Saxifragaceae
Saxifrage Family
22 genera
55 species
12 subspecies and varieties
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Bolandra oregananorthern false coolwort
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge and east of the crest in southeastern Washington; Washington to Oregon along the lower Columbia River Gorge, and along the Snake River and its tributaries in Oregon and Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, mossy rocks, usually near waterfalls.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boykinia intermediagreater boykinia, Sierran brookfoam
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Washington to central Oregon.
Habitat: Moist woods, meadows, streambanks, roadside ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boykinia occidentaliscoastal brookfoam
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist woods and along streams, lowlands and along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewerimitella brewerifeathery bishop's-cap, Brewer's mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist mountain valleys and wooded slopes to timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewerimitella ovaliscoastal bishop's-cap, coastal mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Deep, moist woodlands, bottomlands, and wet banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cascadia nuttalliiNuttall's saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula and south in Washington; Washington south along the coast to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Wet banks and near waterfalls, usually growing in moss, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chrysosplenium glechomifoliumPacific golden-saxifrage, Pacific watercarpet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist, usually swampy places, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chrysosplenium tetrandrumnorthern golden-saxifrage
Distribution: In Washington known only from the north-central part of the state: Alaska south to Washington, east to Montana and Colorado in the U.S., east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumpolar.
Habitat: Rock crevices and wet banks and slopes, high elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elmera racemosaElmera
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; Washington south to Oregon.
Habitat: Rock crevices and rocky ridges and slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. puberulenta – fuzzy elmera
var. racemosa – common elmera
Hemieva ranunculifoliabuttercup-leaf mock brookfoam
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northern California, east to Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Foothills to subalpine slopes, on wet, mossy rocks, often where dry by mid-summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Heuchera chloranthagreen-flowered alumroot, meadow alumroot, tall alumroot
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to southern Oregon.
Habitat: Gravelly prairies and wooded hillsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Heuchera cylindricalava alumroot, poker alumroot, roundleaf alumroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Wyoming, and Nevada.
Habitat: Rocky soil, cliffs and talus slopes, foothills to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Heuchera glabraalpine alumroot, smooth alumroot
Distribution: Occurring in the mountainous areas in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Streambanks and moist rocks, from the coast to above timberline
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Heuchera grossulariifoliagooseberry-leaved alumroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Columbia River Gorge in south-central Washington; Columbia River Gorge to Nevada, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Grassy canyons and rocky canyon walls to alpine scree and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. grossulariifolia – gooseberry-leaved alumroot
var. tenuifolia – gooseberry-leaved alumroot
Heuchera micranthacrevice alumroot, small-flowered alumroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Gravelly stream banks, rock crevices, grassy balds, and talus slopes, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. diversifolia – small-flowered alumroot
var. hartwegii – Hartweg's small-flowered alumroot
var. micrantha – small-flowered alumroot
Leptarrhena pyrolifolialeatherleaf saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, including the Olympic Mountains; Alaska to Oregon, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, and Montana.
Habitat: Streambanks, seeps and wet meadows, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lithophragma glabrumbulbiferous prairie star, bulbous woodland star
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands and sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lithophragma parviflorumsmall-flower prairie star, small-flower woodland star
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, sagebrush desert, and forest openings, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lithophragma tenellumslender prairie star, slender woodland star
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forests openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes apetalaTiny swamp saxifrage, western swamp saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes ferruginearusty saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains, and in the mountains of northeastern in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open, moist, often rocky areas, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes fragosaClayton's saxifrage
Distribution: East of Cascades in Washington, south to Oregon and east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet slopes and cliffs, often near watercourses.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes gormaniiGorman's saxifrage
Origin: Native
Micranthes idahoensisIdaho saxifrage
Distribution: Washington and Oregon, east to Montana and Idaho.
Habitat: Exposed areas, ledges, and open slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes integrifoliaColumbian saxifrage, swamp saxifrage, whole-leaf saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, grassy slopes and vernally moist areas, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes lyalliiLyall's saxifrage, red-stemmed saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet, gravelly meadows and along streams and ponds at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes nelsonianadotted saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Nunavut and Alberta.
Habitat: Montane wet areas and streambanks from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. cascadensis – Cascades dotted saxifrage, Nelson's saxifrage
Micranthes nidificaColumbia saxifrage, swamp saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northeast California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Prairies and wet banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes occidentalismountain saxifrage, redwool saxifrage, western saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to Saskatachewan, Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota.
Habitat: Dry to wet open areas, rock crevices, meadows, and streambanks from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes odontolomabrook saxifrage, streambank saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, lake shores and wet meadows from low elevations in the mountains to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes oreganabog saxifrage, Oregon saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and Colorado.
Habitat: Bogs, streambanks and wet meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes rufidularusty-hair saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Wet open areas, ledges, rock outcroppings from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes tischiiOlympic saxifrage
Distribution: Olympic Peninsula endemic
Habitat: Forested ledges and rock crevices where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Micranthes tolmieialpine saxifrage, Tolmie's alpine saxifrage, Tolmie's saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, scree, and rock crevices at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mitella nudabare-stemmed mitrewort
Distribution: Alaska south to the Cascades of northwest Washington, east to Labrador and south to north-central Montana.
Habitat: Damp woods, along streams and in bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mitellastra caulescensleafy mitrewort, star-shaped mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northwest California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Shady woods, wet meadows and swamps, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ozomelis diversifoliaangle-leaf bishop's-cap
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; southern Washington to northwestern California.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ozomelis stauropetalacross-shaped mitrewort, side-flowered mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah.
Habitat: Open to dense moist woods at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ozomelis trifidathree-toothed mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist forests, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pectiantia pentandrafive-stamen bishop's-cap, alpine mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Wet meadows and moist woods, especially along streams, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifraga adscendenswedge-leaf saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington and possibly in the Olympic Mountains; Alaska to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Glacial moraines and alpine gravelly meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifraga austromontanamatted saxifrage, spotted saxifrage
Distribution: Alaska to Greenland, south in the Cascades to Oregon, and in the Rockies to New Mexico
Habitat: Cliff crevices, talus and scree slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifraga cernuanodding saxifrage
Distribution: Known only east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Among rocks in alpine areas, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifraga cespitosatufted alpine saxifrage, tufted saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ledges, gravelly ridges and scree, near sea level to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifraga hyperboreapygmy saxifrage
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California, throughout the Rocky Mountains, across northern Canada to the Maritime Provinces.
Habitat: Alpine tundra, often where moist with rocky outcroppings, crevices, and snowmelt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifraga mertensianaMerten's saxifrage, woodland saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet ledges, shaded seeps on rock faces, and gravelly stream banks from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifraga oppositifoliapurple saxifrage, twinflowered saxifrage
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; across northern Canada and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and rocky outcroppings
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. oppositifolia – purple mountain saxifrage, purple saxifrage, twinflowered saxifrage
Saxifraga tridactylitesrue-leaved saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Saxifraga vespertinamatted saxifrage, spotted saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; western Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saxifragopsis fragarioidesstrawberry saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct; southwestern Oregon to adjacent California.
Habitat: Rock outcrops and talus slopes at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Suksdorfia violaceaviolet mock brookfoam
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana and Idaho.
Habitat: Vernally moist mossy banks and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sullivantia oreganaOregon coolwort
Distribution: Columbia River Gorge and lower Willamatte Valley, Oregon.
Habitat: On moist cliffs, especially near waterfalls.
Origin: Native
Flowers: Late May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tellima grandiflorafragrant fringecup
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington, but also in northeastern Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Common in damp woods, forest edges, and along streams from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tiarella trifoliatathree-leaf foamflower
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. laciniata – cut-leaved foamflower
var. trifoliata – three-leaf foamflower
var. unifoliata – simple-leaved foamflower
Tolmiea menziesiipiggyback-plant
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial