Ericaceae
Crowberry Family, Heath Family, Indian-Pipe Family, Wintergreen Family
Synonyms:
Empetraceae [HC]
Monotropaceae
Pyrolaceae
23 genera
61 species
9 subspecies and varieties
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Allotropa virgatacandystick, sugarstick
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Deep humus of coniferous forests at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Andromeda polifoliabog rosemary
Distribution: Reported to occur in northern Washington but no specimens seen; Alaska to Idaho, east across Canada, in the Great Lakes region, and in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and other acidic wetlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. polifolia – bog rosemary
Arbutus menziesiiPacific madrona, Pacific madrone
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Chiefly in drier, often rocky areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Arbutus unedostrawberry tree
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; currently known as escaped from cultivation in Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed, open to partially sunny areas in and around urban areas, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Arctostaphylos columbianabristly manzanita
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dry forest openings and rocky slopes, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Arctostaphylos ×mediamedium manzanita
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, chiefly on the east side of the Olympic Peninsula. Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky balds and forest openings from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Arctostaphylos nevadensispinemat manzanita
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Dry forest edge and openings from middle elevations in the mountains to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
ssp. nevadensis – pinemat manzanita
Arctostaphylos patulagreen-leaf manzanita
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Low elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Arctostaphylos uva-ursired bearberry, kinnikinnik
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California east to the Rocky Mountains, also further east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and prairies, rocky balds, dry subalpine meadows, and dry coniferous forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Calluna vulgaris
Origin: Introduced
Cassiope lycopodioidesclubmoss mountain-heather
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Alpine rocky slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Cassiope mertensianaMertens's moss-heather
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas from the subalpine to alpine, often where dry in summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
ssp. mertensiana – Mertens' mountain heather, western moss heather
Cassiope tetragonafour-angled moss-heather
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the crest in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, also in Montana
Habitat: Open, rocky areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. saximontana – four-angled mountain heather, white arctic mountain heather
Chimaphila menziesiilittle pipsissewa, little prince's-pine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Coniferous forests from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Chimaphila umbellatacommon Pipsissewa, prince's-pine
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wooded areas, mostly coniferous forest, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
ssp. umbellata – Pipsissewa, common prince's-pine
Elliottia pyrolifloracopperbush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist forests and stream banks at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Empetrum nigrumcrowberry
Distribution: In the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California.
Habitat: Exposed rocky bluffs, but also in peat bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Gaultheria hispidulacreeping-snowberry
Distribution: Occurring in northeast Washsington; British Columbia east to Labrador, south into northern Idaho.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and deep coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Gaultheria humifusaalpine wintergreen
Distribution: In the Olympics and Cascades mountains of Washington; British Columbia south to northern California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine, usually where moist to wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Gaultheria ovatifoliawestern teaberry, slender wintergreen
Distribution: Chiefly in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington, but also in the northeastern part of the State; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Forested areas from fairly dry Ponderosa pine to subalpine bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Gaultheria shallonsalal
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge marine headlands, from sea level to moderate elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Harrimanella stellerianaAlaska bell-heather, Alaska bellheather, alpine heather, Alaskan moss-heather, Alaskan mountain-heather
Distribution: Alaska to the high Cascades of Washington
Habitat: Rocky slopes and seeps, alpine to subalpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - August
Hemitomes congestumconeplant, gnome-plant
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia south to Monterey County, California.
Habitat: Rich humus in damp coniferous forests at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Kalmia microphyllawestern bog laurel
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California; east in British Columbia to the Rockies, south to Colorado.
Habitat: In moist and wetland areas from the coast to higher elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
var. microphylla – alpine-laurel, bog laurel
var. occidentalis – Western swamp laurel
Kalmia procumbensalpine-azalea, alpine azalea, trailing azalea
Distribution: Known in Washington from a single collection in Skagit County; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and eastern North America to Greenland; also in Europe and Asia.
Habitat: Alpine zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Moneses uniflorasingle-delight
Distribution: Distributed on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods with high-humas soils, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Monotropa hypopitysmany-flower Indian-pipe
Distribution: On both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: In humus of coniferous forests at low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Monotropa unifloraone-flower Indian-pipe
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest, in the Columbia River Gorge, and in the northeastern counties in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, and in all other areas of North America except the southern Rocky Mountain states.
Habitat: In forest understory and on forest edge, often in deep soil, at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Orthilia secundaone-sided pyrola, sidebells
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to New Mexico in the west, and across the northern half of the United States to the Atlantic
Habitat: Common in coniferous woods at moderate to mid-elevationn in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Phyllodoce empetriformispink mountain-heath
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming; in the Olympics and Cascades in Washington
Habitat: Rocky sites in high coniferous forests to alpine meadows
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Phyllodoce glanduliflorayellow mountain-heath
Distribution: Occurring in mountainous areas across Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky sites in high coniferous forests to alpine meadows and seeps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Phyllodoce ×intermediahybrid mountain heather
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to Oregon, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pityopus californicusCalifornia pinefoot
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Pleuricospora fimbriolatafringed pinesap
Distribution: Western slope of the Cascades and the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Washington south to California.
Habitat: Uncommon in coniferous forests at mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pterospora andromedeawoodland pinedrops
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and northeastern North America
Habitat: Common in coniferous forests, especially where ponderosa is dominant.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pyrola aphyllaleafless wintergreen
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry coniferous forests at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Pyrola asarifoliacommon pink wintergreen, liver-leaf wintergreen
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of forested Washington except for the southeast corner; Alaska south to California, east to Colorado in the west, and across the northern half of the United States to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Moist ground in woodlands and forests, lowlands to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
ssp. asarifolia – pink pyrola
ssp. bracteata – pink pyrola
Pyrola chloranthagreen-flower wintergreen
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Chiefly in coniferous forests at moderate to mid-elevations, usually where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pyrola dentatatoothleaf pyrola
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Montane coniferous forest understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pyrola ellipticawhite wintergreen
Origin: Native
Pyrola minorlesser wintergreen, snowline wintergreen
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada and northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Uncommon, mostly in moist areas in coniferous woods, moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Pyrola pictawhite-vein wintergreen
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades, British Columbia to California, east to South Dakota and New Mexico
Habitat: Coniferous woods, especially ponderosa pine, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Rhododendron albiflorumwhite rhododendron
Distribution: British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana
Habitat: Moist, usually forested, slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Rhododendron columbianummt. Labrador tea, smooth Labrador tea, western Labrador tea
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Swamps and bogs, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Rhododendron groenlandicumbog Labrador-tea, rusty Labrador-tea
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Idaho, east across Canada and the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Swamps and bogs at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Rhododendron macrophyllumCalifornia rhododendron, Pacific rhododendron
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Rhododendron menziesiifalse azalea, fool's huckleberry, rusty menziesia
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Forest understory and edges from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Vaccinium cespitosumdwarf bilberry, dwarf huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Colorado; across southern Canada and the northern tier of states from Minnesota to Maine.
Habitat: Moist rocky ridges and meadows, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium corymbosumhigh-bush blueberry
Distribution: Widespread and native in eastern United States; introduced in Washington.
Habitat: Open swamps, sandy margins of ponds and lakes.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May - June
Vaccinium deliciosumCascade blueberry, Rainier blueberry, blueleaf huckleberry
Distribution: Ocurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Forest openings and mountain meadows, mid- to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium macrocarponcultivated cranberry, large cranberry
Distribution: In scattered locations in lowlands west of the Cascades crest; introduced British Columbia south to California; native eastern North
Origin: Introduced from northeastern United States
Flowers: May - June
Vaccinium membranaceumsquare-twig blueberry, tall huckleberry, thin-leaved huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout forested and mountainous areas of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east the Rocky Mountains; Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Common in dry to moist coniferous forests and open areas, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium myrtilloidesvelvet-leaf blueberry
Distribution: British Columbia east to Labrador, and in the northern tier of states, Montana to West Virginia; Okanogan County in Washington.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, forest openings, bogs and barrens.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - June
Vaccinium myrtillusdwarf blueberry, low blueberry
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades, British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, and south in the Rockies to Arizona and New Mexico
Habitat: Forest openings, mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Vaccinium ovalifoliumAlaska blueberry, oval-leaf blueberry
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas throughout Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to Idaho, and then scattered areas to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Openings in coniferous forests, moderate to fairly high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium ovatumevergreen huckelberry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Coniferous forests at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Vaccinium oxycoccossmall cranberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, across Canada; from the upper Midwest to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Usually in sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Vaccinium parvifoliumred huckleberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, forest edges and openings, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Vaccinium scopariumgrouseberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Open, dry forests, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Vaccinium uliginosumbog bilberry, bog blueberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Nevada, Utah, Wyoming and Montana, east across northern North America to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Bogs and fens from low elevation to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August