rocky places from the plains and foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: September-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Nevada, east to Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's sagewort (Artemisia douglasiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Mostly along stream banks and river bottoms.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dragon sagewort (Artemisia dracunculus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lemon sagewort (Artemisia michauxiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky places in the mountains at rather high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sagewort (Artemisia norvegica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine areas, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific sagewort (Artemisia campestris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Open places, often in sandy or rocky soil, from low elevations to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Prairie sagewort (Artemisia frigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry, open sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Suksdorf's sagewort (Artemisia suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Bluffs, beaches, rocky areas, and riverbanks, especially near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet sagewort (Artemisia annua)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Sago-pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; common throughout North America; Eurasia
Habitat: Shallow, fresh to brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saintfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America,
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern saitas (Dichelostemma congestum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Grassy meadows, rocky prairies and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Salal (Gaultheria shallon)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge marine headlands, from sea level to moderate elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Lowland moist woods and swamps to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Meadow salsify (Tragopogon pratensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields and waste places, usually in slightly moist areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Purple salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields and waste places, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Yellow salsify (Tragopogon dubius)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, overgrazed areas, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Salt and pepper (Lomatium gormanii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open slopes and scablands in the foothills, valleys and plains, often with sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Australian saltbush (Atriplex semibaccata)
Distribution: Occasionally introduced in eastern and central WA; scattered localities primarily in southwestern US.
Habitat: Disturbed areas from dry to moist, tolerant of alkaline soils.
Origin: Introduced from Australia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Baltic saltbush (Atriplex longipes)
Origin: Introduced
Berry saltbush (Atriplex semibaccata)
Distribution: Occasionally introduced in eastern and central WA; scattered localities primarily in southwestern US.
Habitat: Disturbed areas from dry to moist, tolerant of alkaline soils.
Origin: Introduced from Australia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping saltbush (Atriplex semibaccata)
Distribution: Occasionally introduced in eastern and central WA; scattered localities primarily in southwestern US.
Habitat: Disturbed areas from dry to moist, tolerant of alkaline soils.
Origin: Introduced from Australia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Saline areas in the prairies.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gardner's saltbush (Atriplex gardneri)
Distribution: Occurring at low elevations in central Washington; Alberta south to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gmelin's saltbush (Atriplex gmelinii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: On coastal beaches, strands, and rocky outcroppings near the high tide in saline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Hoary saltbush (Atriplex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Saline areas in the prairies.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saline saltbush (Atriplex dioica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but particularly common along the inner and outer marine coast; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Salt marshes, sea beaches and headlands, also inland on disturbed or saline ground;
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Saltlover (Halogeton glomeratus)
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Low saltwort (Salicornia depressa)
Distribution: Strictly coastal in Washington;
Habitat: Salt marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Red glasswort saltwort (Salicornia rubra)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Saltwort (Salicornia rubra)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Longspine sandbur (Cenchrus longispinus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy river banks and other disturbed, seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Mat sandbur (Cenchrus longispinus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy river banks and other disturbed, seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Sandcarpet (Cardionema ramosissimum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sandy beaches along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sandfain (Onobrychis viciifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America,
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sandgrass (Triplasis purpurea)
Origin: Introduced
Rib seed sandmat (Euphorbia glyptosperma)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Maine and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil, from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Sandmat (Cardionema ramosissimum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sandy beaches along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sandmat (Euphorbia maculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia)
Origin: Introduced
Alkali sandspurry (Spergularia diandra)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Idaho.
Habitat: River shores, often where sandy.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Beach sandspurry (Spergularia macrotheca)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coastal areas in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California.
Habitat: Along the sea shore, often in salt marshes and rock crevices in the splash zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bocconi's sandspurry (Spergularia bocconei)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; western Washington to California.
Habitat: Saltmarshes and sandy places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Canada sandspurry (Spergularia canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to California; also in central Canada and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal tidelands and mudflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Red sandspurry (Spergularia rubra)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, parking areas, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Saltmarsh sandspurry (Spergularia salina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east across North America.
Habitat: Saline or brackish areas along the coast, and alkaline areas inland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Honey-scented sandverbena (Abronia mellifera)
Distribution: Distributed east of the Cascades in Washington in the Columbia Basin and along the Snake River; north-central Oregon, southeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho, southeastern Idaho and adjacent Wyoming.
Habitat: Dunes and sandy soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pink sandverbena (Abronia umbellata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the outer coast in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California.
Habitat: Coastal sandy beaches and adjacent dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sandweed (Athysanus pusillus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open, often grassy places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Alpine sandwort (Cherleria obtusiloba)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to central Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains as far south as New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry, subalpine to alpine slopes and tundra.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Annual sandwort (Sabulina pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from Klickitat County to the southeastern counties in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky cliffs and outcroppings in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Ballhead sandwort (Eremogone congesta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Basalt sandwort (Sabulina basaltica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from the northeastern Olympic Mountains in Washington.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings and exposed areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt-leaf sandwort (Moehringia lateriflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common east of the crest; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, open meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bluntleaf sandwort (Moehringia lateriflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common east of the crest; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, open meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Capitate sandwort (Eremogone congesta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf sandwort (Sabulina pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from Klickitat County to the southeastern counties in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky cliffs and outcroppings in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Franklin's sandwort (Eremogone franklinii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sand dunes, scabland, and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large-leaf sandwort (Moehringia macrophylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to dry, shaded to open woods, meadows and rocky slopes in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh sandwort (Arenaria paludicola)
Distribution: Presumed extirpated from Washington; historically west of the Cascades crest along the coast. California to Central America.
Habitat: Swampy places, mostly along coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sandwort (Eremogone capillaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern Oregon and northern Nevada, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Mostly montane to alpine meadows and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Needle-leaf sandwort (Eremogone aculeata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Gravelly sagebrush-covered hills from moderate elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nuttall's sandwort (Sabulina nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills to alpine slopes, especially on gravelly benches or talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Olympic sandwort (Sabulina basaltica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from the northeastern Olympic Mountains in Washington.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings and exposed areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prickly sandwort (Eremogone aculeata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Gravelly sagebrush-covered hills from moderate elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Seabeach sandwort (Honckenya peploides)
Distribution: Occuring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties in Washington; Alaska to northern Oregon, east across Canada to coastal northeastern North America; Greenland and arctic Eurasia.
Habitat: Coastal beaches, strands, and sand dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender sandwort (Sabulina macra)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Lowlands, prairies and coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Thread-leaved sandwort (Eremogone capillaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern Oregon and northern Nevada, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Mostly montane to alpine meadows and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thyme-leaf sandwort (Arenaria serpyllifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry to moist, barren to wooded places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Twin Sisters sandwort (Sabulina sororia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Twin Sisters Range of Whatcom County and North Cascades of southeastern Skagit County (photo evidence only for latter location).
Habitat: Exposed areas, barren, gravelly soil, and crevices of dunite rock, from montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Two-flowered sandwort (Cherleria biflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, and in Rocky Mountains to Colorado and Arizona; circumboreal
Habitat: Moist subalpine to alpine slopes, often near snowbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bear's-foot sanicle (Sanicula arctopoides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Vancouver Island, B.C. south along the coast to California.
Habitat: Maritime species of coastal bluffs, meadows, and balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific sanicle (Sanicula crassicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, balds, prairies, and open woods from the coast to low elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sanicle (Sanicula bipinnatifida)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, forest edge, and other open to partially shaded areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Yukon Territory to northeastern Washington, east to and south in Rocky Mountains, east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist, shaded soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open woods, canyons and hillsides, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American sawwort (Saussurea americana)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and open, often rocky slopes, where moist, at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine saxifrage (Micranthes tolmiei)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, scree, and rock crevices at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bog saxifrage (Micranthes oregana)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and Colorado.
Habitat: Bogs, streambanks and wet meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brook saxifrage (Micranthes odontoloma)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, lake shores and wet meadows from low elevations in the mountains to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clayton's saxifrage (Micranthes fragosa)
Distribution: East of Cascades in Washington, south to Oregon and east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet slopes and cliffs, often near watercourses.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbia saxifrage (Micranthes nidifica)
Distribution: East of the crest of the Cascades, British Columbia south to northeast California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Prairies and wet banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbian saxifrage (Micranthes integrifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, grassy slopes and vernally moist areas, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dotted saxifrage (Micranthes nelsoniana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Nunavut and Alberta.
