Dryopteridaceae
Wood Fern Family
2 genera
19 species
1 subspecies and varieties
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Dryopteris argutacoastal fern, marginal wood fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, also in north-central Idaho and Arizona.
Habitat: Mostly in the woods, but occasionally in more open areas.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris carthusianaspinulose fern, toothed wood fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris cristatacrested wood fern, shield fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Idaho, east across northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America; also in Europe.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris expansanorthern fern, spreading wood fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to wet woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris filix-masmale fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist shaded talus and rocky stream banks, lowland to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Spores: April-August
Polystichum andersoniiAnderson's sword fern, Vancouver holly fern
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to northern Oregon, northern Idaho, and northwest Montana; also in the Olympic Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Deep woods and thickets in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Polystichum brauniiBraun's holly-fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Pend Oreille County. Alaska to northeastern Washington, east to northern Idaho, also from Great Lakes region to northeastern North America; interruptedly circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forest, often where rocky.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-October
Polystichum californicumCalifornia sword fern
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist forest understory at low elevations, typically in rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Polystichum imbricansimbricate sword-fern, rock sword-fern
Distribution: Cascades of central Washington south to California, and in the Olympics; sometimes on serpentine
Habitat: Dry, rocky places, open areas and open woods, at mid-elevations
Origin: Native
ssp. imbricans – imbricate fern, narrow-leaved sword fern
Polystichum kruckebergiiholly fern, Kruckeberg's sword fern fern
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically among rocks; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Polystichum kruckebergii × Polystichum munitumhybrid holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmoniiLemmon's holly fern, Shasta fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in the northern half of Washington, particularly common in the Wenatchee Mountains; southern British Columbia, northern Washington, disjunct in the Wallowa Mts., and in southwestern Oregon and northern California.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes near timberline in the mountains, chiefly on serpentine.
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum munitumhidden sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum scopulinumserpentine holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lonchitismountain fern, northern holly fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; Greenland.
Habitat: Talus slopes and cliff crevices, occasionally in coniferous forests, middle to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Polystichum munitumcommon sword fern, western fern
Distribution: In forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to Montana, and disjunct in South Dakota.
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods, in open to deep shade; from sea-level to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores year-round on fronds
Polystichum munitum × Polystichum scopulinumhybrid sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum scopulinummountain holly fern, rock sword fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically associated with rock outcroppings and crevices; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native