4 subspecies and varieties
Show only taxa with photos
Habitat: Subalpine forests
Distribution: C. acutus occurs in nutrient-poor conifer forests, often on moist sites in litter, and can be found throughout the north temperate regions.
– silvery-violet cortinarius, pearly webcap
Habitat: C. aurantiobasis tends to occur in wetter habitats with conifers, often near western hemlock and/or Sitka spruce, and frequently among sphagnum or other mosses.
– goatcheese webcap
Description: Cortinarius camphoratus is a completely blue-violet species with a very strong disagreeable odor, not unlike rotting potatoes.
– gypsy, gypsy mushroom
Distribution: Common in certain years in the PNW, but becomes less abundant inland and to the south
– cinnamon Cort, cinnamon webcap
Habitat: Western conifer forests, extending from lower elevations into the higher mountains
– belted slimy Cortinarius
Habitat: high-elevation conifer forests near melting snowbanks
Spores: early spring
Distribution: Common and widespread
Habitat: C. croceus occurs throughout north temperate forests and into alpine and arctic areas. It grows with various conifers, as well as hardwoods including beech, birch, and willow.
– deadly cortinarius, goldband webcap
Habitat: C. gentilis has a broad ecological range, occurring in moist environments as well as drier, upland conifer sites. During the summer in the western mountains it can be very common, often fruiting in groups, sometimes from well rotted woody debris.
– bulbous Cortinarius, blue-foot webcap
– sooty olive Cortinarius, bitter webcap
– spotted Cort, viscid violet Cort
– brown cortinarius, hoary webcap, woolly webcap
Distribution: Widespread, but variable in its fruiting, in some years being rather common and in others being absent.
Habitat: C. laniger is characteristic of boreal and montane conifer forests.
Description: Cortinarius magnivelatus appears to be one of the more widespread species. It is rather thick-fleshed and tough, and at first white overall because of the heavy veil that covers the stipe and gills. In age the cap develops yellowish to brownish colors. The gills are white to grayish then brown from the spores, and often forked near the stipe. The stipe is rather long and bulbous with a slightly tapered base. The veil is persistent, often covers much of the stipe, and is firmly attached to the edge of the cap. The flesh is white, and the odor is not distinctive. The spores are rather large, up to 12 um long, and strongly ornamented.
Description: C. malachius is somewhat similar to C. alboviolaceus but it has a grayish white to grayish brown cap that may have lilac colors when young, and with a finely scaly surface when dry.
Description: Cortinarius montanus varies in color but is usually fairly easy to recognize. As with many phlegmaciums it is medium-sized to large and rather fleshy with a distinct bulbous base that is covered at first by a distinct pale yellow-green veil and basal mycelium. Typically the cap is viscid, variegated and spotted hazel brown to deep brown with light yellowish olive colors on the margin, and typically becomes more brownish in older specimens. The flesh is whitish or tinged with the colors of the cap, and in the stipe is whitish in the center and bluish near the surface; the odor is not distinctive. The gills are close, rather narrow and light yellowish olive to olive at first, eventually becoming more brownish. The stipe is bluish to grayish blue beneath white silky fibrils when fresh and sometimes discolors purplish when handled. The spores are elliptical and distinctly ornamented.
Distribution: Cortinarius montanus can be very common and widespread, but often occurs as one or a few fruitbodies at a time.
Habitat: Common in older, cool, moist conifer forests.
– slimy webcap
Habitat: Moist conifer forests
– slimy cortinarius, orange webcap
Description: Cortinarius mucosus has a white stipe that most frequently occurs with pines.
Habitat: Acidic conifer forests
Description: Cortinarius muscigenus is a cylindrical-stiped species with a viscid cap and stipe classified in subgenus Myxacium. The myxaciums have a universal veil composed of patches and fibrils that is covered with gelatinous material when fresh and that, in most species, breaks into bands and patches as the stipe elongates. These species can be split into two groups based on the presence or absence of clamp connections. C. muscigenus is a member of the former group, which is related to the secotioid species Thaxterogaster pinguis. It is a medium to large species with a strongly gelatinous, brownish orange to brownish red or ochraceous brown cap, which often is darkest in the center and striate near the edge. The flesh is fibrous, white to yellowish, and typically turns brownish in the lower stipe. The gills are grayish white or grayish brown then cinnamon in age. The stipe is whitish, except for the inner veil which is typically bluish violet, sometimes very faintly so. The spores are almond-shaped and coarsely ornamented.
Distribution: C. muscigenus varies in abundance from year to year, and in some seasons can be very common.
Habitat: mid- to high elevation conifer forests
– purple-staining cortinarius
Habitat: Occurs in a variety of habitats with different conifers and is more frequent in moist areas. Most commonly found along the coast, especially with Sitka spruce.
– blood-red cortinarius, northern red-dye, blood-red webcap
Distribution: Varies in abundance from year to year
Habitat: Low to mid-elevation conifer forests
Description: Cortinarius porphyropus is a purple-staining species that occurs in the PNW in mixed woods.
Distribution: Northern hemisphere.
Habitat: Coniferous forests, under Abies, Picea, Pinus and Tsuga.
– bruising webcap
Description: Cortinarius purpurascens has a viscid ocher-brown to red-brown or darker brown cap with a violet stipe and gills, and a bulbous base with a rim; in our region, it is most commonly found along the coast, especially with Sitka spruce.
Habitat: C. salor is found in a wide range of forest types
– western red-capped Cortinarius, western red-dye
– honey webcap
Habitat: Subalpine forests
– pungent Cort, lilac conifer Cortinarius, gassy webcap
Habitat: Abundant in the far-western mountane and boreal regions, but is much less frequent in the Rocky Mountains.
– pointed Cortinarius
Habitat: Coastal conifer forests from northern California to southern Canada.
Cortinarius variosimilis is a close, but distinct, relative of C. varius of Europe. In many ways, it is a pale form of the latter, lacking its distinctly bright lilac-blue gills and the strong yellow-brown to orange-brown colors of the cap. C. variosimilis has a yellow-brown cap often with white veil remnants along the edge, the gills are pale lilac or almost lack lilac color, and become gray-brown. The stipe is clavate, white or pale pinkish buff, and often coated with wooly white veil material. Potassium hydroxide turns the white flesh bright yellow.
Western North America, occurring both in Rocky Mountain spruce-fir forests and the forests of the Cascades and coastal ranges.
Habitat: Common in conifer forests
– violet Cort, violet Cortinarius, violet webcap
Distribution: In some years it is difficult to find but in general it is commonly encountered, but usually in small numbers.
Habitat: Widespread in older forests in PNW region, but much less common in the interior mountains than nearer the coast.
Distribution: P. attenuata is apparently restricted to the Pacific Coast, being most abundant from B.C. to central Oregon and less abundant in southern Oregon and northern California.
Habitat: P. attenuata often occurs in large troops, especially in lower-elevation spruce-rich forests.
Habitat: It is somewhat common in southern B.C., occurring as solitary individuals or groups in old-growth forests with abundant Sitka spruce.