Habitat: Montane wet areas and streambanks from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gorman's saxifrage (Micranthes gormanii)
Origin: Native
Idaho saxifrage (Micranthes idahoensis)
Distribution: Washington and Oregon, east to Montana and Idaho.
Habitat: Exposed areas, ledges, and open slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leatherleaf saxifrage (Leptarrhena pyrolifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, including the Olympic Mountains; Alaska to Oregon, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, and Montana.
Habitat: Streambanks, seeps and wet meadows, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyall's saxifrage (Micranthes lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet, gravelly meadows and along streams and ponds at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Matted saxifrage (Saxifraga austromontana)
Distribution: Alaska to Greenland, south in the Cascades to Oregon, and in the Rockies to New Mexico
Habitat: Cliff crevices, talus and scree slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Matted saxifrage (Saxifraga vespertina)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; western Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Merten's saxifrage (Saxifraga mertensiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet ledges, shaded seeps on rock faces, and gravelly stream banks from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain saxifrage (Micranthes occidentalis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon and Nevada, east to Saskatachewan and south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to wet open areas, rock crevices, meadows, and streambanks from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nodding saxifrage (Saxifraga cernua)
Distribution: Known only east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Among rocks in alpine areas, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nuttall's saxifrage (Cascadia nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula and south in Washington; Washington south along the coast to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Wet banks and near waterfalls, usually growing in moss, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Olympic saxifrage (Micranthes tischii)
Distribution: Olympic Peninsula endemic
Habitat: Forested ledges and rock crevices where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon saxifrage (Micranthes oregana)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and Colorado.
Habitat: Bogs, streambanks and wet meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; across northern Canada and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and rocky outcroppings
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pygmy saxifrage (Saxifraga hyperborea)
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California, throughout the Rocky Mountains, across northern Canada to the Maritime Provinces.
Habitat: Alpine tundra, often where moist with rocky outcroppings, crevices, and snowmelt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red-stemmed saxifrage (Micranthes lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet, gravelly meadows and along streams and ponds at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Redwool saxifrage (Micranthes occidentalis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon and Nevada, east to Saskatachewan and south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to wet open areas, rock crevices, meadows, and streambanks from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rue-leaved saxifrage (Saxifraga tridactylites)
Origin: Introduced
Rusty saxifrage (Micranthes ferruginea)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains, and in the mountains of northeastern in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open, moist, often rocky areas, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rusty-hair saxifrage (Micranthes rufidula)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Wet open areas, ledges, rock outcroppings from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted saxifrage (Saxifraga austromontana)
Distribution: Alaska to Greenland, south in the Cascades to Oregon, and in the Rockies to New Mexico
Habitat: Cliff crevices, talus and scree slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted saxifrage (Saxifraga vespertina)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; western Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strawberry saxifrage (Saxifragopsis fragarioides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct; southwestern Oregon to adjacent California.
Habitat: Rock outcrops and talus slopes at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Streambank saxifrage (Micranthes odontoloma)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, lake shores and wet meadows from low elevations in the mountains to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp saxifrage (Micranthes integrifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, grassy slopes and vernally moist areas, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp saxifrage (Micranthes nidifica)
Distribution: East of the crest of the Cascades, British Columbia south to northeast California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Prairies and wet banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tiny swamp saxifrage (Micranthes apetala)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tolmie's alpine saxifrage (Micranthes tolmiei)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, scree, and rock crevices at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tolmie's saxifrage (Micranthes tolmiei)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, scree, and rock crevices at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tufted alpine saxifrage (Saxifraga cespitosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ledges, gravelly ridges and scree, near sea level to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tufted saxifrage (Saxifraga cespitosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ledges, gravelly ridges and scree, near sea level to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Twinflowered saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; across northern Canada and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and rocky outcroppings
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wedge-leaf saxifrage (Saxifraga adscendens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington and possibly in the Olympic Mountains; Alaska to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Glacial moraines and alpine gravelly meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western saxifrage (Micranthes occidentalis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon and Nevada, east to Saskatachewan and south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to wet open areas, rock crevices, meadows, and streambanks from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western swamp saxifrage (Micranthes apetala)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Whole-leaf saxifrage (Micranthes integrifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, grassy slopes and vernally moist areas, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodland saxifrage (Saxifraga mertensiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet ledges, shaded seeps on rock faces, and gravelly stream banks from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scalepod (Idahoa scapigera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Scent-bottle (Platanthera dilatata)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest through the mountainous and forested areas of Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, forest openings, and streambanks from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scheuchzeria (Scheuchzeria palustris)
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to northern California, east to Labrador and New Jersey.
Habitat: In bogs or on lake margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Early scorpion-grass (Myosotis verna)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, wet to dry places in foothills and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Field scorpion-grass (Myosotis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and forest openings, typically associated with disturbance.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Spring scorpion-grass (Myosotis verna)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, wet to dry places in foothills and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Yellow and blue scorpiongrass (Myosotis discolor)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other dry to moist open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bolander's scorpion-weed (Phacelia bolanderi)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland southwestern Washington; Coos Bay, Oregon south along the coast to Sonoma County, California.
Habitat: Mostly on open, often unstable slopes at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf scorpion-weed (Phacelia minutissima)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Kittitas County in Washington; central Washington to northeastern Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Four-part yellow scorpion-weed (Phacelia tetramera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Alkaline flats and washes at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Franklin's scorpion-weed (Phacelia franklinii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Yukon to northeastern Washington, east to western Montana and Wyoming, further east to the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Talus and open areas at middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Glandular-hair scorpion-weed (Phacelia glandulifera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticky scorpion-weed (Phacelia lenta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan and Douglas counties.
Habitat: Open rocky habitats, talus, rocky outcrops.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall scorpion-weed (Phacelia procera)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and east to adjacent west-central Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows, forest openings and edge, and lightly wooded slopes at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thread-leaf scorpion-weed (Phacelia linearis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Common in dry, open places in the foothills and plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue scorpiongrass (Myosotis stricta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open moist to dry places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Field scorpiongrass (Myosotis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and forest openings, typically associated with disturbance.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Nodding scorzonella (Microseris nutans)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Slopes, meadows, flats, and forest openings,often in somewhat moist places, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf scouring rush (Equisetum scirpoides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northeast Washington and Montana, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist, swampy places and sandy stream and river banks, especially in coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common scouring-rush (Equisetum hyemale)
Distribution: Circumboreal; throughout the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Moist to wet areas, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern scouring-rush (Equisetum variegatum)
Distribution: Alaska to Oregon, east across southern Canada and the northern third of the United States
Habitat: Wet places, sea level to alpine
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scrambled eggs (Corydalis aurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America except southeastern U.S.
Habitat: In varied habitats, from moist to dry and well-drained soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Scratchgrass (Muhlenbergia asperifolia)
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascades, to California, east to Montana and Texas.
Habitat: Dry to moist alkaline places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lemon scurfpea (Ladeania lanceolata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush steppe habitat in dry areas, often where sandy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Forest scurfpea (Rupertia physodes)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, disjunct in northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Prairie and forest edges at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lance-leaf scurfpea (Ladeania lanceolata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush steppe habitat in dry areas, often where sandy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scurvy-grass (Cochlearia groenlandica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Danish scurvygrass (Cochlearia groenlandica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Scurvygrass (Barbarea verna)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Colorado; also in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Sea-blush (Plectritis congesta)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open, vernally moist balds, prairies, meadows and slopes, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sea-milkwort (Lysimachia maritima)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; circumboreal; Alaska to California, east to Newfoundland, south in eastern North America to Virginia.
Habitat: Coastal tideflats and saline areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sea-pink (Armeria maritima)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, chiefly in the coastal counties; Alaska to California, east across Canada to northeastern North America; Greenland and Europe.
Habitat: Along beaches, coastal bluffs and balds, occasionally inland in prairies.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American sea-rocket (Cakile edentula)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; Alaska to California along the coast, native to the Great Lakes region and coastal eastern North America.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
European sea-rocket (Cakile maritima)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; British Columbia to California along the coast, also along the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sea-rocket (Cakile maritima)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; British Columbia to California along the coast, also along the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sea-watch (Angelica lucida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the coastal counties; Alaska to California, also in eastern North America; Far East Russia.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs, beaches, and estuaries.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common seablite (Suaeda calceoliformis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America from Alaska south to California, east to the Great Plains, and also along the coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, moist to wet areas, typically where saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Horned seablite (Suaeda calceoliformis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America from Alaska south to California, east to the Great Plains, and also along the coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, moist to wet areas, typically where saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender seablite (Suaeda occidentalis)
Distribution: Eastern Washington to northern Nevada, east through southern Idaho to Colorado.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline flats and marshes in sagebrush area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Growth Duration: Annual
Seawrack (Zostera marina)
Distribution: Occurring in Washington\'s coastal counties; Alaska to California along the coast; also on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sub-tidal area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Abrupt-beaked sedge (Carex abrupta)
Origin: Native
Alaska long-awn sedge (Carex macrochaeta)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine nerve sedge (Carex neurophora)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Analogue sedge (Carex simulata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Awned sedge (Carex atherodes)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Back's sedge (Carex backii)
Origin: Native
Beaked sedge (Carex utriculata)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bearded sedge (Carex comosa)
Distribution: Widespread in eastern United States, occasional in Washington, Idaho and Montana
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bebb's sedge (Carex bebbii)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big inflated sedge (Carex exsiccata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big-leaf sedge (Carex amplifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, also in New Mexico.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and other wet places, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bighead sedge (Carex macrocephala)
Distribution: Occurring in counties along the Puget Sound and outer coast in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon; northern Pacific Rim.
Habitat: Sandy saltwater beaches and dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black alpine sedge (Carex nigricans)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black bog sedge (Carex pluriflora)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black-and-white-scaled sedge (Carex albonigra)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascade and Olympic mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine areas, high elevation talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black-scale sedge (Carex atrosquama)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt sedge (Carex obtusata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bolander's sedge (Carex bolanderi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to Rocky Mountains, also in Mexico.
Habitat: Springs, moist slopes, riparian forests, shores, upper margins of salt marshes, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boreal bog sedge (Carex magellanica)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewer's sedge (Carex breweri)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Mountains from Mt. Adams and south in Washington; south-central Washington to California and Nevada.
Habitat: Volcanic ash, pumice, scree, talus, rocky slopes in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristle-leaf sedge (Isolepis setacea)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristle-leaved sedge (Carex eburnea)
Origin: Native
Bristly sedge (Carex comosa)
Distribution: Widespread in eastern United States, occasional in Washington, Idaho and Montana
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brown bog sedge (Carex buxbaumii)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brown sedge (Carex brunnescens)
Distribution: Circumboreal at high latitudes, south through the Cascades to the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon
Habitat: Wet places in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Buxbaum's sedge (Carex buxbaumii)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
California sedge (Carex californica)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Capitate sedge (Carex capitata)
Distribution: Occurring in northwestern and north-central Washington near the Canadian border; Alaska south to California and Nevada (but not in Oregon), east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cloud sedge (Carex haydeniana)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clustered field sedge (Carex praegracilis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coiled sedge (Carex circinata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbia sedge (Carex aperta)
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common woolly sedge (Scirpus atrocinctus)
Distribution: Known only from Whatcom County in Washington; British Columbia south to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet, low ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Constance's sedge (Carex davyi)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cordilleran sedge (Carex cordillerana)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cordroot sedge (Carex chordorrhiza)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crawe's sedge (Carex crawei)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crawford's sedge (Carex crawfordii)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping sedge (Carex chordorrhiza)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cusick's sedge (Carex cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wetlands, lake and pond edges, and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Davy's sedge (Carex davyi)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Delicate sedge (Carex leptalea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, both open and forested, from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dense sedge (Carex densa)
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dewey's sedge (Carex deweyana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east to Northwest Territory and south through Montana to Colorado, further eastward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open or riparian forest, swamps, cliffs, damp thickets, and mesic meadow edges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Different-veined sedge (Carex heteroneura)
Distribution: Occurring along the Canadian border in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Sasketchewan and Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to wet sites in the subalpine and alpine zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas' sedge (Carex douglasii)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to central North America.
Habitat: Dry to wet soils in sagebrush grasslands, riparian zones, and forest margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dry-spike sedge (Carex siccata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elk sedge (Carex geyeri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, meadows, and forest openings from the sagebrush foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Engelmann's sedge (Carex engelmannii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and in the Cascades Mountains south to Mt. Adams in Washington; southern British Columbia to Mt. Adams in Washington, east to Idaho, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry or moist fellfields, rocky slopes, talus and scree, cliffs and meadows in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
European woodland sedge (Carex sylvatica)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Falkland Island sedge (Carex macloviana)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
False golden sedge (Carex hassei)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Few-flowered sedge (Carex pauciflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada to northeastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and acidic peatlands, generally at low to moderate elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Foetid sedge (Carex vernacula)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Foothill sedge (Carex tumulicola)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea)
Distribution: Much of the United States and southern Canada; chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Marshes and standing water, lowlands and foothills
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fragile-sheath sedge (Carex fracta)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Geyer's sedge (Carex geyeri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, meadows, and forest openings from the sagebrush foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Golden sedge (Carex aurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or wet places from the lowlands to near timberline in the mountains
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grassy-slope arctic sedge (Carex anthoxanthea)
Distribution: Known from along the coast in Washington; Alaska south to Washington.
Habitat: Bogs and wet meadows from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green sedge (Carex viridula)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green-fruited sedge (Carex interrupta)
Distribution: Along the Columbia River from Douglas County through Klickitat County, south in Oregon west of the Cascades
Habitat: Rocky banks and streambeds, and other low, wet places
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green-sheath sedge (Carex feta)
Distribution: West of the Cascades, British Columbia to California
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hair sedge (Carex capillaris)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Halfchaff sedge (Lipocarpha aristulata)
Distribution: Occurring along the Columbia River in central and south-central Washington; Washington to California and Arizona, east in Great Plains and central U.S.
Habitat: sandy soils of shorelines, stream banks, ponds, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Hall's sedge (Carex halliana)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hare sedge (Carex leporina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hayden's sedge (Carex haydeniana)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Henderson's sedge (Carex hendersonii)
Distribution: West of the Cascades, British Columbia to California
Habitat: Boggy areas and wet woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hood's sedge (Carex hoodii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Sasketchewan, South Dakota, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry or mesic meadows, rocky slopes, scree, talus, open forest, sagebrush desert, and recent burns.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Inflated sedge (Carex utriculata)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Inflated sedge (Carex vesicaria)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Inland sedge (Carex interior)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Interrupted sedge (Carex interrupta)
Distribution: Along the Columbia River from Douglas County through Klickitat County, south in Oregon west of the Cascades
Habitat: Rocky banks and streambeds, and other low, wet places
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Japanese sedge (Carex kobomugi)
Origin: Introduced
Jelly bean sedge (Carex leptalea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, both open and forested, from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Jones' sedge (Carex jonesii)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lake sedge (Carex lacustris)
Distribution: Occurring in the northeastern corner of Washington; Alberta south to Idaho, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetland, swamps, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lake Tahoe sedge (Carex tahoensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Generally subalpine and alpine rocky slopes, ridges, talus and scree, and dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leers's sedge (Carex divulsa)
Origin: Introduced
Lesser panicled sedge (Carex diandra)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser tussock sedge (Carex diandra)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Liddon's sedge (Carex petasata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Limestone sedge (Carex saxatilis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long's sedge (Carex longii)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-stolon sedge (Carex inops)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, south in Rocky Mountains from Alberta to New Mexico, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and near streams in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-style sedge (Carex stylosa)
Distribution: Alaska to Clallam County, Washington, east across Canada to Labrador
Habitat: Usually near the coast
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyngbye's sedge (Carex lyngbyei)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada to Greenland and Europe.
Habitat: Coastal marshes and tidal flats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Many-fruit sedge (Carex angustata)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet meadows in riparian zones from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Many-headed sedge (Carex sychnocephala)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mertens' sedge (Carex mertensii)
Distribution: Alaska south in the mountains and the coast ranges of Oregon to northwest California
Habitat: Wet, open or shaded areas from the lowlands to near timberline
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Montana sedge (Carex media)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain hare sedge (Carex phaeocephala)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain mat sedge (Carex deflexa)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mt. Shasta sedge (Carex straminiformis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mud sedge (Carex limosa)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nebraska sedge (Carex nebrascensis)
Distribution: East of the Cascades, Washington to California, east to Kansas
Habitat: Wet meadows and other wet areas, often in alkaline areas, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern beaked sedge (Carex rostrata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to Montana, the Great Lakes region, and Newfoundland.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern bog sedge (Carex gynocrates)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern clustered sedge (Carex arcta)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern meadow sedge (Carex praticola)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northwest Territory sedge (Carex utriculata)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northwestern sedge (Carex concinnoides)
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
One-sided sedge (Carex unilateralis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oval broom sedge (Carex leporina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oval sedge (Carex leporina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oxbow sedge (Carex vesicaria)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific bog sedge (Kobresia myosuroides)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pale green sedge (Carex pallescens)
Origin: Introduced
Pale sedge (Carex livida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Colorado, and eastern North America; also in South America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Peatlands, stream banks, and wet open forests from lowlands to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parry's sedge (Carex parryana)
Distribution: Alaska to Washington, east to Manitoba, Montana, and Wyoming.
Origin: Native
Pendulous sedge (Carex pendula)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest edge and openings, riparian zones, and other moist areas at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Plains oval sedge (Carex brevior)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poor sedge (Carex magellanica)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Porcupine sedge (Carex hystericina)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Presl's sedge (Carex preslii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Open, dry to seasonally dry areas from montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pumpkin sedge (Carex aurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or wet places from the lowlands to near timberline in the mountains
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Quill sedge (Carex tenera)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Raynolds' sedge (Carex raynoldsii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Retrorse sedge (Carex retrorsa)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Riverbank sedge (Carex stenoptila)
Origin: Native
Rope-root sedge (Carex chordorrhiza)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ross' sedge (Carex rossii)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Russet sedge (Carex saxatilis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rusty sedge (Carex subfusca)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sand sedge (Carex pansa)
Distribution: Along the coast in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Dunes, meadows, and other open areas along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scandinavian sedge (Carex media)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sheldon's sedge (Carex sheldonii)
Origin: Native
Short-beaked sedge (Carex brevior)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-leaf sedge (Carex disperma)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-scaled sedge (Carex leptopoda)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-stemmed sedge (Carex zikae)
Origin: Native
Showy sedge (Carex spectabilis)
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Montana
Habitat: Damp meadows and other wet places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierra hare sedge (Carex leporinella)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silver-spiked sedge (Carex buchananii)
Origin: Introduced
Silvery sedge (Carex canescens)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Single-spike sedge (Carex scirpoidea)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender sedge (Carex tenera)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender-beak sedge (Carex athrostachya)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slenderfoot sedge (Carex leptopoda)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slough sedge (Carex obnupta)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sloughs, shores, wet meadows, riparian forest and ditches, in either sun or shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-bracted sedge (Carex subbracteata)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flowered halfchaff sedge (Lipocarpha micrantha)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-head sedge (Carex illota)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-winged sedge (Carex microptera)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory south to Mexico, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smoky Mountain sedge (Carex proposita)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth-beaked sedge (Carex integra)
Origin: Native
Smooth-fruited sedge (Carex heteroneura)
Distribution: Occurring along the Canadian border in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Sasketchewan and Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to wet sites in the subalpine and alpine zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth-stemmed sedge (Carex laeviculmis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sparse-flower sedge (Carex tenuiflora)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spikenard sedge (Carex nardina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across northern Canada to eastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Alpine rocky outcroppings, slopes, and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spring sedge (Carex luzulina)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Starry sedge (Carex pachystachya)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Saskatoon and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet meadows, springs, shores, peatlands, marsh margins, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Teacher's sedge (Carex praeceptorum)
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tetrastigmatic sedge (Carex concinnoides)
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thick-headed sedge (Carex pachystachya)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Saskatoon and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet meadows, springs, shores, peatlands, marsh margins, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thread-leaved sedge (Carex filifolia)
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Three-way sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington, but also in Chelan, Yakima and Pend Oreille counties; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho, Montana and to the eastern half of North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, marshes, and shores of ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Timberline sedge (Carex micropoda)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Torrent sedge (Carex nudata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tribulation sedge (Carex tribuloides)
Distribution: In Washington known only from King and Pierce counties; central Great Plains of the U.S. north and east to Atlantic Coast
Habitat: Lowland riparian areas, likely associated with disturbance.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valley sedge (Carex vallicola)
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Walking sedge (Eleocharis rostellata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Weak-veined sedge (Carex infirminervia)
Origin: Native
Western halfchaff sedge (Lipocarpha occidentalis)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Wheat sedge (Carex atherodes)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wide-fruited sedge (Carex angustata)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet meadows in riparian zones from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wiregrass sedge (Carex lasiocarpa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Utah, the Great Plains of Canada, and from the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodrush sedge (Carex luzulina)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woolly sedge (Carex pellita)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America except southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Wet to dry meadows from low elevations to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow sedge (Carex flava)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow-flowered sedge (Carex anthoxanthea)
Distribution: Known from along the coast in Washington; Alaska south to Washington.
Habitat: Bogs and wet meadows from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow-green sedge (Carex flava)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Zika's sedge (Carex zikae)
Origin: Native
Bushy seablite seepweed (Suaeda nigra)
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soils in sagebrush flats and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Seepweed (Suaeda nigra)
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soils in sagebrush flats and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Western seepweed (Suaeda occidentalis)
Distribution: Eastern Washington to northern Nevada, east through southern Idaho to Colorado.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline flats and marshes in sagebrush area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Growth Duration: Annual
Elegant sego lily (Calochortus elegans)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and northern California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides and open coniferous forests, middle to high elvations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-bearded sego-lily (Calochortus longebarbatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Yakima and Klickitat counties in Washington; south-central Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Open meadows, low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris)
Distribution: Throughout Washington; occurring throughout all of North America.
Habitat: Moist areas, sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bladder senna (Colutea arborescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across the southwest to the Great Plains; northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas ncluding wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Serpent-grass (Bistorta vivipara)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in northern Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Montana, and south in the Rockies to New Mexico; across Canada to Newfoundland, south to Minnesota and Maine.
Habitat: Damp areas, shady woods, meadows and streambanks at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyall's serpentweed (Tonestus lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and rocky slopes, subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swedish service-tree (Sorbus hybrida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington.
Habitat: Shoreline ledges and thickets at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open woods, canyons and hillsides, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Utah serviceberry (Amelanchier utahensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Rimrock, valleys, gullies and hillsides, from sagebrush desert to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shadscale (Atriplex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Saline areas in the prairies.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sheep's bit (Jasione montana)
Origin: Introduced
Bristly sheepburr (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bonneville shooting star (Dodecatheon conjugens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Vernally moist areas in sagebrush to meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Jeffrey's shooting star (Dodecatheon jeffreyi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows and stream banks, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narcissus shooting star (Dodecatheon poeticum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Wasco and Hood River counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Grassy slopes to drier woods, usually where vernally moist, often near seeps or springs along basaltic outcrops.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poet's shooting star (Dodecatheon poeticum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Wasco and Hood River counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Grassy slopes to drier woods, usually where vernally moist, often near seeps or springs along basaltic outcrops.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slimpod shooting star (Dodecatheon conjugens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Vernally moist areas in sagebrush to meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall mountain shooting star (Dodecatheon jeffreyi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows and stream banks, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tundra shooting star (Dodecatheon austrofrigidum)
Distribution: Occurring in coastal counties in southwestern Washington; Washington to northwestern Oregon in coastal counties.
Habitat: Moist basaltic slopes, cliff faces, in coniferous forests along streams, or in alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
White shooting star (Dodecatheon dentatum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northern Oregon; also in central Idaho
Habitat: Streambanks and other wet places at moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine shooting-star (Dodecatheon alpinum)
Distribution: Occurring in the south-central portion of Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Wet meadows, wet conifer forests, shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad-leaved shooting-star (Dodecatheon hendersonii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Woods and prairies, at low elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Henderson's shooting-star (Dodecatheon hendersonii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Woods and prairies, at low elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shotweed (Cardamine hirsuta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, and throughout much of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Creeping sibbaldia (Sibbaldia procumbens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across most of Canda to the Atlantic Coasl.
Habitat: Open, dry to moist subalpine and alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sicklegrass (Parapholis incurva)
Origin: Introduced
Meadow sidalcea (Sidalcea campestris)
Distribution: Native only to the Willamette Valley area (Multnomah and Washington to Benton and Linn counties). Introduced as a garden plant in western Washington, but rarely persisting.
Habitat: Dry fields and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sidebells (Orthilia secunda)
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to New Mexico in the west, and across the northern half of the United States to the Atlantic
Habitat: Common in coniferous woods at moderate to mid-elevationn in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's silene (Silene douglasii)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to mountain slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parry's silene (Silene parryi)
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's siliene (Silene scouleri)
Distribution: Occuring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Prairies, forest openings, and meadows from low elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Seely's silene (Silene seelyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains of Kittitas and Chelan counties.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spalding's silene (Silene spaldingii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the eastern and southeastern counties in Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent northeastern Oregon and western Idaho, also in western Montana.
Habitat: Sagebrush, scabland and ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dense silky-bent (Apera interrupta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry wasteland and other disturbed areas in shrub-steppe and open coniferous forests.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
American silver-berry (Elaeagnus commutata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Quebec, south into Idaho, Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Gravel benches and scabland, commonly along watercourses.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
False silverback (Rainiera stricta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest from Stevens Pass area south; central Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and moist, open hillsides at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-Septermber
Growth Duration: Perennial
Littleleaf silverback (Luina hypoleuca)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, from moist to somewhat dry, at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall silvercrown (Cacaliopsis nardosmia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, forest edge, forest openings, and light forest understory from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis)
Origin: Introduced
Coastal silverpuffs (Microseris bigelovii)
Distribution: Known historically from west of the Cascades crest in the San Juan Islands in Washington, but now considered extirpated; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal sandy soils, dunes, occasionally in rocky areas, coastal islands, headlands, and bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Lindley's false silverpuffs (Uropappus lindleyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, and Texas.
Habitat: Open hillsides and forest openings, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Nodding silverpuffs (Microseris nutans)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Slopes, meadows, flats, and forest openings,often in somewhat moist places, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern silverpuffs (Microseris borealis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and wet meadows in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silverpuffs (Uropappus lindleyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, and Texas.
Habitat: Open hillsides and forest openings, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Common silverweed (Potentilla anserina)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet, alkaline areas from coast to arid inlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Single-delight (Moneses uniflora)
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods with high-humas soils, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rush skeletonplant (Lygodesmia juncea)
Distribution: Known from Spokane County in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to eastern Washington, Idaho and Nevada, east to Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Dry, open places, often in sandy soil, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, sagebrush desert, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thorny skeletonweed (Pleiacanthus spinosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from Yakima County; central Oregon to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry, open, generally rocky places at lower elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hooded skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; circumboreal, extending south to California, Arizona and Missouri.
Habitat: Wet meadows and similar habitats at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mad-dog skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; occurring throughout North America.
Habitat: Moist bottomlands and meadows, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh skullcapp (Scutellaria galericulata)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; circumboreal, extending south to California, Arizona and Missouri.
Habitat: Wet meadows and similar habitats at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Skunkweed (Navarretia squarrosa)
Distribution: West of the Cascades, from southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to California.
Habitat: Open places, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-flower skyrocket (Microgilia minutiflora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to western Montana and southern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, sandy places at low elev, often with sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Dock-leaf smartweed (Persicaria lapathifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout all of North America.
Habitat: Streambanks, pond and lakeshores and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dotted smartweed (Persicaria punctata)
Distribution: Occurring mostly in south-central Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, marshes, and wet forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Pale smartweed (Persicaria lapathifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout all of North America.
Habitat: Streambanks, pond and lakeshores and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smartweed (Persicaria hydropiper)
Distribution: Introduced weed found in much of North America and throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Swamps, ditches, and other wet places, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July - September
Swamp smartweed (Persicaria hydropiperoides)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Mexico and South America, east across North America to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist to swampy areas, often growing in mud, from the lowlands to the lower mountain valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water smartweed (Persicaria amphibia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: River, stream, lake, and pond margins in water to 2 meters deep to adjacent moist uplands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water smartweed (Persicaria punctata)
Distribution: Occurring mostly in south-central Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, marshes, and wet forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Alpine smelowskia (Smelowskia americana)
Distribution: Occurring In the Olympic and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Rocky areas at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-fruited smelowskia (Smelowskia ovalis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Rocky crevices, moraines, ridges and talus slopes in alpine and sup-alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Siberian smelowskia (Smelowskia americana)
Distribution: Occurring In the Olympic and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Rocky areas at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie smoke (Geum triflorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes regions.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, and moister places in the sagebrush plains, from the foothills to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth medic (Medicago polymorpha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, scattered eastward across much of North America.
Habitat: Waste ground and disturbed areas, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Fivehorn smotherweed (Bassia hyssopifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Noxious weed of waste areas and irrigated farm land.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Western snakeroot (Ageratina occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Rocky places at various altitudes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington, chiefly in southeastern part of state; Alberta to Manitoba, south to California and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills, valleys and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Garden snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Distribution: Occasionally escaped from cultivation in western Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Greater snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Distribution: Occasionally escaped from cultivation in western Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Lesser snapdragon (Misopates orontium)
Distribution: Occasionally escaped from cultivation in western Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Common sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks and other moist, low ground generally at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large flowered sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks and other moist, low ground generally at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Weasel's snout (Misopates orontium)
Distribution: Occasionally escaped from cultivation in western Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Snow queen (Veronica regina-nivalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Forest understory at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Snow-in-summer (Cerastium tomentosum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, the Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, and wastelots at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and distributed widely throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, and further east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Thickets, forest edge, and open slopes, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washsington; British Columbia to Washington and Idaho, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and deep coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping snowberry (Symphoricarpos mollis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Nevada, disjunct in north-central Idaho.
Habitat: Slopes and forest edge, often where wet, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos rotundifolius)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California east to Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open slopes and dry meadows, from sagebrush desert to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Utah, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, forest margins, and bottomlands from low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Distribution: Garden escape in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada; occasional in western Washington.
Habitat: Abandoned gardens, roadsides, open forests.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: February - March
Growth Duration: Perennial
Soapberry (Shepherdia canadensis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moderately dry, open to wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rock soapwort (Saponaria ocymoides)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in scattered states in the central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Old gardens, waste sites and rocky places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping softgrass (Holcus mollis)
Origin: Introduced
Common soliva (Soliva sessilis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, also in south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and lawn areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Prickly soliva (Soliva sessilis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, also in south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and lawn areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Star-flowered Solomon's-seal (Maianthemum stellatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks to open, rocky hillsides from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Two-leaf false Solomon's-seal (Maianthemum dilatatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Shady, moist areas, open to dense woods, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Soopolallie (Shepherdia canadensis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moderately dry, open to wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
Origin: Introduced from Africa
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Alpine sheep sorrel (Rumex paucifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: moist grasslands, stream banks, and montane to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June -August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine sorrel (Rumex paucifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: moist grasslands, stream banks, and montane to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June -August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, meadows, pastures, fields, roadsides, wastelots, lawns and other disturbed open areas from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sorrel (Rumex paucifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: moist grasslands, stream banks, and montane to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June -August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Field sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, forest edge, stream banks, roadsides, fields, and other disturbed open areas generally at low elevations, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, forest edge, stream banks, roadsides, fields, and other disturbed open areas generally at low elevations, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prickly sow-thistle (Sonchus asper)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Spiny leaf sow-thistle (Sonchus asper)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Sowbane (Chenopodiastrum murale)
Distribution: Introduced throughout most of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Annual
Spanish-broom (Spartium junceum)
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, forest margins.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spatterdock (Nuphar polysepala)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, and the Rocky Mountain States.
Habitat: Ponds, shallow lakes, oxbows, and sluggish streams from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spearmint (Mentha spicata)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widespread throughout all of North America.
Habitat: Banks of streams and ditches and other damp places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser spearwort (Ranunculus flammula)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America except in the southern U.S.
Habitat: Mostly in mud, often where brackish, from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American alpine speedwell (Veronica wormskjoldii)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist ground and seeps, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
American speedwell (Veronica americana)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ditches, slow moving streams, oxbows, and other water bodies, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bilobed speedwell (Veronica argute-serrata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, also in scattered areas of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bird-eye speedwell (Veronica persica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely introduced in much of North America.
Habitat: Lawns and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue water speedwell (Veronica anagallis-aquatica)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: In or along slow-moving streams and ditches at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chain speedwell (Veronica catenata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Common speedwell (Veronica officinalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, balds, prairies, ditches, forest edge, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corn speedwell (Veronica arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens and roadsides
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cusick's speedwell (Veronica cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist, rocky slopes from subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Finger speedwell (Veronica triphyllos)
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: Annual
Germander speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, gardens, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grass-leaf speedwell (Veronica scutellata)
Distribution: The northern two-thirds of the temperate zone in North America; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Wet places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gray speedwell (Veronica polita)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in the southeastern counties of Washington; southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho, also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Ivy-leaf speedwell (Veronica hederifolia)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Utah; other scattered locations in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Waste places, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Lackschewitz's speedwell (Veronica ×lackschewitzii)
Distribution: Known only from Yakima County in Washington; distribution in North America not currently known.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Long-leaf speedwell (Veronica longifolia)
Distribution: Known from only a few localities west of the Cascades crest in Washington; also known from British Columbia and Montana.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh speedwell (Veronica scutellata)
Distribution: The northern two-thirds of the temperate zone in North America; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Wet places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Persian speedwell (Veronica persica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely introduced in much of North America.
Habitat: Lawns and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Purslane speedwell (Veronica peregrina)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout most of Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, stream banks, and other moist places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native (var. xalapensis) and introduced (var. peregrina) varieties
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Skullcap speedwell (Veronica scutellata)
Distribution: The northern two-thirds of the temperate zone in North America; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Wet places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spring speedwell (Veronica verna)
Origin: Introduced
Thread-stalk speedwell (Veronica filiformis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thyme-leaved speedwell (Veronica serpyllifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist meadows and shores, from the lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wall speedwell (Veronica arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens and roadsides
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow spiderflower (Peritoma lutea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Nebraska.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to Ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cliff spike-moss (Selaginella scopulorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine areas.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's spike-moss (Selaginella douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge area in Washington; south-central Washington to adjacent Oregon, also in west-central Idaho.
Habitat: Cliffs, banks and tree trunks in humid regions at low elevations
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festoon spike-moss (Selaginella oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California.
Habitat: Epiphytic or on rocks in humid regions.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rocky Mountain spike-moss (Selaginella scopulorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine areas.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wallace's spike-moss (Selaginella wallacei)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Open rocky habitats from the lowlands to the midmontane.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bald spike-rush (Eleocharis erythropoda)
Origin: Native
Capitate spike-rush (Eleocharis geniculata)
Origin: Native
Dwarf spike-rush (Eleocharis coloradoensis)
Origin: Native
Few-flowered spike-rush (Eleocharis quinqueflora)
Distribution: Circumboreal, south in North America to California and New Jersey.
Habitat: Bogs and other wet places, from the lowlands to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Redfoot spike-rush (Eleocharis erythropoda)
Origin: Native
Slender spike-rush (Eleocharis uniglumis)
Origin: Native
Soft-stem spike-rush (Eleocharis mamillata)
Origin: Native
Oregon spike-moss (Selaginella oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California.
Habitat: Epiphytic or on rocks in humid regions.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
False spikenard (Maianthemum racemosum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, also from the central U.S. to the Atlantic Coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open woodlands, forest edge, moist meadow and forest openings from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Beaked spikerush (Eleocharis rostellata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt spikerush (Eleocharis obtusa)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Common spikerush (Eleocharis palustris)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet places from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya)
Origin: Native
Engelman spikerush (Eleocharis engelmannii)
Distribution: Widespread in the northern hemisphere; found throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Marshes and other wet places, from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Little-head spikerush (Eleocharis parvula)
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Newfoundland, south to northern South America.
Habitat: Wet, saline or alkaline soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Needle spikerush (Eleocharis acicularis)
Distribution: Circumboreal, south to Florida and Mexico, found in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Marshes, muddy shores, and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Ovoid spikerush (Eleocharis ovata)
Distribution: Widespread in the Northern Hemisphere; found throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Marshes and other wet places, from sea level to moderate elevagtions in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Pretty spikerush (Eleocharis bella)
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Suksdorf spikerush (Eleocharis suksdorfiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but not in the Olympic Mountains; central British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Shores, peatlands, wet meadows, and seeps from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common spikeweed (Centromadia pungens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and south-central Washington; central Washington to California, where native east to Idaho, Nevada, and Arizona.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open places at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: July-Sept.
Growth Duration: Annual
French spinach (Atriplex hortensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Great Plains and in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often where seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the outer coast in Washington; Washington to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sand dunes, bluffs, margins of coastal wetlands, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Five-tooth spineflower (Chorizanthe watsonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, or Arizona.
Habitat: Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, mixed grassland, saltbush and sagebrush communities, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Watson's spineflower (Chorizanthe watsonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, or Arizona.
Habitat: Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, mixed grassland, saltbush and sagebrush communities, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Douglas's spiraea (Spiraea douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Swamps, lake margins and damp meadows, from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hitchcock's spiraea (Spiraea ×hitchcockii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades in Washington; northern Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Forest openings at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pyramid spiraea (Spiraea ×pyramidata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Somewhat dry forest openings, from the lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rosy spiraea (Spiraea splendens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist forest openings and rocky slopes, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shiny-leaf spiraea (Spiraea lucida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Stream banks and open to wooded areas, sea level to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shinyleaf spiraea (Spiraea lucida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Stream banks and open to wooded areas, sea level to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Subalpine spiraea (Spiraea splendens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist forest openings and rocky slopes, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green spleenwort (Asplenium viride)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern North America to New England and the Canadian Maritimes; circumboreal.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, especially on limestone, often near or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maidenhair spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, also in southern Rocky Mountain states and in central U.S. and eastern North America.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, rocky outcroppings, and talus slopes, generally where moist.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
South American sponge-plant (Limnobium laevigatum)
Distribution: Known from Pacific County in Washington; also known from California and the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Lowland ponds, where found floating on water\'s surface.
Origin: Introduced from the Carribean and South America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spoonwort (Cochlearia groenlandica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Clustered salt-grassprangletop (Diplachne fusca)
Distribution: Occurring in a few scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Loose-flowered sprangletop (Diplachne fusca)
Distribution: Occurring in a few scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Montane spring parsley (Cymopterus foeniculaceus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings, meadows, and other open, dry areas from montane to alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Turpentine spring parsley (Cymopterus terebinthinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to northeast Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Sand dunes and other dry, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spring-gold (Crocidium multicaule)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from low to middle elevations, especially common in sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Spring-gold (Lomatium utriculatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Grassy balds, prairies, meadows, and open slopes, often at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broadleaf springbeauty (Claytonia cordifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: On wet soil, usually along streams, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great Basin springbeauty (Claytonia umbellata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; Wasco and Wallowa counties, Oregon to California and western Nevada, disjunct in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Heart-leaf springbeauty (Claytonia cordifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: On wet soil, usually along streams, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lake Washington springbeauty (Claytonia washingtoniana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and coniferous forests at low elevations, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Lanceleaf springbeauty (Claytonia lanceolata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Sasketchewan.
Habitat: Sagebrush foothills to alpine slopes, usually where vernally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rydberg's springbeauty (Claytonia multiscapa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; in scattered locations from British Columbia south to Washington; east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky subalpine to alpine slopes and outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sand springbeauty (Claytonia arenicola)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the eastern border of Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Mossy and rocky places, from sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Siberian springbeauty (Claytonia sibirica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and northeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, usually shady places, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Small-flowered springbeauty (Claytonia parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open rocky areas, open forest, forest edge, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Streambank springbeauty (Montia parvifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry soils, rocky outcrops, and other open, exposed areas from the coast to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Western springbeauty (Claytonia sibirica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and northeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, usually shady places, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Engelmann's spruce (Picea engelmannii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moderate to high elevations in the mountains, mostly where somewhat moist.
Origin: Native
Cones: New cones from June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Interior spruce (Picea ×albertiana)
Origin: Native
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Along the coast, from sea level up to about 2,000 feet in moist valleys.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balkan spurge (Euphorbia oblongata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad leaved glaucous spurge (Euphorbia myrsinites)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Colorado and New Mexico; reported from Ottawa and Minnesota.
Habitat: Disturbed areas often arid areas or dry soils.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad leaved spurge (Euphorbia platyphyllos)
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Arizona, widely distributed in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Corrugate seeded spurge (Euphorbia glyptosperma)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Maine and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil, from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cypress spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed areas where often escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Egg-leaf spurge (Euphorbia oblongata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia virgata)
Distribution: Introduced in much of the United States, except Oklahoma to Virginia and south; mostly eastern Washington, Idaho and Montana in the Pacific Northwest
Habitat: Noxious weed of disturbed soils
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mediterranean spurge (Euphorbia characias)
Distribution: Known from scattered counties in lowland western Washington; not reported as occurring elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Open slopes, rock faces, disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Milk spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Myrtle spurge (Euphorbia myrsinites)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Colorado and New Mexico; reported from Ottawa and Minnesota.
Habitat: Disturbed areas often arid areas or dry soils.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America except central U.S.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-November
Growth Duration: Annual
Reticulate seeded spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Ridge seeded spurge (Euphorbia glyptosperma)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Maine and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil, from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Spatulate leaved spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Summer spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Sun spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Thyme leaved spurge (Euphorbia serpillifolia)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east to Alberta and Texas.
Habitat: Dry ground from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Upright spurge (Euphorbia serrulata)
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Urban spurge (Euphorbia agraria)
Origin: Introduced
Wart spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Introduced chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Warty spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Spurge-laurel (Daphne laureola)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest understory and edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas in the lowlands.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corn spurry (Spergula arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Squashberry (Viburnum edule)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, across Canada, the Great Lakes area, and further east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big squirreltail (Elymus multisetus)
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Squirreltail (Elymus elymoides)
Distribution: British Columbia south to southern California, east to Alberta and Texas.
Habitat: Dry and rocky to moist habitats, from along the coast to inland desert plains and prairies, and in the mountains to above tree line.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted St. John's-wort (Hypericum maculatum)
Origin: Introduced
Streaked St. John's-wort (Hypericum maculatum)
Origin: Introduced
Great St. John's-wort (Hypericum calycinum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, cliffs, embankments, fields, parks, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Turkey and Bulgaria
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Staggerweed (Stachys arvensis)
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington near Seattle and Bellingham; British Columbia south to California; Gulf Coast and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Weed in disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Hairy star-of-bethleham (Gagea villosa)
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Garden star-of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Utah, also from Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, open forests, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow star-thistle (Centaurea solstitialis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, grassy slopes, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Green-banded star-tulip (Calochortus macrocarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry open forests, hillsides, grasslands and sagebrush, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arctic starflower (Lysimachia europaea)
Distribution: Both side of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Alberta and Idaho.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad-leaved starflower (Lysimachia latifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Prairies, woodlands, and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern starflower (Lysimachia europaea)
Distribution: Both side of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Alberta and Idaho.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western starflower (Lysimachia latifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Prairies, woodlands, and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest along major rivers in Washington, however particularly common and rather invasives in lower Yakima River; British Columbia to California, widespread in eastern North America.
Habitat: River backwaters, slow-moving rivers, quiet streams, ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow stargrass (Heteranthera dubia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest along major rivers in Washington, however particularly common and rather invasives in lower Yakima River; British Columbia to California, widespread in eastern North America.
Habitat: River backwaters, slow-moving rivers, quiet streams, ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Iberian starthistle (Centaurea iberica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in Wyoming and Kansas.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, dry meadows, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maltese starthistle (Centaurea melitensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California and Mexico, east to Texas and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, meadows, balds, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Montane starthistle (Centaurea montana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah, also from Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple starthistle (Centaurea calcitrapa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to New Mexico, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Red starthistle (Centaurea calcitrapa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to New Mexico, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Blunt-sepaled starwort (Stellaria obtusa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist forest and riparian zone understory, talus slopes, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boreal starwort (Stellaria borealis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes Region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or marshy areas from low elevations to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crisped starwort (Stellaria crispa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist areas from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grass-leaf starwort (Stellaria graminea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and from the southern Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, and lawns.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-leaved starwort (Stellaria longifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, further east across Canada and the northern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, swamps, marshes, forested wetlands from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Longstalk starwort (Stellaria longipes)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada and the northern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist streambanks and rocky slopes at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern bog starwort (Stellaria calycantha)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows and steam banks, from low to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Saltmarsh starwort (Stellaria humifusa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Atlantic coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Salt marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shiny starwort (Stellaria nitens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana, Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Gravelly prairies and stream banks to grassy hillsides at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticky starwort (Pseudostellaria jamesiana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist or dry open woods, rocky slopes and meadows, from moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Umbrella starwort (Stellaria umbellata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wetlands, riparian zones, stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hardhack steeplebush (Spiraea douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Swamps, lake margins and damp meadows, from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-horn steer's-head (Dicentra uniflora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Well-drained soil, foothills to subalpine slopes; blooms soon after the snow leaves.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrowleaf stephanomeria (Stephanomeria tenuifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, often rocky places, from the foothills and plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stiff-branched stephanomeria (Stephanomeria paniculata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Bog stichwort (Stellaria alsine)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington; native to eastern North America; also introduced in Chile.
Habitat: Streambanks, culverts, ditches, and moist forest edges, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue stickseed (Hackelia micrantha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist, open hillsides seasonally wet forest openings, and riparian corridors from montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristly stickseed (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Common stickseed (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Diffuse stickseed (Hackelia diffusa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
European stickseed (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Gray stickseed (Hackelia cinerea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and eastern Washington; central Washington to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open or lightly forested areas, especially on talus or cliffs, and loose stream banks, in valleys and foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hispid stickseed (Hackelia hispida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington, and southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser showy stickseed (Hackelia venusta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan County.
Habitat: Rocky slopes with ponderosa pine, at about 1000 feet elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-spined stickseed (Lappula longispina)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to southwest Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, dry slopes, basalt rimrock, and sand dunes
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Many-flowered stickseed (Hackelia floribunda)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Thickets, meadows, stream banks and other moist places, from low elevations to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Montane stickseed (Lappula montana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the crest in north-central Washington; central British Columbia to north-central Washington, east to Montana.
Habitat: Dry meadows and forest openings from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Nodding stickseed (Hackelia americana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central and northeastern Washington; circumboreal, south to northern Washington, east across northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Thickets and open woodland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Okanogan stickseed (Hackelia ciliata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; south-central British Columbia to eastern Washington, possibly northwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats in areas with sagebrush or ponderosa pine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rough stickseed (Hackelia hispida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington, and southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Showy stickseed (Hackelia venusta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan County.
Habitat: Rocky slopes with ponderosa pine, at about 1000 feet elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Taylor's stickseed (Hackelia taylorii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan County.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes, often in talus, at middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western stickseed (Lappula occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and open, rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticktight (Bidens frondosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores of ponds, lakes, backwater channels, and other wetland areas at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Western sticktight (Bidens vulgata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across all but the southwestern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streamsides, ponds, lakes, ditches and other moist to wet waste places.
Origin: Introduced from British Columbia
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticky-laurel (Ceanothus velutinus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sticky-willy (Galium aparine)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Variety of habitats, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Stinkgrass (Eragrostis cilianensis)
Distribution: Central Washington south ot California, east to Maine.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and waste land, and along streams and pond margins.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - October
Growth Duration: Annual
Stinkweed (Peritoma serrulata)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America except Alaska and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts and Ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stinky-Bob (Geranium robertianum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, further east in Canada, the Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and forest edges, riparian zones, and other lowland areas with natural or man-made disturbances.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Boreal stitchwort (Sabulina rubella)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, east across Canada to the northeastern North America.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine meadows, ridges and talus slopes
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Boreal stitchwort (Stellaria borealis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes Region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or marshy areas from low elevations to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf stitchwort (Sabulina pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from Klickitat County to the southeastern counties in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky cliffs and outcroppings in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender stitchwort (Sabulina macra)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Lowlands, prairies and coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Hoary stock (Matthiola incana)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; also known from California and Texas.
Habitat: Roadsides, sandy cliffs, beaches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Broadleaf stonecrop (Sedum spathulifolium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal cliffs, ledges, balds, and gravelly soil in the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cliff stonecrop (Sedum rupicola)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range in Washington, where endemic.
Habitat: Open, exposed places, usually on rocks or in gravelly soil, at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Curved-leaf stonecrop (Sedum rupicola)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range in Washington, where endemic.
Habitat: Open, exposed places, usually on rocks or in gravelly soil, at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ditch stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides)
Origin: Introduced
Forster's stonecrop (Sedum forsterianum)
Origin: Introduced
Lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains in the U.S. and Canada.
Habitat: On rocks or gravel in open, dry areas, from sea level to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leiberg's stonecrop (Sedum leibergii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to north-central Oregon, east to central Idaho.
Habitat: Mossy rocks to open, gravelly hillsides, chiefly in canyons.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mossy stonecrop (Crassula tillaea)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, rock crevices, and sandy areas, often where seasonally wet or moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Mossy stonecrop (Sedum acre)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across Canada, and the central, southeastern, and northeastern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon stonecrop (Sedum oreganum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Rock ledges, talus slopes and gravelly ridges from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific stonecrop (Sedum divergens)
Distribution: Alaska to California, Olympic mountains and the Cascades
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - Early September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-leaved stonecrop (Sedum brevifolium)
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Spatula-leaf stonecrop (Sedum spathulifolium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal cliffs, ledges, balds, and gravelly soil in the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spreading stonecrop (Sedum divergens)
Distribution: Alaska to California, Olympic mountains and the Cascades
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - Early September
Growth Duration: Perennial
White stonecrop (Sedum album)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; British Columbia south to California, Utah, and in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas including fields, lawns, parking areas, and rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wormleaf stonecrop (Sedum stenopetalum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascade crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grasslands and ponderosa pine forests to sub-alpine ridges, on dry, gravelly benches, rock crevices and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fringed stoneseed (Lithospermum incisum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known historically (1926) from Osoyoos Lake area; south-central British Columbia to southwest Montana, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western stoneseed (Lithospermum ruderale)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Sasketchewan and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Longbeak stork's bill (Erodium botrys)
Distribution: Currently known in Washington only from Klickitat County; Washington to California, also in Texas and scattered states in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed, open ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Common stork's-bill (Erodium cicutarium)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, lawns, balds, prairies, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Redstem (Erodium cicutarium)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, lawns, balds, prairies, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Stranvaesia (Photinia davidiana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington.
Habitat: Thickets, open forests, shores, rarely epiphytic
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strapwort (Corrigiola litoralis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon; also in Maryland.
Habitat: Lake and pond margins, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Beach strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties of Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Sand dunes, strand, headlands, and other open coastal habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blueleaf strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington except in sagebrush areas; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open woods to gravelly meadows in the plains and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties of Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Sand dunes, strand, headlands, and other open coastal habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington except in sagebrush areas; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open woods to gravelly meadows in the plains and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist woods, stream banks and sandy meadows, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; currently known as escaped from cultivation in Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed, open to partially sunny areas in and around urban areas, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strawberry-tomato (Physalis grisea)
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Annual
Streptanthella (Streptanthella longirostris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; Washington to California, east to Wyoming and New Mexico.
Habitat: Open desert and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Gum succory (Chondrilla juncea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, sagebrush desert, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild succory (Cichorium intybus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Sugarbowls (Clematis hirsutissima)
Distribution: Occurring in only a few counties in central and eastern Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Montana, south to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sugarstick (Allotropa virgata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Deep humus of coniferous forests at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sulfurflower (Eriogonum umbellatum)
Distribution: On both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts to alpine rocky ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and draws, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; occurring scattered states in western North America; native from central U.S. east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas; escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Little sun cup (Camissonia pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington. north-central Washington to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, sandy slopes in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Blackfoot river suncup (Neoholmgrenia andina)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and sagebrush scablands to the ponderosa pine forests of the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Contorted pod suncup (Camissonia contorta)
Distribution: Along the coast and along the Columbia and Snake Rivers in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sandy soil along the coast and along inland rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Dwarf suncup (Eremothera pygmaea)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington in central part of the state; Washington south to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Vernally moist areas in open, sagebrush desert
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Green river suncup (Eremothera minor)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, often where vernally moist
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Hilgard's suncup (Neoholmgrenia hilgardii)
Distribution: East of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Klickitat County, Washington, and in Multanomah County, Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Lewis river suncup (Camissonia parvula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Open to disturbed grasslands, sandy areas, sagebrush, and scrub forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Obscure suncup (Neoholmgrenia andina)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and sagebrush scablands to the ponderosa pine forests of the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Twisted suncup (Camissonia contorta)
Distribution: Along the coast and along the Columbia and Snake Rivers in Washington; British Columbia south to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sandy soil along the coast and along inland rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
English sundew (Drosera anglica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Sierra Nevada of California, east to the Great Lakes region and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Giant sundew (Drosera anglica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Sierra Nevada of California, east to the Great Lakes region and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia)
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington, but also in scattered localities east of the Cascades crest; Alaska to California, east across Montana and North Dakota, and most of the United states east of the Mississipps River.
Habitat: Swamps and bogs, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other open areas, often where disturbed, at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native and introduced populations in Washington
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cusick's sunflower (Helianthus cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush, grasslands, dry slopes, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nuttall's sunflower (Helianthus nuttallii)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades: Western and Mid-western United States and adjacent Canada
Habitat: Meadows and other moist places, low to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from the Great Plains
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Smooth dwarf sunflower (Wyethia amplexicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Seasonally moist areas in sagebrush-steppe, to open areas at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Turniproot sunflower (Helianthus cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush, grasslands, dry slopes, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon sunshine (Eriophyllum lanatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open, often rocky areas at low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's surf-grass (Phyllospadix scouleri)
Distribution: Occurring along the coast of Washington where rocky; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Rocky intertidal and sub-tidal zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Toothed surf-grass (Phyllospadix serrulatus)
Distribution: Occurring along the rocky coastline of northwestern Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: On rocks in upper tidal to subtidal zones, rarely on deep clay substrates.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Torrey's surf-grass (Phyllospadix torreyi)
Distribution: Occurring along the rocky coastline of northwestern Washington; British Columbia to California along the immediate coast.
Habitat: Rocky sub-tidal zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alkali swainsonpea (Sphaerophysa salsula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington, chiefly in the central part of the state; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soil at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swampcandles (Lysimachia terrestris)
Distribution: Along the coast in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon and Idaho; native and abundant in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Cultivated cranberry bogs, and swamps.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt-fruit sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza depauperata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, often where moist from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza berteroi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, from near sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza purpurea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist forest openings, understory, and edge from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierran sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings and edge, thickets, and riparian zones from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings and edge, thickets, and riparian zones from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Annual yellow sweet-clover (Melilotus indicus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada, further east across the southern U.S. and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-flowered yellow sweet-clover (Melilotus indicus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada, further east across the southern U.S. and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
White sweet-clover (Melilotus albus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed across most of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Yellow sweet-clover (Melilotus officinalis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Western sweet-vetch (Hedysarum occidentale)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, Idaho and Utah, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow sweet-vetch (Hedysarum sulphurescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central and northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming, also reported from northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Open forested areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flowered sweetbrier (Rosa rubiginosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common west of the crest; southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, further east from the Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, thickets, shorelines, pastures, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American sweetflag (Acorus americanus)
Distribution: Very limited distribution in Washington along eastern border with Idaho; widely distributed throughout northern half of North America from Alaska to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Wetlands, lake margins, and riparian zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Several-vein sweetflag (Acorus americanus)
Distribution: Very limited distribution in Washington along eastern border with Idaho; widely distributed throughout northern half of North America from Alaska to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Wetlands, lake margins, and riparian zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweetgale (Myrica gale)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal bogs, swamps, lakes, and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
California sweetgrass (Hierochloe occidentalis)
Origin: Native
Hairy sweetgrass (Hierochloe odorata)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; Alaska south to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine bog swertia (Swertia perennis)
Distribution: Narrowly distributed in Cascades of Washington; Alaska south to California, east through the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, wet meadows and other moist places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swertia (Swertia perennis)
Distribution: Narrowly distributed in Cascades of Washington; Alaska south to California, east through the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, wet meadows and other moist places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser swinecress (Lepidium didymum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, Arizona, and Texas eastward and northward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, gardens and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from South America (or possibly Eurasia)
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Anderson's sword-fern (Polystichum andersonii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Southern Alaska to northern Oregon, east to northern Idaho, and northwest Montana.
Habitat: Moist, rocky forest and thickets on talus, mostly montane.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
California sword-fern (Polystichum californicum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist forest understory at low elevations, typically in rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Imbricate sword-fern (Polystichum imbricans)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southern California, also in northeastern and north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Drier habitats such as open rock crevices and dry conifer forest, occasionaly on serpentine, mostly lowl
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Kruckeberg's sword-fern (Polystichum kruckebergii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically among rocks; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rock sword-fern (Polystichum imbricans)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southern California, also in northeastern and north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Drier habitats such as open rock crevices and dry conifer forest, occasionaly on serpentine, mostly lowl
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring along the shores of the Columbia River in central and south-central Washington; common and native in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Near streams, lakes, and moist ravines, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial