Pinaceae
Pine Family
6 genera
18 species
8 subspecies and varieties
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Abies amabilisPacific silver fir
Distribution: On both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Siskiyou County, California, mostly west of the Cascade Crest.
Habitat: Mostly at 1000-4000 feet elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Abies grandisgrand fir
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Coniferous forests, from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Abies lasiocarpaalpine fir, subalpine fir
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; Alaska south to southern Oregon, east in the higher mountains to Alberta, Canada, and Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine slopes, where commonly in krumholtz form.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July
ssp. bifolia – Rocky Mountain subalpine fir
ssp. lasiocarpa – subalpine fir
Abies proceranoble fir
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; from northern Washington to the Siskiyou Mountains in California, and in the Coast Range in Oregon.
Habitat: Deep forests where there is sufficient moisture, moderate to fairly high elevations.
Origin: Native
Larix lyalliisubalpine larch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to the central Cascades and Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, east to Montana and Alberta.
Habitat: Generally near timberline, preferring north-facing slopes.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July (cone production)
Larix occidentaliswestern larch
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Mountain valleys to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Picea ×albertianainterior spruce
Origin: Native
Picea engelmanniiEngelmann's spruce
Distribution: British Columbia south through the Cascades of Washington and Oregon to Shasta County, California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moderate to high elevations in the mountains, mostly where somewhat moist.
Origin: Native
Cones: New cones from June-August
var. engelmannii – Engelmann spruce
Picea sitchensisSitka spruce
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Along the coast, from sea level up to about 2,000 feet in moist valleys.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Pinus albicauliswhite-bark pine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Wyoming and Montana.
Habitat: Generally near timberline, preferring south-facing slopes.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July
Pinus contortalodgepole pine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and South Dakota.
Habitat: Dry montane forests, rocky balds, coastal bluffs and sand dunes, and sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Cones: April-June
var. contorta – shore pine
var. latifolia – lodgepole pine
Pinus monticolawestern white pine
Distribution: British Columbia to California, east to Utah and Montana; in the Washington Olympics
Habitat: Moist valleys and drier slopes, near sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Cones: May - June
Pinus ponderosabull pine, ponderosa pine, western yellow pine
Distribution: Occurring mostly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Mostly dry areas in open forests at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
var. ponderosa – ponderosa pine, western yellow pine
Pseudotsuga menziesiiDouglas-fir
Distribution: Widely distributed in forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to dry areas from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains, occasionally to timberline.
Origin: Native
Cones: April-May
var. glauca – pino real Colorado, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir
var. menziesii – coast Douglas-fir
Tsuga heterophyllawestern hemlock
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the northeast counties in Washington; Alaska to California, also in southeastern British Columbia, northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Moist, deep forests from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Tsuga ×jeffreyi
Origin: Native
Tsuga mertensianamountain hemlock
Distribution: Alaska to california, east to Montana; in both Olympics and Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Cones: June - July