Page authors: Don Knoke, David Giblin
Corallorhiza trifida
early coralroot, northern coralroot, yellow coralroot

Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.

Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine.

Flowers: June-August

Origin: Native

Growth Duration: Perennial

Conservation Status: Not of concern


Myco-heterotrophic, scapose, perennial herbs, the stem 10-25 cm. tall, pale yellow to olive-yellow.


Plants are myco-heterotrophic, so lack leaves.


Flowers 3-15 on stout, short pedicles in a raceme; sepals 3, yellow or greenish-yellow, rarely white, oblong-lanceolate, about 5 mm. long; 2 small petals slightly shorter and broader than the sepals; third petal (lip) nearly white, sometimes red-spotted, 3.5-4.5 mm. long, oblong, shallowly toothed on the basal half, the margins upturned, 3-nerved; stamens and style fused to form a broad column 2.5-6 mm. long.


Capsule pendant, ovoid, about 1 cm long.

Accepted Name:
Corallorhiza trifida Ch√Ętel.
Publication: Specim. Inaug. Corallorhiza. 8. 1760.

Synonyms & Misapplications:
Corallorhiza corallorhiza (L.) MacMill., invalidly published
Corallorhiza corallorhiza (L.) MacMill. var. coloradensis Cockerell
Corallorhiza innata R. Br.
Corallorhiza verna Nutt.
Corallorhiza wyomingensis Hellmayr & K. Hellmayr
Additional Resources:

PNW Herbaria: Specimen records of Corallorhiza trifida in the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria database.

WA Flora Checklist: Corallorhiza trifida checklist entry.

E-Flora BC: Corallorhiza trifida atlas page.

CalPhotos: Corallorhiza trifida photos.

USDA Plants: Corallorhiza trifida information.

15 photographs:
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