Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.


Browse by scientific name:

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Scientific names beginning with O:
Odontites vulgarisred bartsia
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Oemleria cerasiformisoso-berry, Indian plum
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist to dry, open forest, forest edge, and stream bank thickets at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-April
Oenanthe sarmentosaoenanthe, Pacific water-dropwort, American water-parsley, Pacific water-parsley
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Low elevation wet areas, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Oenothera biennisKing's-cureall, common evening primrose
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Meadows and stream banks, from the plains to the lower mountains, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Oenothera cespitosa
Distribution: Occuring sporadically throughout central and eastern Washington; widespread throughout much of western U.S. and central Canada.
Habitat: Talus slopes, road cuts, and dry hills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. cespitosa – butte primrose, fragrant evening primrose, rock rose
ssp. marginata – fragrant evening-primrose
Oenothera curtiflorasmall-flowered gaura, velvet weed, velvetweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Open, sandy, rocky, often disturbed places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Oenothera elataHooker's evening primrose
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and southern Great Plains in the U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills to mid elevations in the mountains, generally where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Oenothera flavalong-tubed evening primrose
Distribution: Known historically in Washington from south-central part of the state; Saskatchewan to Mexico, west to Idaho and California.
Habitat: Hard-packed soil in swales or around vernal pools in the plains and lower foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Oenothera glaziovianared-sepal evening-primrose
Distribution: Occasional garden escape west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Oenothera pallidapale evening-primrose
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, sandy or gravelly soil, commonly on dunes at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. pallida – pale evening primrose
Oenothera suffrutescensscarlet beeblossom
Distribution: Reported from Bingen, Washington - unclear as to whether truly native or a garden escape; chiefly east of the Rockies, but crossing into western Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes, chiefly in the sagebrush area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Olsynium douglasiipurple-eyed grass, grass-widow
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington, but more common east of the Cascades crest; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs, prairies, open rocky areas, oak and ponderosa pine woodlands, sagebrush and juniper desert, where moist in early spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
var. douglasii – purple-eyed grass, grass-widow
var. inflatum – purple-eyed grass, grass-widow
Onobrychis viciifoliaholy-clover, saintfoin, sandfain
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America,
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Ononis spinosarestharrow
Distribution: Known from Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to adjacent Oregon, also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
ssp. maritima – common restharrow
Onopordum acanthiumcotton thistle, Scotch thistle, Scots thistle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Noxious weed of dry, open areas and stream banks.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
ssp. acanthium – Scotch thistle, cotton thistle, Scots thistle
Ophioglossum pusillumnorthern adder's-tongue
Distribution: Alaska to California, and Montana east to Maine and Virginia
Habitat: Meadows and woods at moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Oplopanax horridusdevil's club, devil's-club
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Montana, also in the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Moist woods at mid-elevations, especially along streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Opuntia columbianaColumbia prickly-pear
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to western and southern Idaho.
Habitat: From sagebrush plains and foothills to lower elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Opuntia fragilisbrittle prickly-pear, little prickly-pear
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Oreocarya glomeratabuttecandle, cockscomb oreocarya, Sheldon's oreocarya
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades, from southern British Colombia to Grant County, Oregon, east to North Dakota.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the valleys, plains and foothills, occasionally higher.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April - July
Oreocarya leucophaeagray cat's eye
Distribution: Along the Columbia and lower Yakima rivers, from Wenatchee, Washington to the Dalles, Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, usually sandy places at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Oreocarya spiculiferaSnake River cryptantha, Snake River cat's eye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Oregon and Nevada, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats in the plains, valleys and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Oreocarya thompsoniiThompson's cat's eye
Distribution: Serpentine soils in the Wenatchee Mountains and adjacent Cascades of Washington
Habitat: Moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Oreopteris quelpaertensismountain fern, queen's-veil maiden fern
Distribution: Alaska and British Columbia, south in the Cascades to central Washington
Habitat: Wet cliffs and rocky slopes, sea level to subalpine
Origin: Native
Oreostemma alpigenumalpine aster
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada.
Habitat: Alpine meadows, slopes, and rocky areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. alpigenum – alpine aster, tundra mountaincrown
Origanum vulgarewild marjoram
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; introduced from Eurasia into northeastern United States.
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation along roadsides and in disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Ornithogalum umbellatumnap-at-noon, sleepydick
Distribution: Distributed in scattered locations throughout Washington; occurring chiefly in central and eastern United States, with scattered locations in western states.
Habitat: Roadsides, open forests, waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Orobanche minorhellroot
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, and reported from Idaho; also in Texas and along the East Coast of the U.S.
Habitat: Lawns, fields, pastures, forest edge, and other grassy areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Orthilia secundaone-sided pyrola, sidebells
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to New Mexico in the west, and across the northern half of the United States to the Atlantic
Habitat: Common in coniferous woods at moderate to mid-elevationn in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Orthocarpus barbatusGrand Coulee owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington. Southern British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open ground in sagebrush-steppe.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Orthocarpus bracteosusrosy owl-clover
Distribution: In Washington from the east base of the Cascades westward; southern British Columbia south to northern California.
Habitat: Meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Orthocarpus imbricatusmountain owl-clover
Distribution: Olympic Mountains and Cascades of Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon and California.
Habitat: Fairly dry meadows and rocky slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Orthocarpus luteusgolden-tongue owl-clover
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Manitoba and Nebraska.
Habitat: Low ground, from the plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Orthocarpus tenuifoliusnarrow-leaved owl-clover, thin-leaved owl-clover
Distribution: East of the Cascade crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to central Oregon east to western Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist or rather dry places, from the valleys and plains to moderate elevtions in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Oryzopsis asperifoliawhite-grain mountain-rice grass
Distribution: British Columbia east to Newfoundland, south to Maine and Montana and the northeast portion of Washington.
Habitat: Open coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Osmorhiza berteroimountain sweet-cicely
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, from near sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Osmorhiza depauperatablunt-fruit sweet-cicely
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, often where moist from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Osmorhiza occidentalisSierran sweet-cicely, western sweet-cicely
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings and edge, thickets, and riparian zones from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Osmorhiza purpureapurple sweet-cicely
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist forest openings, understory, and edge from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Osmunda regalis
Origin: Introduced
Oxalis corniculatacreeping yellow wood-sorrel
Distribution: Scattered locations throughout Washington; distributed widely throughout North America.
Habitat: A weed of gardens, disturbed areas, and waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Oxalis dilleniislender yellow wood-sorrel
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open areas, often where moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: February-October
Oxalis exilis
Origin: Introduced
Oxalis oreganaredwood-sorrel, Oregon wood-sorrel
Distribution: Olympic Mountains and west slope of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Oxalis strictaupright yellow wood-sorrel
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington, more common west of the Cascades; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, lawns and gardens.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Oxalis suksdorfiiwestern yellow wood-sorrel
Distribution: West of the Casccades in Washington; southern Washington to northwest California.
Habitat: Low elevations, usually in moist, coastal woods but sometimes on rather dry, open slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Oxalis trilliifoliagreat wood-sorrel, trillium-leaf wood-sorrel
Distribution: West slope of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to northwest California.
Habitat: Meadows and moist woods in the coastal mountains and up to 6000 feet in the Cascades.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Oxybasis chenopodioideslow goosefoot, red goosefoot
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Oxybasis glaucaglaucous goosefoot, oakleaf goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring along the southern border east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, sometimes disturbed, areas, often where soil is alkaline or saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. glauca – oak-leaf goosefoot
ssp. salina – Rocky Mountain goosefoot
Oxybasis macrospermalarge seed goosefoot
Origin: Introduced
Oxybasis rubrared goosefoot
Distribution: Widely distributed, British Columbia to Newfoundland, south across the United States.
Habitat: Moist, saline soils.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: July - October
var. humilis – marshland goosefoot
var. rubra – red goosefoot
Oxyria digynamountain-sorrel
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico; also across Canada to Labrador, and the Olympics in Washington
Habitat: Moist, usually rocky ground, alpine to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late June - August
Oxytheca dendroideatreelike puncturebract
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
ssp. dendroidea – treeline puncturebract
Oxytropis borealisboreal crazyweed, boreal locoweed
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Rocky Mountains, also in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. viscida – sticky boreal crazyweed, sticky boreal locoweed
Oxytropis campestrisfield locoweed, yellow locoweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings and rocky balds from sea-level to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. columbiana – slender crazyweed
var. cusickii – Cusick's field crazyweed, Cusick's field locoweed
var. spicata – yellow-flowered crazyweed, yellow-flowered locoweed
var. wanapum – Wanapum crazyweed, Wanapum locoweed
Oxytropis deflexapendent-pod crazyweed, pendent-pod locoweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Montane forest openings and meadows to the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
var. sericea – pendent-pod crazyweed, pendent-pod locoweed
Ozomelis diversifoliaangle-leaf bishop's-cap
Distribution: Occurring from in southern Cascade Mountains from Mt. Adams south in Washington; Washington south to the Trinity Mountains of northwest California.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Ozomelis stauropetalacross-shaped mitrewort, side-flowered mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah.
Habitat: Open to dense moist woods at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Ozomelis trifidathree-toothed mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Idaho.
Habitat: Moist forests, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July