Bittersweet Family, Grass of Parnassus Family
3 genera
9 species
2 subspecies and varieties
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Euonymus europaeusEuropean spindle tree
Distribution: Occurring in urban areas in a few cities in Washington; widely distributed east of the Mississippi in the U.S. and in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Euonymus fortunei
Origin: Introduced
Euonymus occidentalisburning bush, western wahoo
Distribution: Uncommon, west of the Cascades in southwestern Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
var. occidentalis – western wahoo
Parnassia cirrataCascade grass-of-parnassus
Origin: Native
var. intermedia – Cascade Grass-of-Parnassus
Parnassia fimbriatafringed Grass-of-Parnassus, fringed grass of parnassus
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Bogs, stream banks and wet meadows, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Parnassia kotzebueiKotzebue's Grass-of-Parnassus
Distribution: Known only from Okanogan and Chelan counties in Washington; Arctic Alaska south to Chelan County, WA, east across northern Canada to Labrador, east in the U.S. to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows, cliff faces, and ledges, often in boggy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Parnassia palustrisGrass-of-Parnassus, northern grass-of-parnassus
Distribution: Primarily west of the Cascades in Washington on the Olympic Peninsula and southwestern counties; Arctic America south to Minnesota and British Columbia, in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado and in parts of the Sierra Nevada in California.
Habitat: Arctic tundra to moist, shaded areas in the mountains, where usually along streams or around springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Parnassia parviflorasmall-flowered Grass-of-Parnassus
Origin: Native
Paxistima myrsinitesOregon boxleaf
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mid-elevations in the mountains, but coastal in the Puget Sound region.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June