Trifolium
clover, trefoil
38 species
9 subspecies and varieties
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Trifolium albopurpureumRancheria clover
Distribution: Known from only a few scattered locations in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to Arizona.
Habitat: Cliffs, balds, and forest openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Trifolium arvenserabbitfoot clover, hare's foot
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, further eastward across the northern U.S. and southern Great Plains and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Trifolium aureumgolden clover, greater hop clover, yellow clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming; also occurring in most of eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, railways, wastelots, and other disturbed open sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Trifolium bifidumnotch-leaf clover, Pinole clover
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Open woodlands and grassy slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. decipiens – notchleaf clover, Pinole clover
Trifolium campestrefield clover, hop clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wastelots, roadsides, fields, meadows, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Trifolium cernuumnodding clover
Distribution: Known from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, lawns, fields, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Trifolium ciliolatumfoothill clover, tree clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Wet meadows to rather dry, sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium cyathiferumbowl clover, cup clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to western Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Wet meadows and seeps to fairly dry, sandy soil, at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Trifolium depauperatumpoverty clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in northwestern Washington; also in Gulf Islands and Vancouver Islands in British Columbia, otherwise southwestern Oregon to southern California.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and vernally moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
var. depauperatum – poverty clover
Trifolium dichotomumbranched clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the San Juan Islands in Washington; southern Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands, and San Juan Islands, otherwise Willamette Valley, Oregon to California.
Habitat: Open forest, sandy embankments, and grassy balds on islands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium douglasiiDouglas's clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern and southeastern Washington; eastern Washington to east-central Oregon, east to eastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas in including open meadows, forested wetlands, and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Trifolium dubiumleast hop clover, suckling clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Trifolium eriocephalumwoolly-head clover
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
var. arcuatum – woolly-head clover
var. eriocephalum – woolly-head cloover
Trifolium fragiferumstrawberry clover
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots and other disturbed places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Trifolium glomeratumclustered clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough lowlands; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, lawns, and other disturbed sites often with dry, gravelly, compacted soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium gracilentumslender clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, where native, and east to Arizona.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, fields, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium hirtumrose clover
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium hybridumalsike clover
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest throughout much of Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Trifolium incarnatumcrimson clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough lowlands; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium latifoliumtwin clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in far eastern and southeastern Washington; eastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist meadows to rocky ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Trifolium longipeslong-stalked clover
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Meadows and valleys, lower mountains to subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. longipes – long-stalked clover
var. multiovulatum – long-stalked clover
var. multipedunculatum – long-stalked clover
Trifolium macrocephalumbig-head clover, large-head clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington, south through eastern Oregon, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium microcephalumsmall-head clover
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows, sandy riverbanks and drier hillsides, coastal to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium microdonthimble clover, Valparaiso clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in South America.
Habitat: In meadows or on rocky or sandy soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium oliganthumfew-flowered clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, grasslands, and prairies at low elevations, often where dry and rocky.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium plumosumplumed clover
Distribution: Occurring in the southeastern region in Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry hillsides, meadowlands, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
var. amplifolium – plumed clover
var. plumosum – plumed clover
Trifolium pratensered clover
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation; found along mountain trails where horses have been used
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Trifolium repensDutch clover, white clover
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, meadows, wastelots, trailsides, and other disturbed open areas from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Trifolium resupinatumreversed clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; eastern Washington to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Trifolium retusumteasel clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough region in Washington; also occurring in southern Oregon and northern California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium striatumknotted clover
Distribution: Occurring in lowlands west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium subterraneumburrowing clover, subterranean clover, subterranean trefoil
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Pastures, prairies, roadsides, lawns, fields, and other open disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium suffocatumsuffocated clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington and in California
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, lawns, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Trifolium thompsoniiThompson's clover
Distribution: Endemic to Chelan and Douglas counties in Washington.
Habitat: Common on dry, grassy hillsides just below the ponderosa pine woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Trifolium variegatumwhite-tip clover
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout much of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil to moist meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Trifolium vesiculosumarrow-leaf clover
Distribution: Occurring in a few locations west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to California; also in the south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Trifolium willdenoviisand clover, tomcat clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east along the Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides, balds, prairies, and meadows at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Trifolium wormskioldiicow clover, salt marsh clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Costal dunes to moist meadows and stream banks at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September