– deer fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, also from southeastern British Columbia to southern Idaho.
Habitat: Forest understory, sometimes where moist, sea level to mid-elevations.
– giant chain fern
Distribution: Occurring in lowland western Washington; southern Vancouver Island to California, also in Nevada and Arizona.
Habitat: Mixed conifer and mixed conifer-hardwood forests, always where moist such as stream banks, springs, and seepy rocky outcrops.
Growth Duration: perennial