Dryopteridaceae
Wood Fern Family
2 genera
18 species
1 subspecies and varieties
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Dryopteris argutacoastal fern, marginal wood fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, also in north-central Idaho and Arizona.
Habitat: Mostly in the woods, but occasionally in more open areas.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris carthusianaspinulose fern, toothed wood fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris cristatacrested wood fern fern, shield fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly in the northeastern region of Washington; Alaska to Idaho, east across northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America; also in Europe.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris expansanorthern fern, spreading wood fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to wet woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Dryopteris filix-masmale fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum andersoniiAnderson's sword fern, Vancouver holly fern
Distribution: Southern Alaska south to northern Oregon, northern Idaho, and northwest Montana; also in the Olympic Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Deep woods and thickets in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Polystichum californicumCalifornia sword fern
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist forest understory at low elevations, typically in rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Polystichum imbricansimbricate sword-fern, rock sword-fern
Distribution: Cascades of central Washington south to California, and in the Olympics; sometimes on serpentine
Habitat: Dry, rocky places, open areas and open woods, at mid-elevations
Origin: Native
ssp. imbricans – imbricate fern, narrow-leaved sword fern
Polystichum kruckebergiiholly fern, Kruckeberg's sword fern fern
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically among rocks; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Polystichum kruckebergii × Polystichum munitumhybrid holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmoniiLemmon's holly fern, Shasta fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in the northern half of Washington, particularly common in the Wenatchee Mountains; southern British Columbia, northern Washington, disjunct in the Wallowa Mts., and in southwestern Oregon and northern California.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes near timberline in the mountains, chiefly on serpentine.
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum munitumhidden sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum scopulinumserpentine holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lonchitismountain fern, northern holly fern
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Quebec and Wyoming
Habitat: Talus slopes and cliff crevices, occasionally in coniferous forests, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Polystichum munitumcommon sword fern, western fern
Distribution: In forested areas throughout Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods, in open to deep shade; from sea-level to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores year-round on fronds
Polystichum munitum × Polystichum scopulinumhybrid sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum scopulinummountain holly fern, rock sword fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically associated with rock outcroppings and crevices; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native