Brassicaceae
Mustard Family
Synonyms:
Cruciferae [HC]
57 genera
170 species
20 subspecies and varieties
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Alliaria petiolatagarlic mustard
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in Utah, widespread from central Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest understory, often where moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Alyssum alyssoidessmall alyssum, pale madwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows, forest openings, sagebrush flats, roadsides, fields, and disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Alyssum desertorumdesert alyssum
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; widely distributed throughout central and western North America.
Habitat: Dry, open ground, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Arabidopsis kamchaticakamchatka rockcress, lyre-leaved rockcress, western rockcress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in northwestern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Northwest Territory and Sasketchewan.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine scree and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arabidopsis thalianamouse-ear cress, thalecress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, particularly near cities and towns.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Arabis alpina
Origin: Introduced
Arabis caucasicamountain rockcress
Distribution: Known only from San Juan County in Washington; Yukon Territory to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas at low elevation, often near where cultivated.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arabis crucisetosacrosshaired rockcress
Distribution: Occurring in the southeastern corner of Washington; Snake River canyon, Asotin County, Washington, east to west-central Idaho.
Habitat: Wet banks to moist soil or coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arabis eschscholtzianahairy rockcress, Pacific coast rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open areas, often in waste places, from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Arabis furcataCascade rockcress, Columbia Gorge rockcress, fork-haired rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Open slopes, meadows, and ridgelines in alpine and subalpine areas, and exposed areas in the Columbia River Gorge.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arabis nuttalliiNuttall's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; eastern British Columbia to eastern Washington, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Moist flats, often sheltered by shrubs, from the foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arabis olympicaOlympics rockcress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Olympic Mountains.
Habitat: Talus slopes and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Armoracia rusticanahorseradish
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Athysanus pusillussandweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open, often grassy places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Aubrieta deltoidearockcress
Habitat: Disturbed areas, where escaping from nearby cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Barbarea orthocerasAmerican wintercress rocket, yellow rocket
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Meadows, stream banks and moist woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Barbarea vernaBelle Isle cress, land cress, early yellow rocket, scurvygrass, early wintercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Colorado; also in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Barbarea vulgarisyellow rocket, bitter wintercress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Garden escape, found chiefly in wet places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Berteroa incanahoary alyssum
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Uncommon in dry, waste places in most of the Pacific Northwest; common in northeast Washington.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Boechera atrorubensdark-red-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings and meadows, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera calderiCalder's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern and central Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine ridges and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera cascadensisCascades rockcress
Origin: Native
Boechera cusickiiCusick's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; east-central Washington to Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush flats to open Ponderosa pine forests, often on lithosol.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera divaricarpaspreading-pod rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: From middle elevations to subalpine areas in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera grahamiiGraham's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to New England.
Habitat: Rocky and sandy soil, prairies to open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera lemmoniiLemmon's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine meadows, ridges and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera lyalliiLyall's rockcress, murry's rockcress
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountains throughout Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine ridges, cliffs, and drier meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera microphyllalittle-leaf rockcress, small-leaved rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Low montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera paddoensisMt. Adams rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from the Wenatchee Mountains to the Mt. Adams area; Washington to northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera paucifloraColumbia rockcress, few-flowered rockcress, small-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia o California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush and ponderosa pine openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera pauperculasmall-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky slopes and talus, subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera pendulocarpadangle-pod rockcress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush, ponderosa pine openings, and open slopes at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera polyanthamany-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to northeastern Oregon, east to western Montana and southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Open, rocky or gravelly areas from low to middle elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera puberulaBlue Mountain rockcress, hoary rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Rocky slopes and hillsides among sagebrush or open woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera retrofractareflexed rockcress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to Ontario.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera sparsifloraelegant rockcress, slender rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: From sagebrush plains to forest openings and meadows at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera strictaCanadian rockcress, Drummond's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska o California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east along the northern U.S. and southern Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open areas in the forest from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera suffrutescenswoody rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington to California, east to central Idaho.
Habitat: Rocky slopes and dry ridges in ponderosa pine forest openings and sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Brassica junceabrown mustard, leaf mustard
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Brassica napusrapeseed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots, where often escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Brassica nigrablack mustard
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Distrubed areas such as roadsides, fields, and waste lots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Brassica oleraceacabbage, wild cabbage
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington and California; more commonly found in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Brassica rapacommon mustard, field mustard, wild turnip
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-Septemeber
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cakile edentulaAmerican sea-rocket
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; Alaska to California along the coast, native to the Great Lakes region and coastal eastern North America.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
var. edentula – American sea-rocket
Cakile maritimaEuropean sea-rocket
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; British Columbia to California along the coast, also along the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
ssp. maritima – European sea-rocket
Camelina microcarpahairy false flax, littlepod false flax
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush, roadsides, ponderosa pine forest openings, and disturbed sites in seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Capsella bursa-pastorisshepherd's-purse
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cardamine angulataangled bittercress, seaside bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Wet ground, especially along stream banks, often in deep woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine bellidifoliaalpine bittercress
Distribution: Occurring In the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada to far northeastern North America
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine breweriBrewer's bittercress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado
Habitat: Stream margins, wet meadows, pond shores, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine cordifoliaheart-leaved bittercress, large mountain bittercress, Lyall's bittercress
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and in southeastern Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Mountain stream banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine flexuosawavy bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, often where moist or shaded.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cardamine hirsutahairy bittercress, shotweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, and throughout much of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cardamine nuttalliibeautiful bittercres, Nuttall's toothwort, slender toothwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Seasonally moist soils of forest openings to forest understory, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine occidentaliswestern bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Muddy ground, lake margins, shallow streams, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine occultawood bittercress
Origin: Introduced
Cardamine oligospermafew-seeded bittercress, little western bittercress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Widespread, but mostly in seasonally wet, open or forested areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cardamine pensylvanicaPennsylvania bittercress, quaker bittercress
Distribution: Widespread on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east through the Rockies to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist to wet soils, or on the margins of wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Cardamine pratensiscuckooflower
Distribution: Currently known only from King County in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon; more commonly found in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including lawns and forest edges of urban and suburban areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine umbellataSiberian bittercress, umbellate bittercress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine or alpine cliffs, talus slopes, and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Caulanthus lasiophylluswild cabbage, California mustard
Distribution: Reported from Washington; Washington to Baja California, Mexico, east to Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sandy banks, gravelly or rocky areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Chorispora tenellacrossflower, blue mustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe habitat, both degraded and intact; disturbed areas, roadsides, and pastures.
Origin: Introduced from sw Asia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cochlearia groenlandicascurvy-grass, Danish scurvygrass, spoonwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Conringia orientalishare's-ear mustard, treacle mustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, waste places, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cusickiella douglasiialkali false whitlow-grass, Douglas' whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the south-central area of Washington along the Columbia River; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky ridges of the sagebrush desert, up into the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Descurainia incanamountain tansymustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Casades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sagebrush and confier forest openings from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Descurainia incisacut-leaved tansymustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moderately dry forest openings and sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. incisa – cut-leaved tansymustard
Descurainia longepedicellatamountain tansymustard, narrow tansymustard, sticky tansymustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains from Montana to Arizona, but not New Mexico.
Habitat: Moderately dry forest openings and sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Descurainia nelsoniiNelson's tansymustard, sagebrush tansymustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagrebrush desert to open montane forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Descurainia pinnatawestern tansymustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Weedy native of fairly dry, open ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. brachycarpa – shortpod tansymustard, western tansymustard
Descurainia sophiaflixweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Weed of dry waste ground and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Diplotaxis tenuifoliaslimleaf wall rocket
Origin: Introduced
Draba albertinaAlaska draba, slender whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Montane forest openings to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Draba aureagolden draba, golden whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska to north-central Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains; Greenland.
Habitat: Montane forest to alpine ridges or meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba aureolaalpine whitlow-grass, great alpine whitlow-grass, Mt. Lassen whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Mount Rainier area; Washington to northern California
Habitat: Alpine areas, including scree and moraine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Draba canalance-leaved draba
Distribution: Reported from northern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: On open knolls or dry meadows to rock crevices, from subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba crassifoliaRocky Mountain draba, thick-leaved draba, snowbed whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and North Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Washington, Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across northern Canada to Greenland; northern Europe.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows, often in rock crevices and outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Draba densifoliaNuttall's draba, dense-leaf whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky places from mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba incertawhitlow-wort, Yellowstone draba whitlow-wort
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba lonchocarpalancefruit draba, whitlow-wort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territories, south in Rocky mountains to Colorado.
Habitat: Alpine slopes, talus, and rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba nemorosawoods draba, woodland whitlow-grass
Distribution: In scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of the U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas and forest edges at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Draba novolympicaPayson's draba, Payson's whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains of Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open slopes, talus ridges, and other exposed areas in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba oligospermafew-seeded draba, few-seeded whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: From sagebrush plains to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba platycarpabroad-pod whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring in the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington, northeastern Oregon, and adjacent Idaho, east to the south-central U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to desert washes and hillsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Draba praealtatall whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, e to Northwest Territories, Alberta Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and central Nevada.
Habitat: Montane woodland to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Draba reptansCarolina whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Desert plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Draba ruaxescoast mountain draba, coast mountain whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Rock crevices and slopes at or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba stenolobaAlaska whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Sublapine meadows to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Draba taylori
Origin: Native
Draba taylorii
Distribution: Occurring along and east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges, and benches in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba thompsoniiThompson's draba
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; southern British Columbia to central Washington, disjunct in Yukon Territory.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine talus slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Draba vernaspring whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and from the central U.S. and eastern Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, grasslands, and open disturbed areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: February-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Eruca vesicariaarugula
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Grain fields and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. sativa – garden rocket
Erucastrum gallicumdog mustard, hairy rocket
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Erysimum arenicolasand-dwelling wallflower
Distribution: Occurring chiefly in the mountainous areas of Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Open ridges and rock crevices, moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Erysimum capitatumsand dune wallflower
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the southern Great Plains, and the midwestern and mid-Atlantic U.S.
Habitat: Often in sandy soil, from sagebrush desert plains to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
var. capitatum – prairie rocket, rough wallflower
Erysimum cheiranthoidestreacle mustard, wormseed wallflower
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Erysimum cheiriAegean wallflower
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, and in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Erysimum occidentalepale wallflower, western wallflower
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington north-central and northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Erysimum repandumspreading wallflower
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Alaska, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wasteland in dry areas, plains and lower mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Euclidium syriacumeuclidium, Syrian mustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also along the coast in northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Hesperis matronalismother-of-the-evening, dame's rocket
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, disturbed forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Hirschfeldia incanaMediterranean hoary mustard, short-podded mustard, summer mustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Hornungia procumbenshutchinsia, prostrate hutchinsia, ovalpurse
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, central Canada, and Newfoundland.
Habitat: Open areas where seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe, North Africa, and Asia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Idahoa scapigeraflatpod, scalepod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Lepidium appelianumglobepodded hoarycress, whitetop
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern U.,S.
Habitat: Disturbed soil, waste areas, in dry and moist places.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lepidium campestrefield cress, field peppergrass, pepperwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, river and stream banks, wastelots, and other distrubed open, often dry soils.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lepidium chalepensechalapa hoarycress, lens-podded hoarycress, Asian white-top
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, especially where dry, often associated with agriculture.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lepidium densiflorumcommon peppergrass, elongate peppergrass, hairy-fruited peppergrass, large-fruited peppergrass, prairie peppergrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lepidium dictyotumalkali peppergrass, veiny peppergrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Open areas often where seasonally moist, such as vernal ponds; tolerant of alkaline soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Lepidium didymumlesser swinecress, lesser wartcress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, Arizona, and Texas eastward and northward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, gardens and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from South America (or possibly Eurasia)
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lepidium drabaheart-podded hoarycress, hoary pepperwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, sagebrush desert, wastelots, and disturbed areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lepidium heterophyllumpurple-anther pepperweed, Smith's pepperweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, also in scattered locations in the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, pastures, wastelots, and other disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lepidium latifoliumdittander, broad-leaved peppergrass, broad-leaved pepperwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, moist areas, irrigated land, stream banks, and drier upland areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lepidium nitidumshining peppergrass
Distribution: Known from Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Lepidium oblongum
Origin: Introduced
Lepidium oxycarpumforked pepperwort, sharpfruited pepperwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the San Juan Islands; disjunct in southern Vancouver Island and adjacent San Juan Islands, otherwise occurring in central California.
Habitat: Vernal pools and saline soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Lepidium perfoliatumclasping-leaved peppergrass, round-leaved peppergrass, yellow-flowered peppergrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, such as overgrazed land and waste areas, usually where dry.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lepidium ramosissimumbranched peppergrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sagebrush, ponderosa pine forest openings, roadsides, fields, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Lepidium strictumupright peppergrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; western Washington to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Lepidium virginicumtall pepperweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Beach strand, grassy balds, grasslands, and other open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. menziesii – coastal peppergrass, hairy peppergrass
ssp. virginicum – tall peppergrass
Lobularia maritimasweet alyssum
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and southwestern U.S., eastward to also occurring throughout central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Escaping from cultivation to roadsides, pastures, and other disturbed areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from the western Mediterranean
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Lunaria annuahonesty, money plant
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Utah; also distributed throughout eastern North America.
Habitat: Escaping from cultivation to urban forests, roadsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from southeast Europe
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Matthiola incanahoary stock
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; also known from California and Texas.
Habitat: Roadsides, sandy cliffs, beaches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Matthiola longipetala
Origin: Introduced
Microthlaspi perfoliatumperfoliate pennycress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington and western Idaho, also in the central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, pastures, and other open, disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Nasturtium microphyllumonerow watercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming; also in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Shallow water, ditches, and marshy areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Nasturtium officinalewatercress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Riparian zones and other wet areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Neslia paniculataball mustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Ocean.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and forest openings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Noccaea fendleriwild candytuft, Fendler's pennycress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Common in open, rocky areas from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. glauca – wild candytuft
Phoenicaulis cheiranthoidesdaggerpod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe and open ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Physaria alpestrisalpine twinpod, Washington twinpod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan, Kittitas and Yakima counties.
Habitat: Open rocky areas, scree and talus slopes, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Physaria didymocarpacommon twinpod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Talus, gravel bars, outcrops, dry slopes, prairies, road cuts
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. didymocarpa – common twinpod
Physaria douglasiiColumbia bladderpod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northern Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Common in sagebrush desert, especially near or in juniper or ponderosa pine woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. douglasii – Columbia bladderpod
ssp. tuplashensis – White Bluffs bladderpod
Physaria geyeriGeyer's bladderpod, Geyer's twinpod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Gravelly stream banks and hillsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. geyeri – double bladderpod, Geyer's bladderpod, Geyer's twinpod
Physaria occidentaliswestern bladderpod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. occidentalis – western bladderpod
Physaria oregonaOregon twinpod
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern corner of Washington; southeastern Washington to Oregon, east to adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry areas including rocky slopes, gravel banks, and stream shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polyctenium fremontiicombleaf
Distribution: Known only from Grant County in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Open areas in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Raphanus raphanistrumjointed charlock, wild radish
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other distrubed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced, probably from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Raphanus sativusgarden radish
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other distrubed areas.
Origin: Introduced, probably from Mediterranean Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Rorippa austriacaAustrian yellowcress field-cress
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, eastward across North America in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rorippa columbiaeColumbia yellowcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Moist, sandy soil at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rorippa curvipesblunt-leaved yellowcress, truncate yellowcress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains and central U.S.
Habitat: Wet areas including streambanks, lake shores, wet meadows, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Rorippa curvisiliquawestern yellowcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada.
Habitat: Stream banks and moist soil, low to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Rorippa palustrishispid yellowcress, marsh yellowcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet ground at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
ssp. hispida – hispid yellowcress
ssp. palustris – marsh yellowcress
Rorippa sinuataspreading yellowcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to central North America.
Habitat: Wet areas including pond and lake margins, stream banks, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rorippa sphaerocarparoundfruit yellowcress
Origin: Native
Rorippa sylvestriscreeping yellowcress
Distribution: Known only from Whitman County in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed, moist areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rorippa tenerrimaModoc yellowcress
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual
Sandbergia perplexapuzzling halimolobos
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Douglas County; disjunct in central Washington, otherwise to western Idaho to southwestern Montana.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, typically on lithosol.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sandbergia whitediifissurewort, Whited's halimolobos
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Dry scabland, forest openings, talus slopes and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sinapis albawhite mustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sinapis arvensischarlock, corn mustard, wild mustard
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste places and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region, reaching North America perhaps as early as 8000 years bp (Jacobson et al. 1988)
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sisymbrium altissimumJim Hill mustard, tumble mustard, tall rocket
Distribution: Distributed throughout Washington but more common east of the Cascades; occurring throughout North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, grasslands, and waste ground, especially following rangeland fires.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Sisymbrium linifoliumlava cress, rush mustard, flax-leaved plainsmustard, Salmon River plainsmustard
Distribution: East of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Arizona (not including California), east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe communities, rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sisymbrium loeseliifalse london rocket, Loesel's tumblemustard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Nevada, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides and drier disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Sisymbrium officinalehedge mustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Waste ground and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Smelowskia americanaalpine smelowskia, Siberian smelowskia
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Rocky areas at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smelowskia ovalisshort-fruited smelowskia
Distribution: In the Cascade Mountains in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Rocky crevices, moraines, ridges and talus slopes in alpine and sup-alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Streptanthella longirostrislong-beaked fiddle mustard, streptanthella
Distribution: Occurring in south-central Washington; Washington south to California, east to Wyoming and New Mexico.
Habitat: Open desert and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Subularia aquatica
Distribution: Known from a few locations in northwestern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shallow water or mud flats of ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams, tidal flats, wet meadows, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. americana – awlwort
Teesdalia nudicaulisshepherd's cress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Sandy or gravelly soil at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Thelypodium howelliiHowell's thelypody
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
ssp. howellii – Howell's thelypody
Thelypodium integrifoliumentire-leaved thelypody
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to central Oregon and Nevada, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to streambanks in the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. integrifolium – entire-leaved thelypody
Thelypodium laciniatumcut-leaf thelypody, thick-leaved thelypody
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Rock cliffs and dry, rocky areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Thelypodium milleflorummany flowered thelypody
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Rock cliffs and dry, rocky areas in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Thelypodium sagittatumslender thelypody
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
ssp. sagittatum – sagittate thelypody, slender thelypody
Thlaspi arvensefanweed, field pennycress
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; widely introduced throughout North America.
Habitat: Weed of waste ground, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Thysanocarpus curvipessand fringepod, lacepod
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Uncommon on dry, open hillsides and borders of woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Turritis glabratower mustard
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally moist, sometimes rocky, soil in open woods, clearings, and grassy balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial