Russulaceae
7 genera
115 species
5 subspecies and varieties
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Lactarius affinissticky milk-cap
Lactarius alnicolagolden milk-cap
Lactarius aspideoidesbright yellow milk-cap
Lactarius caespitosusgray milk-cap
Lactarius deliciosusdelicious milk-cap
Distribution: Broad North America and Europe
Lactarius deterrimusfalse saffron milkcap
Lactarius fallaxvelvety milk-cap
Habitat: Litter in spruce and mixed conifer forests along the coast and in the interior mountains
Lactarius hepaticusliver milkcap
Lactarius kauffmanii
Distribution: Western
Habitat: Occurs with spruce and birch
Lactarius luculentus
var. laetus – orange milk-cap
Lactarius occidentalisalder milkcap
Distribution: Western Northern Hemisphere
Habitat: Occurs with alders
Lactarius olivaceoumbrinustoadskin milk-cap
Lactarius olympianus
Distribution: Western
Habitat: Conifer forests in PNW and Rocky Mountains
Lactarius pallescenspale-capped violet-latex milk-cap
Lactarius pseudomucidusslimy milk-cap
Distribution: Broad Western North America
Habitat: L. pseudomucidus is frequently found in coastal and mid-elevation conifer forests, and eastward at least as far as Idaho and southward into California.
Lactarius pubescens
Habitat: In the PNW, L. plumbeus occurs frequently under planted birch trees and often persists into late fall as dry black specimens. In Europe, it is reported from birch and spruce forests and also is known as L. necator (Bulliard: Fries) P. Karsten and L. turpis (Weinmann) Fries.
var. betulae – bearded milk-cap, downy milk-cap, woolly milk-cap
var. pubescens – downy milk-cap, woolly milk-cap, bearded milkcap
Lactarius resimusyellow staining bearded milk-cap, rollrim milkcap
Lactarius rubiduscandy-cap
Lactarius rubrilacteusbleeding milk-cap
Habitat: It occurs in a variety of habitats and seems to associate primarily with pines and Douglas-fir, especially in younger stands.
Lactarius rufusred hot milk-cap, red milk-cap, rufous milkcap
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: L. rufus commonly occurs with spruce and pine, often in abundance, for example, near the edge of bogs or in other moist areas where Sitka spruce occurs. It is very common in northern conifer forests around the world.
Lactarius scrobiculatuspitted milk-cap, scrobiculate milk-cap
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: common in our conifer forests
Lactarius subflammeusorange milk-cap
Distribution: Coastal
Habitat: Coastal conifer forests
Lactarius trivialisordinary milk-cap
Lactarius uviduspurple staining milk-cap
Russula adustawinecork brittlegill
Distribution: Western
Habitat: Conifer forests
Russula aerugineagreen brittlegill, grass-green russula, tacky green russula
Russula albonigrablack and white russula, blackening russula, integrated russula
Russula americanaAmerican russula
Russula bicolorbicolored russula
Russula brevipesshort-stemmed russula
Distribution: Broad, common
Russula cascadensisCascade russula
Russula cessanstardy brittlegill
Russula chamaeleontinasmall yellow russula
Russula claroflavayellow swamp brittlegill
Description: Cap round, bright lemon-yellow to yellow, convex to flat, slightly sticky when wet. Gills start out white and slowly turn pale ocher. the stem is white and smooth. Occasionally gills and stipe turn gray-black when bruised or become gray with age.
Habitat: wet woodlands, marshes, swamps, and bogs with birch
Substrate: moss
Russula crassotunicata
Description: A mostly white fungus often found growing on well rotted wood. Its cap may be somewhat creamy or yellowish and the gills and stipe often develop brownish stains. Its most distinctive characteristic is its thick, tough, rubbery cap cuticle that often can be completely peeled away from the cap flesh. The spores are white and the taster is bitter to acrid.
Habitat: Old-growth forests
Substrate: Well rotted wood
Russula cremoricolorcreamy russula
Russula crenulata
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: All variety of forests with both conifers and hardwoods
Russula cyanoxanthaCharcoal Burner
Description: Has been referred to as \'the Chameleon\' due to its large palette of colors including dull violets, purples, and gray-greens.
Habitat: woodland
Russula decoloranscopper brittlegill, graying russula
Description: Cap is copper-orange to dull orange to reddish brown. The gills are white to pale ocher. The stipe is white and smooth and all parts discolor gray to black when handled or cut.
Habitat: woodland; northern and montane conifer forests
Russula densifoliacrowded brittlegill, reddening russula
Russula dissimulansred and black russula
Russula emeticaemetic russula, the sickener
Description: Cap is scarlet to cherry-red and the top layer peels easily. Gills are white. Stipe is white as well and smooth to finely and irregularly ridged.
Habitat: damp or wet woodlands, with conifers in particular
Russula flavicepsyellow cap russula
Russula foetensstinking brittlegill
Russula fragilisfragile brittlegill, fragile russula
Description: Small to small-medium species with very fragile flesh that becomes water-soaked very quickly. The cap color is generally a mix of watery purple, pink, and olivaceous green on a whitish to grayish background, and the cap edge is translucent-striate. The spores are white, the odor mild or pleasantly fruity, and the taste very acrid. It occurs singly or in small groups, often on or near well rotted wood.
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: Near or well-rotted wood
Russula griseagrey russula
Russula heterophyllagreasy green brittlegill
Russula laurocerasialmond-scented russula
Description: One of the larger russulas. It has a viscid yellowish brown cap with a grooved margin, whitish to brown-stained stipe, and strong, but generally pleasant, odor of almond extract or maraschino cherries. The spores are cream to pale yellow and the taste is very acrid.
Distribution: Western
Russula lilacealilac brittlegill
Russula nigricansblackening brittlegill, blackening russula
Description: a large, hard mushroom, with brownish or blackish brown cap and flesh that turns red when bruised; it blackens almost completely in age. The spores are white and the taste is mild to slightly acrid.
Distribution: Broad Widespread in Northern Hemisphere
Habitat: woodlands
Russula occidentaliswestern russula
Description: It is a medium-sized or larger mushroom, with a variably colored cap---usually it is purplish with a yellow-green center, but it can appear in many shades of purplish, olive-green, and browns, usually in mixtures. The gills are cream to pale yellowish and the stipe is white and often turns grayish in age or when handled, sometimes with a reddish phase. The flesh is white and turns reddish to grayish to black when exposed. The spores are cream-colored.
Distribution: Broad, common
Habitat: Conifer forests
Russula olivaceaolive brittlegill, rainbow Russula, tan-colored Russula
Russula parazureapowdery brittlegill, blue Russula
Russula pelargoniaPelargonium brittlegill
Russula placitapleasing Russula
Russula sanguinariabloody brittlegill, rosy Russula
Russula stuntzii
Distribution: Coastal Pacific Coast, from British Columbia to California
Habitat: Conifer forests, on or near rotting wood
Russula xerampelinacrab brittlegill, shrimp mushroom, shrimp Russula
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: Variety of forest types