Celastraceae
Bittersweet Family, Grass of Parnassus Family
Synonyms:
Parnassiaceae
3 genera
9 species
2 subspecies and varieties
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Euonymus europaeusEuropean spindle tree
Distribution: Occurring in urban areas in a few cities in Washington; widely distributed east of the Mississippi in the U.S. and in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Euonymus fortunei
Origin: Introduced
Euonymus occidentalisburning bush, western wahoo
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist woods at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. occidentalis – western wahoo
Parnassia cirrataCascade grass-of-parnassus
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades of Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Montane to alpine marshes, wet meadows, and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. intermedia – Cascade Grass-of-Parnassus
Parnassia fimbriatafringed Grass-of-Parnassus, fringed grass of parnassus
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Bogs, stream banks and wet meadows, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parnassia kotzebueiKotzebue's Grass-of-Parnassus
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest, where known only from Okanogan and Chelan counties in Washington; Alaska to Chelan County, WA, east across northern Canada to Labrador, east in the U.S. to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows, cliff faces, and ledges, often in boggy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parnassia palustrisgrass-of-parnassus, northern grass-of-parnassus
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington on the Olympic Peninsula and southwestern counties and east of the Cascades crest in extreme northeastern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Arctic tundra to moist, shaded areas in the mountains, where usually along streams or around springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parnassia parviflorasmall-flowered grass-of-Parnassus
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeatern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, and in California (not recorded for Oregon), and south in the Rocky Mountains to Arizona.
Habitat: Bogs, stream banks, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Paxistima myrsinitesOregon boxleaf
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mid-elevations in the mountains, but coastal in the Puget Sound region.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial