Betulaceae
Birch Family
3 genera
15 species
6 subspecies and varieties
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Alnus glutinosaBlack alder, European alder
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in King County, where escaping from a wetland restoration planting. Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetlands at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Alnus incanamountain alder
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to New Mexico, also in the north-central and northeastern region of North America.
Habitat: Moist places, streamside, low to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. tenuifolia – mountain alder
Alnus rhombifoliaCalifornia alder, white alder
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California and Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Near streams at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-April
Growth Duration: perennial
Alnus rubraOregon alder, red alder
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, disjunct to the east in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: perennial
Alnus viridisgreen alder, mountain alder
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist areas, low to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. fruticosa – Siberian alder
ssp. sinuata – mountain alder, Sitka alder
Betula glandulosadwarf birch, resin birch, swamp birch
Distribution: Alaska south to the Sierra of California, east to Nevada and Colorado, and also to Newfoundland and New York.
Habitat: Stream banks, margins of marshes, lakes and bogs, and on alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late April - early July
Growth Duration: perennial
Betula occidentalisred birch, river birch, water birch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east in Canada to Ontario, east in the U.S. to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist areas, streambanks at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-June
Growth Duration: perennial
Betula papyriferacanoe birch, paper birch, western paper birch, white birch
Distribution: Alaska to Oregon, east of the Cascades except in northwest Washington, east to the Atlantic coast
Habitat: Moist, open to dense woods, low to moderate elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: March - May
Growth Duration: perennial
Betula pendulaEuropean weeping birch
Distribution: Occurring in Washington on both sides of the Cascades; Introduced as an ornamental in Washington; occurring in isolated locations in south-central Canada and the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas associated with urban and suburban development where the trees escape from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: perennial
Betula populifolia
Origin: Introduced
Betula pubescens
Origin: Introduced
Betula pumilabog birch, dwarf birch, swamp birch
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: perennial
Betula ×utahensis
Origin: Native
Flowers: March - May
Growth Duration: perennial
Corylus avellanacommon filbert, European hazelnut
Distribution: Widely planted as an ornamental and occasionally naturalizing in western Washington lowlands; British Columbia south to Oregon.
Habitat: Abandoned plantings, roadsides, waste sites, forest edge.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: January-April
Growth Duration: perennial
Corylus cornutabeaked hazelnut
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge and openings, thickets, and rocky slopes at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-March
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. californica – California hazelnut
ssp. cornuta – beaked hazelnut