Toxicoscordion venenosum
meadow death-camas, deadly zygadene
Specimens
Photos

Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.

Habitat: Grasslands, balds, prairies, and ponderosa pine forest openings, from the coast to middle elevations.

Flowers: April-June

Origin: Native

Conservation Status: Not of concern

Description:
General:

Herbaceous perennial, stems generally scapose, 15-70 cm, glabrous; bulbs 12-25 mm in diameter, widely ovate, outer coat brownish.

Leaves:

Leaves mostly basal, reduced distally, linear, 10-40 cm long and 4-10 mm broad, usually folded lengthwise, somewhat curved, margins entire, scabrous-ciliate.

Flowers:

Inflorescence generally racemose, 5-25 cm; bracts 5-25 mm, translucent white to green; pedicels in fruit ascending or sometimes spreading, 3-25 mm; perianth parts 6, petal-like, white, usually with pale yellowish green, 4-6 mm, ovate, apex obtuse, outer typically with claw less than 5 mm, inner clawed, free or slightly fused to base of ovary; stamens 6, equal to or sometimes longer than perianth parts; ovary superior and 3-chambered; styles 3, erect.

Fruits:

Capsules, 8-14 mm, cylindric; seeds many.

Accepted Name:
Toxicoscordion venenosum (S. Watson) Rydb.
Publication: Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 30(5): 272. 1903.

Synonyms & Misapplications:
Zigadenus venenosus S. Watson [FNA26, HC]
Infraspecies:
var. gramineum – common death-camas, grassy death-camas    Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to central Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
var. venenosum – coastal death-camas, common death-camas    Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada.
Additional Resources:

PNW Herbaria: Specimen records of Toxicoscordion venenosum in the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria database.

WA Flora Checklist: Toxicoscordion venenosum checklist entry.

E-Flora BC: Toxicoscordion venenosum atlas page.

CalPhotos: Toxicoscordion venenosum photos.

USDA Plants: Toxicoscordion venenosum information.

48 photographs:
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