Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.


Browse by scientific name:

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Scientific names beginning with S:
Sabulina basalticabasalt sandwort, Olympic sandwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from the northeastern Olympic Mountains in Washington.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings and exposed areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Sabulina macraslender sandwort, slender stitchwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Lowlands, prairies and coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Sabulina nuttalliiNuttall's sandwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills to alpine slopes, especially on gravelly benches or talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. fragilis – brittle sandwort, brittle stichwort
var. nuttallii – Nuttall's sandwort
Sabulina pusillaannual sandwort, dwarf sandwort, dwarf stitchwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from Klickitat County to the southeastern counties in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky cliffs and outcroppings in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Sabulina rubellaboreal stitchwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, east across Canada to the northeastern North America.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine meadows, ridges and talus slopes
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Sabulina sororiaTwin Sisters sandwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Twin Sisters Range in Whatcom County.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings and exposed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Sagina apetalaannual pearlwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also occurring in Kansas.
Habitat: Waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: annual
Sagina decumbenswestern pearlwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist soil at low elevations, but not typically coastal.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: annual
ssp. occidentalis – western pearlwort
Sagina maximastick-stemmed pearlwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, often along or near the coast; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist sand or rocks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: annual, perennial
ssp. crassicaulis – stick-stemmed pearlwort
ssp. maxima – stick-stemmed pearlwort
Sagina procumbensbird-eye pearlwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist areas, often where disturbed, at low elevations; common garden weed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: perennial
Sagina saginoidesalpine pearlwort, arctic pearlwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Alberta; east across northern Canada to Greenland.
Habitat: Open areas, typically where at least seasonally moist, from middle elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September.
Growth Duration: biennial, perennial
Sagittaria cuneataarumleaf arrowhead, northern arrowhead, Sagittaria cuneaire, wapato
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to New York.
Habitat: Ponds, lake shores and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sagittaria gramineagrassy arrowhead
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades in Washington; primary distribution is east of the Mississippi River.
Habitat: Wetlands, ponds, and lakes
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sagittaria latifoliacommon arrowhead, duck potato, wapato
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to central California; primary distribution in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds, lakes, swampy areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Sagittaria platyphylladelta arrowhead
Distribution: Known from the Puget Sound lowlands in Washington; south-central U.S., and in scattered locations in central and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Pond and lake margins.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sagittaria rigidasessile-fruited arrowhead
Distribution: Occurring in lowland areas west of the Cascades crest in Washington; California; central U.S. and southern Canada east to northeastern U.S. and Canada; scattered locations elsewhere in U.S. and Canada.
Habitat: Pond and lake margins.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sagittaria subulataawl-leaf arrowhead
Origin: Introduced from tidewaters in eastern North America
Growth Duration: perennial
Salicornia depressalow saltwort
Distribution: Strictly coastal in Washington;
Habitat: Salt marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Salicornia pacifica
Distribution: Along the coast in Washington; Alaska to Baja California.
Habitat: Salt marshes and beaches along coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Salicornia rubrared glasswort saltwort
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: annual
Salix amygdaloidespeach-leaf willow
Distribution: East side of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America except in extreme northwestern and southeastern regions.
Habitat: Wetlands, streambanks, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix arcticaarctic willow
Distribution: Alaska, British Columbia to Labrador; northern Cascades in Washington, Wallowa Mountains in Oregon, and the Rockies in Idaho and Montana
Habitat: In wet to dry areas in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix barclayibarclay's willow
Distribution: Chiefly in the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska east to Northwest Territories, south to Oregon and Wyoming.
Habitat: Lakes, streams, and other riparian areas in subalpine and alpine zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix bebbianaBebb's willow, gray willow, long-beak willow
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America except for southcentral and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Lakes, streams, and other riparian areas from low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix boothiiBooth's willow
Distribution: In the Cascades of Washington; distributed in western North America from British Columbia east to Saskatchewan, south to California, east to Arizona.
Habitat: Wet subalpine meadows, streambanks, lakeshores, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix brachycarpashort-fruited willow
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to Quebec.
Habitat: Riparian areas, wetlands, and meadows from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
var. brachycarpa – short-fruited willow
Salix candidasage willow, sage-leaf willow
Distribution: In the mountains of northeastern and southeastern Washington; widespread across North America from Alaska south to Washington, east through central U.S. to Canadian Maritimes.
Habitat: Lakeshores, pond margins, streambanks, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix cascadensisCascade willow
Distribution: In the Cascade Mountains of Washington; British Columbia south in the Cascades to Mt. Rainier, occasionally east to northeast Oregon, Idaho and Montana, south to Utah and Colorado.
Habitat: High elevations in the mountains in subalpine and alpine habitats
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix commutataunder-green willow, variable willow
Distribution: Chiefly in the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska and Yukon south to Oregon, occasionally east to idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix drummondianaDrummond's willow
Distribution: In the East Cascades and mountains of eastern Washington; Yukon Territory east to Northwest Territories, south to California, east through the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, lakeshores, floodplains, and other riparian areas in montane and subalpine habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix eastwoodiaeSierran willow
Distribution: In the mountains of Washington; Washington south to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix exiguacoyote willow, narrow-leaf willow
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to California, east through the Rocky Mountains to Nebraska and Texas.
Habitat: Riparian areas, gravel bars, lake and pond shore margins
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: perennial
var. columbiana – Columbia River willow
var. exigua – coyote willow, narrow-leaf willow
Salix farriaeFarr's willow
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Okanogan County; Yukon to northern Washington and northeast Oregon, east to Montana, Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows and riparian zones from montane areas to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix fragiliscrack willow
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix geyerianaGeyer's willow
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; widespread in western North America from British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Lowland riparian areas including streambanks and pond and lake margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix glaucagray willow
Origin: Native
var. villosa – glaucous willow, gray willow
Salix hookerianacoastal willow
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist, often swamps areas, from the sea coast to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix lasiandraPacific willow
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Manitoba and New Mexico.
Habitat: Riparian areas from the coast to the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: perennial
var. caudata – gland willow, Pacific willow, shining willow
var. lasiandra – Pacific willow
Salix lasiolepisarroyo willow
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Idaho, south to the southern Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Riparian corridors from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix maccallianaMaccalla's willow
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Yukon Territory south to Washington, east across northern North America to Quebec.
Habitat: Wet meadows, bogs, fens, streambanks and lakeshores from low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix matsudanacorkscrew willow
Origin: Introduced
Salix melanopsisdusky willow
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the northern and central Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Riparian zones including streambanks, pond and lake margins, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix monochromaone-color willow
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix nivalisdwarf snow willow
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; British Columbia and Alberta, south to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix pedicellarisbog willow
Distribution: Chiefly in the Cascades of Washington; Yukon Territory south to Oregon, east across Canada and northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bogs, fens, and similar wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix petrophilaalpine willow
Distribution: Northern Cascades of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine areas, often near melting snowbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-Aug.
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix planifoliaplane-leaf willow, tea-leaved willow
Distribution: Chiefly in the Cascade Mountains of Washington; widely distributed throughout western North America and across northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, lake margins, streambanks and other riparian areas in the alpine and subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. planifolia – diamondleaf willow
Salix prolixaMackenzie's willow
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Newfoundland and Virginia.
Habitat: Along streams in the lowlands to lower valleys in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix pseudomonticolafalse mountain willow
Distribution: Chiefly in the Cascade Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Quebec.
Habitat: Wet meadows, forested wetlands, and other riparian areas in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix purpureapurple osier, basket willow, purple willow
Origin: Introduced
Salix scoulerianaScouler's willow
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix ×sepulcralisweeping willow
Origin: Introduced
Salix sessilifoliasessile-leaf willow
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon.
Habitat: Riparian corridors at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix sitchensisSitka willow
Distribution: Occurring in forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
var. sitchensis – Sitka willow
Salix tweedyiTweedy's willow
Distribution: Chiefly North Cascade Mountains in Washington; British Columbia south to Washington, east to Montana, Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows, lake margins, streambanks, and other riparian areas in alpine and subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Salix vestitarock willow
Distribution: North Cascade Mountains in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across northern North America to the Canadian Maritime Provinces.
Habitat: Moist forest opening, streambanks, and other riparian areas in montane and subalpine habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Salsola tragusRussian thistle, tumbleweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where widely distributed; southern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadside, meadows, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: annual
Salvia aethiopisAfrican sage
Distribution: Introduced from the Mediterranean region to southwest United States, spreading north to eastern Oregon.
Habitat: A weed of dry waste places and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: biennial
Salvia dorriigray ball sage, purple sage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy or rocky areas in sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. incana – fleshy sage, gray-ball sage
Salvia nemorosaBalkan clary
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Salvia pratensismeadow clary, prairie-meadow sage
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; escaping in parts of western, central, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Salvia sclareacleareye
Distribution: Scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; occasionally escaping in parts of western, central, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: biennial
Salvia virgatawand sage
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Salvia yangii
Distribution: Reported from east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; south-central British Columbia to central Washington.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Sambucus ceruleablue elderberry
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Forest edge, fields, and roadsides from near sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Sambucus nigrablack elderberry
Distribution: Uncommon west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to northern Oregon; eastern North America where S. nigra var. canadensis is native. and var. nigra is more frequently escaped.
Habitat: Disturbed areas where rarely escaping from nearby cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe and eastern North America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sambucus racemosared elderberry
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: A wide variety of habitats, typically in forests, forest edge, fields, and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. arborescens – coast red elderberry
var. melanocarpa – black elderberry
Samolus parvifloruswater pimpernel
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the Lower Columbia River in southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to adjacent northwestern Oregon, otherwise in California, east across the southern U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Freshwater intertidal zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Sandbergia perplexapuzzling halimolobos
Distribution: Known from Douglas County in Washington; Washington east toIdaho and Montana.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, typically on lithosol.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sandbergia whitediifissurewort, whited's halimolobos fissurewort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Washington.
Habitat: Dry scabland, forest openings, talus slopes and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sanguisorba menziesiiMenzies' burnet, small-head burnet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Peatlands, wet meadows, shores, generally at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sanguisorba officinalisgarden burnet, great burnet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Alaska to California; introduced in eastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Peatlands, wet meadows, marshes, shorelines, and wet forests from the lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sanguisorba stipulataSitka burnet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet places at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sanicula arctopoidesfootsteps-of-spring, bear's-foot sanicle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Vancouver Island, B.C. south along the coast to California.
Habitat: Maritime species of coastal bluffs, meadows, and balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: perennial
Sanicula bipinnatifidapurple black-snakeroot, purple sanicle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, forest edge, and other open to partially shaded areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sanicula crassicaulisPacific sanicle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, balds, prairies, and open woods from the coast to low elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
var. crassicaulis – Pacific sanicle
var. tripartita – Pacific sanicle
Sanicula graveolensSierran black-snakeroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Common in open woods, balds, and thickets at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sanicula marilandicaMaryland black-snakeroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northeastern counties in Washington; Eastern British Columbia to northeast Washington, east to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist, low ground, less often on moist, wooded slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Saponaria ocymoidesrock soapwort
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in scattered states in the central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Old gardens, waste sites and rocky places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Saponaria officinalisbouncing-bet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Rocky stream corridors, forest edge, roadsides, and other disturbed, open areas from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Sarcobatus vermiculatusgreasewood
Distribution: East of the Cascade in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Dakotas, south to Colorado.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline, usually heavy soils of the drier regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sarracenia flavayellow pitcher plant, yellow trumpet
Distribution: Native in southeastern United States; introduced in western Washington.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and seeps.
Origin: Introduced from southeast United States
Flowers: May - June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sarracenia leucophyllawhite-topped pitcher plant
Origin: Introduced from southeast United States
Growth Duration: perennial
Sarracenia purpurea
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. purpurea – northern pitcher plant, purple pitcher plant
Sasa palmatabroadleaf bamboo
Distribution: Occurring in the Puget Sound lowlands in Washington; also known from Tennessee.
Habitat: Disturbed lowland areas where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: perennial
Saussurea americanaAmerican sawwort
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and open, often rocky slopes, where moist, at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Saxifraga adscendenswedge-leaf saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington and possibly in the Olympic Mountains; Alaska to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Glacial moraines and alpine gravelly meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Saxifraga austromontanamatted saxifrage, spotted saxifrage
Distribution: Alaska to Greenland, south in the Cascades to Oregon, and in the Rockies to New Mexico
Habitat: Cliff crevices, talus and scree slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Saxifraga cernuanodding saxifrage
Distribution: Known only east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Among rocks in alpine areas, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Saxifraga cespitosatufted alpine saxifrage, tufted saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ledges, gravelly ridges and scree, near sea level to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Saxifraga hyperboreapygmy saxifrage
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California, throughout the Rocky Mountains, across northern Canada to the Maritime Provinces.
Habitat: Alpine tundra, often where moist with rocky outcroppings, crevices, and snowmelt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Saxifraga mertensianaMerten's saxifrage, woodland saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet ledges, shaded seeps on rock faces, and gravelly stream banks from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Saxifraga oppositifoliapurple saxifrage, twinflowered saxifrage
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; across northern Canada and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and rocky outcroppings
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. oppositifolia – purple mountain saxifrage, purple saxifrage, twinflowered saxifrage
Saxifraga tridactylitesrue-leaved saxifrage
Origin: Introduced
Saxifraga vespertinamatted saxifrage, spotted saxifrage
Distribution: West of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Saxifragopsis fragarioidesstrawberry saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct; southwestern Oregon to adjacent California.
Habitat: Rock outcrops and talus slopes at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sceptridium multifidumleathery grapefern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the northeastern counties in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Open or shaded places, including meadows, wetland margins, and forest edge, from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Schedonorus arundinaceustall fescue, tall rye grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Meadowlands, fallow fields an ditch banks.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Schedonorus pratensismeadow fescue, meadow rye grass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered localities on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Meadows, pastures, roadsides, and other disturbed areas, often where moist
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Scheuchzeria palustrisscheuchzeria
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to northern California, east to Labrador and New Jersey.
Habitat: In bogs or on lake margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: perennial
Schizachyrium scopariumbroom bluestem, little bluestem
Distribution: Alberta east to Quebec, south through most of the United States east of the rockies; sparingly introduced in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Prairies and foothills.
Origin: Native?
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. scoparium – broom beardgras, broom bluestem, little bluestem
Schoenoplectus acutushardstem bulrush, viscous bulrush, common tule
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; throughout all of North America except southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Pond and lake margins, wetland and riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Schoenoplectus americanusOlney's three-square bulrush
Origin: Native
Schoenoplectus heterochaetusslender bulrush
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Schoenoplectus ×kuekenthalianusKukenthal's bulrush
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Schoenoplectus mucronatusricefield bulrush, rough-seed bulrush
Origin: Introduced
Schoenoplectus pungenschairmaker's clubrush, common three square
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widespread throughout North America.
Habitat: Marshes and wet, low ground; tolerent of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Schoenoplectus saximontanusRocky Mountain bulrush
Origin: Native
Schoenoplectus subterminalisswaying clubrush, water clubrush
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades, southern Alaska to southern Oregon; also in northern Idaho, northwest Montana, and eastern United States.
Habitat: Quiet, shallow water 2-8 dm. deep,
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: perennial
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontanigreat bulrush, soft-stem bulrush
Distribution: Widespread in temperate North America; common throughout the Pacific Northwest, but less so than S. acutus.
Habitat: Marshes and muddy shores of lakes and streams at lower elevations; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: perennial
Schoenoplectus triqueterstream bank bulrush, triangular club-rush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the lower Columbia River; southwestern Washington to adjacent northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Freshwater intertidal zone.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Scirpus atrocinctuscommon woolly sedge
Distribution: Known only from Whatcom County in Washington; British Columbia south to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet, low ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Scirpus cyperinuscottongrass bulrush
Distribution: Newfoundland south to Florida, occasionally west across southern Canada to southeast British Columbia and northern Washington.
Habitat: Wet, low ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Scirpus microcarpuspanicled bulrush, small fruited bulrush
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east in Canada and northern United States to New England.
Habitat: Wet ground, ditches, shorelines, streambanks, and other riparian areas from low to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Scirpus palliduspale bulrush
Distribution: Southest Washington and northeast Oregon, east to Utah, Minnisota and Texas.
Habitat: Wet, low ground, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: perennial
Scleranthus annuusannual knawel
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Saskatchewan, Montana, and Idaho; also from the central U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soils, waste lots, and cultivated areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: annual
ssp. annuus – annual knawel
Sclerochloa duracommon hard grass
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in much of western United States; established in eastern Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Weed of waste areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June
Growth Duration: annual
Sclerolinon digynumnorthwestern yellow-flax
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to the Sierra Nevada of California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and prairies at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: annual
Scleropoa rigidafern grass
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June - July
Scribneria bolanderiScribner's grass
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - May
Growth Duration: annual
Scrophularia californicaCalifornia figwort, Oregon figwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, chiefly in coastal counties; coastal southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest margins, prairies, and meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Scrophularia lanceolatalance-leaf figwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of the U.S. and all of Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist forest edges and openings, and meadows at low elevations, but not along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Scutellaria angustifolia
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, southeast to Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Moist and drier sites, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. angustifolia – narrow-leaved skullcap
ssp. micrantha – small-flowering narrow-leaved skullcap
Scutellaria galericulatahooded skullcap, marsh skullcapp
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; circumboreal, extending south to California, Arizona and Missouri.
Habitat: Wet meadows and similar habitats at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Scutellaria laterifloramadweed, mad-dog skullcap
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; occurring throughout North America.
Habitat: Moist bottomlands and meadows, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Secale cerealecultivated rye
Distribution: Widely cultivated, especially in poor, dry soil, often persistent for more than one season.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: annual, biennial
Secale strictum
Origin: Introduced
Securigera variacrown vetch, purple crown vetch
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum acremossy stonecrop
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across Canada, and the central, southeastern, and northeastern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum albumwhite stonecrop
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; British Columbia south to California, Utah, and in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas including fields, lawns, parking areas, and rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum brevifoliumshort-leaved stonecrop
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Sedum divergensPacific stonecrop, spreading stonecrop
Distribution: Alaska to California, Olympic mountains and the Cascades
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - Early September
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum forsterianumForster's stonecrop
Origin: Introduced
Sedum lanceolatumlance-leaved stonecrop
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains in the U.S. and Canada.
Habitat: On rocks or gravel in open, dry areas, from sea level to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum leibergiiLeiberg's stonecrop
Distribution: Yakima County, Washington, south to northcentral Oregon and east to southeast Washington and western Idaho; along the Snake River.
Habitat: Mossy rocks to open, gravelly hillsides, chiefly in canyons.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - Early July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum oreganumOregon stonecrop
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Rock ledges, talus slopes and gravelly ridges from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum rupicolalance-leaved stonecrop
Distribution: In the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Washington east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open, exposed places, usually on rocks or in gravelly soil, at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum spathulifoliumbroadleaf stonecrop, spatula-leaf stonecrop
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal cliffs, ledges, balds, and gravelly soil in the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sedum stenopetalumwormleaf stonecrop
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascade crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grasslands and ponderosa pine forests to sub-alpine ridges, on dry, gravelly benches, rock crevices and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. stenopetalum – wormleaf stonecrop
Sedum thartii
Origin: Introduced
Selaginella douglasiiDouglas' spikemoss clubmoss, lesser clubmoss
Distribution: Abundant in the Columbia River Gorge, especially on the Oregon side, west along the river to Portland, OR, and Cowlitz County, WA; also along the Clearwater River in Idaho.
Habitat: Cliffs, banks and tree trunks in humid regions at low elevations
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Selaginella oreganafestoon spikemoss, Oregon spikemoss
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Selaginella scopulorumcliff spikemoss, Rocky Mountain spikemoss
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Selaginella wallaceiWallace's spikemoss
Distribution: British Columbia through central Oregon to California, east to Montana
Habitat: Exposed, terrestrial, often rocky sites, such as pocket of soil in ledges and cliffs
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Senecio elmeriElmer's ragwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in central and northern Washington; British Columbia to central Washington.
Habitat: Talus slopes and other rocky places in alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Senecio fremontiidwarf mountain butterweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes at high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. fremontii – dwarf mountain groundsel
Senecio hydrophiloidessweet marsh butterweed, stout meadow groundsel
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Wet meadows in the mountains and foothills, but not in alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Senecio hydrophilusalkali marsh butterweed, water groundsel, alkali marsh ragwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Swampy places in the valleys and foothills; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June- September
Growth Duration: biennial
Senecio integerrimusone-stemmed butterweed, western groundsel
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where widely distributed; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Meadows and seasonally moist open areas from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. exaltatus – one-stemmed butterweed, lambs-tongue groundsel, tall western groundsel
var. ochroleucus – white western groundsel
Senecio lugensblack-tipped groundsel
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the northern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, grassy alpine slopes, and rich northern woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Senecio neowebsteriOlympic Mountain ragwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest, where endemic to the Olympic Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Talus slopes and rocky places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Aug.-Sept.
Growth Duration: perennial
Senecio serratall butterweed, butterweed groundsel
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Meadows and open, moist hillsides, foothills to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. serra – tall butterweed, butterweed groundsel
Senecio sylvaticuswood groundsel, woodland groundsel, woodland ragwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: annual
Senecio triangularisarrowleaf groundsel, arrowleaf ragwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist places and streambanks from the lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. triangularis – arrowleaf groundsel, arrowleaf ragwort
Senecio viscosussticky ragwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Senecio vulgariscommon groundsel, old man in the spring
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, waste ground, lawns, and other disturbed, open sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: February-May
Growth Duration: annual
Sericocarpus oregonensisOregon white-topped aster
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Grasslands, forest openings, and savanna.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. oregonensis – Oregon white-topped aster
Sericocarpus rigidusColumbian white-topped aster, Columbian whitetop aster, rigid white-topped aster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland Washington; southern Vancouver Island to southwest Oregon.
Habitat: Prairies and open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Setaria faberiChinese foxtail
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: annual
Setaria italicaItalian bristlegrass, foxtail millet
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: annual
Setaria pumila
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: annual
ssp. pallide-fusca – yellow foxtail, pigeon grass
ssp. pumila – yellow foxtail
Setaria verticillatahooked bristlegrass, rough bristlegrass
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in the Pacific Northwest; more common in other parts of the United States.
Habitat: Weed of gardens, irrigated areas and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: August - September
Growth Duration: annual
Setaria viridis
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: annual
var. viridis – green bristlegrass
Shepherdia canadensisrusset buffalo-berry, soapberry, soopolallie
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moderately dry, open to wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sherardia arvensisblue field-madder
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Arizona; introduced from Michigan to Maine, south to Texas to Florida in the east.
Habitat: Weed of prairies, meadows, and other open, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: annual
Sibbaldia procumbenscreeping-glow-wort, creeping sibbaldia
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across most of Canda to the Atlantic Coasl.
Habitat: Open, dry to moist subalpine and alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sidalcea campestrismeadow checker-mallow, meadow sidalcea
Distribution: Native only to the Willamette Valley area (Multnomah and Washington to Benton and Linn counties). Introduced as a garden plant in western Washington, but rarely persisting.
Habitat: Dry fields and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sidalcea hendersoniiHenderson's checker-mallow
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to the Umpqua River area in Oregon.
Habitat: On or adjacent to tidelands, coastal marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sidalcea hirtipesbristly-stem checker-mallow
Distribution: Clark and Lewis counties in Washington; south to Lincoln, Tillamook and Clatsop Counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal mountains to bluffs along the ocean, but not on tideflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sidalcea nelsonianaNelson's checker-mallow
Distribution: Occurring in southwest Washington; south in Willamette Valley of Oregon from Portland to Salem, west to Tillamook County.
Habitat: Gravelly, well-drained soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sidalcea oreganaOregon checker-mallow
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains, meadows and ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. calva – Oregon checkermallow
var. oregana – Oregon checkermallow
Sidalcea virgatavirgate checkerbloom
Distribution: Known only from Thurston County in Washington; Thurston County, WA and then Yamhill County, Oregon south along West Cascades to California.
Habitat: Moist prairies and meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene acaulismoss campion
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Rock crevices and talus slopes at high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene antirrhinasleepy catchfly
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: annual
Silene bernardinaPalmer's catchfly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Yakima County, where disjunct; Lane County, Oregon to California, Nevada, and Mexico, east to western Idaho; disjunct in Yakima County, WA.
Habitat: Grassy slopes to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Silene conoideaconoid catchfly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington southern British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana; also in Texas and Missouri..
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: annual
Silene csereiibiennial campion
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east across the central and northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene dichotomaforked catchfly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: annual
ssp. dichotoma – forked catchfly
Silene dioicared catchfly
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and southern Canada to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and wastelots where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene douglasiiDouglas's catchfly, Douglas's silene
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to mountain slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. douglasii – Douglas's catchfly
var. rupinae – Douglas's catchfly
Silene gallicawindmill pink
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed soil and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: annual
Silene latifoliawhite campion, evening catchfly
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, pastures, irrigation ditches, forest edge, thickets, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: biennial, perennial
Silene menziesiiMenzies's catchfly
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Common in open woods from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene noctifloranight-flowering catchfly
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Grain fields and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: annual
Silene oreganaOregon catchfly
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, and to northeastern Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings and meadows from middle elevation to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene paradoxa
Distribution: Occurring on Three Sisters Mountain in Whatcom County in Washington, where intentionally introduced and persists; not known elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Serpentine and ultramafic substrates in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Silene parryiParry's, Parry's silene
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene scouleriScouler's catchfly, Scouler's siliene
Distribution: Occuring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Prairies, forest openings, and meadows from low elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. hallii – Hall's catchfly, Hall's silene
ssp. scouleri – Scouler's catchfly, Scouler's silene
Silene seelyiSeely's silene
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains of Kittitas and Chelan counties.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene spaldingiiSpalding's catchfly, Spalding's silene
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the eastern and southeastern counties in Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent northeastern Oregon and western Idaho, also in western Montana.
Habitat: Sagebrush, scabland and ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene suksdorfiiCascade catchfly, Suksdorf's catchfly
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to California.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine slopes, often on talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silene vulgarisbladder campion
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Silybum marianummilk-thistle
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across Canada and the southwestern U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: annual, biennial
Sinapis albawhite mustard
Distribution: Reported from Whitman County in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Waste ground near fields.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: annual
Sinapis arvensischarlock, corn mustard, wild mustard
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Waste places and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region, reaching North America perhaps as early as 8000 years bp (Jacobson et al. 1988)
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: annual
Sisymbrium altissimumJim Hill mustard, tumble mustard, tall rocket
Distribution: Distributed throughout Washington but more common east of the Cascades; occurring throughout North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, grasslands, and waste ground, especially following rangeland fires.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: annual, biennial
Sisymbrium linifoliumlava cress, rush mustard, flax-leaved plainsmustard, Salmon River plainsmustard
Distribution: East of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Arizona (not including California), east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe communities, rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sisymbrium loeseliifalse london rocket, Loesel's tumblemustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Nevada, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides and drier disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: annual, biennial
Sisymbrium officinalehedge mustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Waste ground and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: annual
Sisymbrium orientaleIndian hedgemustard
Origin: Introduced
Sisyrinchium californicumgolden blue-eyed grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Vancouver Island, B.C, to southern California.
Habitat: Wet ground, especially at the edges of lakes and bogs, at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-November
Growth Duration: perennial
Sisyrinchium idahoenseIdaho blue-eyed grass
Distribution: Widely distributed across Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Vernally wet areas and marshes, near sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. idahoense – Idaho blue-eyed grass
var. macounii – Macoun's blue-eyed grass
var. occidentale – western blue-eyed grass
var. segetum – cornfield blue-eyed grass, prairie grass
Sisyrinchium littoraleAlaska blue-eyed grass, shore blue-eyed grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal areas in Washington; Alaska to Oregon
Habitat: Coastal moist, sandy or grassy areas, interdunal depressions, edges of streams and lakes
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sisyrinchium montanumstrict blue-eyed grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Yukon Territory to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist meadows, stream banks, and for openings at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Sisyrinchium sarmentosumSuksdorf's blue-eyed grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Moist, grassy areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sisyrinchium septentrionalenorthern blue-eyed grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Northwest Territory to northeastern Washington, east to Saskatchewan.
Habitat: Mesic to dry meadows and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sium suavewater parsnip, hemlock water-parsnip
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Swampy places and shallow water of lakes, ponds, and backwater channels, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Smelowskia americanaalpine smelowskia, Siberian smelowskia
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Rocky areas at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Smelowskia ovalisshort-fruited smelowskia
Distribution: In the Cascade Mountains in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Rocky crevices, moraines, ridges and talus slopes in alpine and sup-alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Solanum americanumAmerican black nightshade
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east along the southern border of the U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas, roadsides, waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: annual, perennial
Solanum carolinensehorse nettle
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: perennial
Solanum dulcamarafelonwort, bittersweet nightshade, climbing nightshade
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Thickets, clearings and open woods, usually in moist soil
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Solanum elaeagnifoliumwhite horse nettle, silver-leaf nightshade
Origin: Introduced from Mexico and eastern United States
Growth Duration: perennial
Solanum lycopersicumtomato
Distribution: Known from scattered locations in Whatcom and King counties in Washington; likely escaping as occasional waif anywhere where cultivated in North America.
Habitat: Sunny, moist, open, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: annual
Solanum nigrumEuropean black nightshade
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides and other disturbed sites, especially in moister areas; often in urban and suburban areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-November
Growth Duration: annual
Solanum physalifoliumhairy nightshade
Origin: Introduced
var. nitidibaccatum – ground-cherry nightshade
Solanum rostratumbuffalo bur, horned nightshade
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington, where it is considered a noxious weed; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed areas, often where dry.
Origin: Introduced from central US
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: annual
Solanum triflorumcut-leaf nightshade
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; widespread throughout North America, except eastern U.S.
Habitat: Weedy native in fields and roadsides, often in undisturbed sites at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: annual
Solanum tuberosumirish potato
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: perennial
Solidago elongataCascade Canada goldenrod, West Coast goldenrod
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Sandy or gravelly open areas or thickets at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Solidago lepidawestern Canada goldenrod
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry to moist areas in meadows and riparian areas, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: perennial
var. lepida – western Canada goldenrod
var. salebrosa – Canada goldenrod, meadow goldenrod, Rocky Mountains Canada goldenrod
Solidago missouriensisMissouri goldenrod
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and midwestern U.S.
Habitat: Rather dry, open places, from the valleys and plains to fairly high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: perennial
Solidago multiradiatanorthern goldenrod, Rocky Mountain goldenrod
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and midwestern U.S.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and open slopes at high elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Solidago simplexsticky goldenrod
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Open, slightly moist areas from coastal dunes to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. nana – dwarf goldenrod
var. simplex – sticky goldenrod
Soliva sessilislawn burrweed, common soliva, prickly soliva
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, also in south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and lawn areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: annual
Sonchus arvensisfield sow-thistle, perennial sow-thistle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, forest edge, stream banks, roadsides, fields, and other disturbed open areas generally at low elevations, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. arvensis – corn sow-thistle, field sow-thistle, perennial sow-thistle
ssp. uliginosus – field sow-thistle, marsh sow-thistle, wet ground sow-thistle
Sonchus asperprickly sow-thistle, spiny leaf sow-thistle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: annual
Sonchus oleraceuscommon sow-thistle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: annual
Sorbus aucupariaEuropean mountain-ash
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, thickets, shorelines, and other generally moist areas where often disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sorbus hybridaSwedish mountain-ash, Swedish service-tree
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington.
Habitat: Shoreline ledges and thickets at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sorbus scopulinaGreene's mountain ash, Cascade mountain-ash, western mountain-ash
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Open areas, from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sorbus sitchensisSitka mountain-ash
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Forest openings at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. grayi – Sitka mountain-ash
var. sitchensis – Sitka mountain-ash
Sorghum bicolorsorghum
Origin: Introduced from Africa
Growth Duration: annual, perennial
Sorghum halepenseJohnson grass
Distribution: Introduced and established in much of the United States; rarely persistent in the Pacific Northwest.
Habitat: Waste ground, especially where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: July - October
Growth Duration: perennial
Sparganium angustifoliumfloating bur-reed, narrow-leaved bur-reed
Distribution: Widely distributed in much of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountain states.
Habitat: Ponds and shallow lakes at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Sparganium emersumsimplestem bur-reed
Distribution: Alaska south to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Shallow ponds and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - September
Growth Duration: perennial
Sparganium eurycarpumbroadfruited bur-reed
Distribution: British Columbia to Baja, California, east to Newfoundland and Florida.
Habitat: Wet meadows to shallow marshes, mostly emersed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - October
Growth Duration: perennial
Sparganium fluctuansfloating bur-reed, water bur-reed
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Sparganium natansarctic bur-reed, small bur-reed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shallow water, mostly in mountain lakes, sometimes completely submersed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartina alterniflorasaltwater cordgrass, smooth cordgrass
Distribution: Introduced in Pacific County, Washington; common along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States.
Habitat: Along the coast in brackish water.
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic coast of North America
Flowers: August - September
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartina anglicaEnglish cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartina densifloraChilean cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from Chile
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartina gracilisalkali cordgrass
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartina patenssaltmeadow cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic Coast of North America
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartina pectinatafreshwater cordgrass, prairie cordgrass
Distribution: Eastern Washington and Oregon, east to Newfoundland and North Carolina.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds, and fresh-water marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartina ×townsendiiTownsend's cordgrass
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: perennial
Spartium junceumSpanish-broom
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, forest margins.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Spergula arvensiscorn spurry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-October
Growth Duration: annual
Spergularia bocconeiBocconi's sandspurry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; western Washington to California.
Habitat: Saltmarshes and sandy places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Spergularia canadensisCanada sandspurry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to California; also in central Canada and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal tidelands and mudflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: annual
var. occidentalis – Canadian sandspurry
Spergularia diandraalkali sandspurry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Idaho.
Habitat: River shores, often where sandy.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: annual
Spergularia macrothecabeach sandspurry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coastal areas in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California.
Habitat: Along the sea shore, often in salt marshes and rock crevices in the splash zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. macrotheca – beach sandspurry
Spergularia rubrared sandspurry
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, parking areas, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: annual, perennial
Spergularia salinasaltmarsh sandspurry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east across North America.
Habitat: Saline or brackish areas along the coast, and alkaline areas inland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: annual, biennial, perennial
Sphaeralcea grossulariifoliagooseberry-leaved globemallow
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central Washington to Nevada, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to low elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sphaeralcea munroanaMunro's globemallow, white-stemmed globemallow
Distribution: Widely distributed east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Desert plains to open lower mountain slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sphaerophysa salsulared bladder-vetch, alkali swainsonpea
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington, chiefly in the central part of the state; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soil at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sphenopholis intermediaslender wedgescale
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Sphenopholis obtusataprairie wedgescale
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: annual, perennial
Spinulum annotinuminterrupted clubmoss, stiff clubmoss
Distribution: Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana and south in the Rockies to New Mexico; across Canada and in eastern United States from Maine to Virginia
Habitat: Moist forests, bog edges and rocky areas, lowlands to subalpine
Origin: Native
Spiraea douglasiiDouglas's spiraea, hardhack steeplebush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Swamps, lake margins and damp meadows, from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. douglasii – Douglas's spiraea
var. menziesii – Menzies's spiraea
Spiraea ×hitchcockiiHitchcock's spiraea
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades in Washington; northern Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Forest openings at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Spiraea lucidashiny-leaf spiraea, shinyleaf spiraea
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Stream banks and open to wooded areas, sea level to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Spiraea ×pyramidatapyramid spiraea
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Somewhat dry forest openings, from the lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Spiraea splendensrosy spiraea, subalpine spiraea
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist forest openings and rocky slopes, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Spiranthes diluvialisdiluvial ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to wet meadows, marshes, and riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Spiranthes porrifoliawestern ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Moist to swampy areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Spiranthes romanzoffianahooded ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Seasonally moist to swampy areas, sometimes in disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Spirodela polyrhizaduckmeal, common duckmeat, greater duckweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Quiet water, ponds, marshes and slow-moving streams
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Sporobolus airoidesalkali-sacaton
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Growth Duration: perennial
Sporobolus composituscomposite dropseed, tall dropseed
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
var. compositus – rough dropseed
Sporobolus cryptandrussand dropseed
Distribution: British Columbia south, east of the Cascades, to southern California, east to Ontario, Maine, and most of the United States except the extreme southeast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, especilly where sandy, to the foothills and grassland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: perennial
Sporobolus neglectussmall dropseed
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: annual
Stachys arvensisfield hedge-nettle, staggerweed
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington near Seattle and Bellingham; British Columbia south to California; Gulf Coast and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Weed in disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: annual
Stachys byzantina
Origin: Introduced
Stachys cooleyaeCooley's hedge-nettle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Forest understory, openings, and margins from low to moderate elevations in the mountains; often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stachys mexicanaMexican hedge-nettle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California.
Habitat: Forest understory, openings, and margins, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stachys pilosamarsh betony, swamp hedge-nettle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout most of North America except extreme southeastern U.S. and northeastern Canada.
Habitat: Swamps, marshes, wetlands and riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. pilosa – marsh betony, swamp hedge-nettle
Stachys rigidarigid hedge-nettle
Distribution: Scattered locations mostly west of the Cascades in Washington; south to California and adjacent Nevada.
Habitat: Stream banks and moist bottom lands, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stellaria alsinebog stichwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington; native to eastern North America; also introduced in Chile.
Habitat: Streambanks, culverts, ditches, and moist forest edges, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: annual
Stellaria borealisboreal starwort, boreal stitchwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes Region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or marshy areas from low elevations to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. borealis – boreal starwort
ssp. sitchana – boreal starwort
Stellaria calycanthanorthern bog starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows and steam banks, from low to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: annual, perennial
Stellaria crispacrisped starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist areas from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stellaria gramineagrass-leaf starwort
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and from the southern Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, and lawns.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Stellaria humifusasaltmarsh starwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Atlantic coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Salt marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stellaria longifolialong-leaved starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, further east across Canada and the northern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, swamps, marshes, forested wetlands from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stellaria longipeslongstalk starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada and the northern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist streambanks and rocky slopes at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. longipes – Goldie's starwort
Stellaria mediacommon chickweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: February-October
Growth Duration: annual
Stellaria neglectagreater chickweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington, California, and scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Stellaria nitensshiny starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana, Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Gravelly prairies and stream banks to grassy hillsides at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: annual
Stellaria obtusablunt-sepaled starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist forest and riparian zone understory, talus slopes, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Stellaria pallidalesser chickweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, also in California, east across the U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, forest edge, and other disturbed areas, often where seasonally moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Stellaria umbellataumbrella starwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wetlands, riparian zones, stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stenotus lanuginosuswoolly goldenweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, dry, often rocky places, from sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. lanuginosus – woolly goldenweed, woolly stenotus
Stephanomeria exiguasmall wirelettuce
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from Douglas County; otherwise central Oregon to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and Texas.
Habitat: Sandy, open sites, often in sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. exigua – skeletonplant, small wirelettuce
Stephanomeria paniculatastiff-branched stephanomeria, stiff-branched wirelettuce
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: annual
Stephanomeria tenuifoliawire lettuce, narrowleaf stephanomeria
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, often rocky places, from the foothills and plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Streptanthella longirostrislong-beaked fiddle mustard, streptanthella
Distribution: Occurring in south-central Washington; Washington south to California, east to Wyoming and New Mexico.
Habitat: Open desert and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: annual, biennial
Streptopus amplexifoliuscucumber root, clasp-leaf twisted-stalk, clasping twisted-stalk
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Open to dense moist forests from low elevations to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Streptopus lanceolatusrosy twisted-stalk
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Montana (but not Idaho); also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streambanks and damp woods at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Streptopus streptopoidesKruhsea, small twisted-stalk
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Idaho.
Habitat: Dense, damp conifer forest, from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Struthiopteris spicantdeer fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, also from southeastern British Columbia to southern Idaho.
Habitat: Forest understory, sometimes where moist, sea level to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Stuckenia filiformisslender-leaved pondweed, western pondweed, threadleaf-pondweed
Distribution: Only known from Whatcom County in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Lakes, ponds, slow moving waters.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Stuckenia pectinatafennel-leaved pondweed, sago pondweed, sago-pondweed
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; common throughout North America; Eurasia
Habitat: Shallow, fresh to brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Stuckenia vaginatabigsheath-pondweed
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Growth Duration: perennial
Suaeda calceoliformispaiuteweed, common seablite, horned seablite, pahute weed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America from Alaska south to California, east to the Great Plains, and also along the coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, moist to wet areas, typically where saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: annual
Suaeda nigrabushy seablite seepweed
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soils in sagebrush flats and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Suaeda occidentalisslender seablite, western seepweed
Distribution: Eastern Washington to northern Nevada, east through southern Idaho to Colorado.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline flats and marshes in sagebrush area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Growth Duration: annual
Subularia aquatica
Distribution: Known from a few locations in northwestern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shallow water or mud flats of ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams, tidal flats, wet meadows, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: annual
ssp. americana – awlwort
Suksdorfia violaceaviolet mock brookfoam
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana and Idaho.
Habitat: Vernally moist mossy banks and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Sullivantia oreganaOregon coolwort
Distribution: Columbia River Gorge and lower Willamatte Valley, Oregon.
Habitat: On moist cliffs, especially near waterfalls.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - August
Growth Duration: perennial
Swertia perennisalso felwort, alpine bog swertia
Distribution: Narrowly distributed in Cascades of Washington; Alaska south to California, east through the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, wet meadows and other moist places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphoricarpos albuscommon snowberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and distributed widely throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, and further east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Thickets, forest edge, and open slopes, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. albus – common snowberry
var. laevigatus – common snowberry
Symphoricarpos molliscreeping snowberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Nevada, disjunct in north-central Idaho.
Habitat: Slopes and forest edge, often where wet, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. hesperius – creeping snowberry, spreading snowberry
Symphoricarpos occidentaliswestern snowberry, wolfberry
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Utah, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, forest margins, and bottomlands from low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphoricarpos rotundifoliusmountain snowberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California east to Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open slopes and dry meadows, from sagebrush desert to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
var. vaccinioides – mountain snowberry
Symphyotrichum ×amethystinumamethyst aster, hybrid aster
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum ascendensintermountain aster, long-leaved aster, western American aster, western aster
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, and forest openings, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum borealenorthern bog aster, rush aster, slender white aster
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Cold bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum bracteolatumbracted aster, Eaton's aster, Oregon aster
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Sasketchewan and Rocky Mountain states.
Habitat: Moist to wet sunny places, wet thickets, along streams and ditches
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum campestrewestern meadow aster
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry to moist forest openings, shorelines, and other open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum chilensecommon California aster, Pacific aster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal, bluffs, grasslands, open slopes, salt marsh margins, and disturbed ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum ciliatumalkali American aster, rayless alkali aster, rayless annual aster
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; British Columbia to northern Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forest and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: annual
Symphyotrichum ×columbianumhybrid aster
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum ericoidesheath-leaved aster, tufted white prairie aster
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, and further east across Canada and most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, wet or dry places in the valleys and plains; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. pansum – little gray aster, tufted white prairie aster, white heath aster
Symphyotrichum foliaceumalpine leafybract aster, Canby's leafybract aster, Cusick's American aster, Cusick's aster, Henderson's aster, Kootenai aster, leafy aster, leafy-bracted aster, Parry's aster
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, usually moist areas, low to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum frondosumalkali aster, short rayed aster, short-rayed alkali aster
Distribution: British Columbia to California, esat to Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist, usually saline soil, often along the shores of lakes and ponds, or in vernally moist, alkaline bottoms.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: annual
Symphyotrichum halliiHall's aster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the valleys and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum jessicaeJessica's aster, Palouse aster
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Streambanks and open places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum laeveGeyer's aster, smooth aster
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open places in the plains and valleys to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. geyeri – Geyer's smooth aster
Symphyotrichum lanceolatummarsh aster, western willow aster
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist meadows, sometimes where saline, shores, and open forest at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. hesperium – lance-leaved aster, panicled aster, white panicled aster
Symphyotrichum novae-angliaeNew England aster
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; native from central North America east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides and disturbed areas where somewhat moist.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum pilosumhairy aster
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Washington, otherwise native from the U.S. Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: River cobbles, gravel, disturbed ground, and railroads.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: August-October
var. pilosum – hairy aster
Symphyotrichum spathulatumwestern aster, western mountain aster
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings, from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphyotrichum subspicatumDouglas' aster, Douglas's aster
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Idaho.
Habitat: Moist woods, streambanks and seashores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphytum asperumprickly comfrey, rough comfrey
Distribution: Introduced and occasionally escaped from cultivation, scattered in the United States; chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced from sw Asia
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphytum officinalecommon comfrey
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastward from Great Lakes region to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation, often found in disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Symphytum ×uplandicumhybrid comfrey
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: perennial
Syringa vulgariscommon lilac
Origin: Introduced