Orchidaceae
Orchid Family
12 genera
36 species
15 subspecies and varieties
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Calypso bulbosacalypso, fairy-slipper, Venus-slipper
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Mostly in cool, deep shade of moist forests in soil rich in humus, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: perennial
var. americana – calypso, fairy-slipper, Venus-slipper
var. occidentalis – calypso, fairy-slipper, Venus-slipper
Cephalanthera austiniaephantom orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Blue Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Generally deep coniferous woods where somewhat moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Corallorhiza maculataspotted coralroot
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across southern Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. maculata – spotted coralroot
var. occidentalis – western spotted coralroot
var. ozettensis – ozette coralroot
Corallorhiza mertensianaPacific coralroot, western coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Usually in moist coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Corallorhiza striatastriped coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east along the U.S. and Canadian border to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist humus in shady coniferous and deciduous forests, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: perennial
var. striata – hooded coralroot, striped coralroot
var. vreelandii – Vreeland's striped coralroot
Corallorhiza trifidaearly coralroot, northern coralroot, yellow coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, eas across t the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine in the Pacific Northswest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Cypripedium ×columbianumColumbia lady's-slipper, hybrid lady's-slipper
Origin: Native
Cypripedium fasciculatumclustered lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Santa Cruz County, California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry and rocky, open coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Cypripedium montanummountain lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry to moist open woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Cypripedium parviflorumyellow lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; throughout most of Canada and the central, southeastern, and northeastern regions of the U.S.
Habitat: Fens, wetlands, shorelines, and damp woodlands, often where calcareous.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: perennial
var. makasin – mocassin yellow lady's-slipper
var. pubescens – hairy yellow lady's-slipper
Dactylorhiza viridisfrog orchid, long-bracted green orchid
Distribution: Known only from Okanogan County in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to wet meadows at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Epipactis giganteagiant helleborine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains and in scattered locations in the Great Plains.
Habitat: Stream banks, lake margins, around springs and seeps, especially in thermal waters in otherwise desert regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: perennial
Epipactis helleborinebroad-leaved helleborine, garden helleborine
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland areas in Washington; British Columbia to California, in scattered locations across North America to the Atlantic Coast, where more common.
Habitat: Moist to dry forest edge and understory, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: perennial
Goodyera oblongifoliagiant rattlesnake-plantain, western rattlesnake-plantain
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the mountainous and forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes Region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry to moist forests, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Liparis loeseliifen orchid, Loesel's twayblade
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in south-central Washington; Northwest Territory to Washington, east to Montana; also from Canadian Great Plains to eastern North America where more common; also in western and central Europe.
Habitat: Around springs and in bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Malaxis monophylloswhite adder's-mouth, one-leaved malaxis
Origin: Native
var. brachypoda – North American white adder's-mouth
Neottia banksiananorthwestern twayblade
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist forests and wet meadows, lowlands to subalpine elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Neottia borealisnorthern twayblade
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central and northeastern Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to northern Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist, rich coniferous forest understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Neottia convallarioidesbroad-lip twayblade
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in the forested and mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and from the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist forests and wet meadows, from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Neottia cordataheart-leaf twayblade
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but chiefly west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, further east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Humus-rich, often damp, forest understory, sometimes along streams, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Platanthera aquiloniseagle rein orchid, Sheviak's bog orchid
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in north-central and northeastern Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows from the montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Platanthera chorisianachoriso bog orchid
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest, where known only from Snohomish County in Washington; Aleutian Islands to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and in Snohomish County, Washington.
Habitat: Moist areas, especially at the edges of streams and bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Platanthera dilatatabog-candle, boreal bog-orchid, white orchid, white rein-orchid, scent-bottle
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest through the mountainous and forested areas of Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, forest openings, and streambanks from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: perennial
var. albiflora – white bog-orchid
var. dilatata – white bog-orchid
var. leucostachys – white bog-orchid
Platanthera eleganselegant rein-orchid, hillside rein orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Mostly in dry, open woods and hills where moist in spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
ssp. elegans – elegant rein-orchid, hillside rein-orchid
Platanthera elongatadense orchid, dense-flower rein orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open forest from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Platanthera ephemeranthawhite-lip rein-orchid
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forest at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Platanthera huronensisnorthern green bog-orchid
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from north-central to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to boggy areas, often on limestone, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Platanthera obtusatasmall northern bog-orchid, blunt-leaf rein-orchid, one-leaf rein-orchid
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Okanogan County, Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming and Colorado, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; Eurasia.
Habitat: Damp to wet forests at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: perennial
ssp. obtusata – small northern bog-orchid, blunt-leaf rein-orchid, one-leaf rein-orchid
Platanthera orbiculatalarge round-leaf orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast, also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Moist, mossy forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Platanthera sparsifloracanyon bog orchid
Distribution: Known only from Skamania County in Washington; south-central Washington to Baja California, east to Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet meadows, fens, and seeps.
Origin: Native
Platanthera strictacanyon bog orchid, needle-spur green orchid, slender bog orchid
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows, swamps and coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Platanthera transversaroyal rein orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Forest understory from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Platanthera unalascensisAlaska rein-orchid
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Nebraska, also from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open woods and gravelly streambanks, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Spiranthes diluvialisdiluvial ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to wet meadows, marshes, and riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial
Spiranthes porrifoliawestern ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Moist to swampy areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: perennial
Spiranthes romanzoffianahooded ladies'-tresses
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Seasonally moist to swampy areas, sometimes in disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: perennial